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Issue Cover for Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017

Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017

[PDF - 6.66 MB - 156 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever along the United States–Mexico Border, 2013–2016 [PDF - 1.73 MB - 6 pages]
N. A. Drexler et al.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an emerging public health concern near the US–Mexico border, where it has resulted in thousands of cases and hundreds of deaths in the past decade. We identified 4 patients who had acquired RMSF in northern Mexico and subsequently died at US healthcare facilities. Two patients sought care in Mexico before being admitted to US-based hospitals. All patients initially had several nonspecific signs and symptoms, including fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, or myalgia, but deteriorated rapidly without receipt of a tetracycline-class antimicrobial drug. Each patient experienced respiratory failure late in illness. Although transborder cases are not common, early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital for averting severe illness and death. Clinicians on both sides of the US–Mexico border should consider a diagnosis of RMSF for patients with rapidly progressing febrile illness and recent exposure in northern Mexico.

EID Drexler NA, Yaglom H, Casal M, Fierro M, Kriner P, Murphy B, et al. Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever along the United States–Mexico Border, 2013–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1621-1626. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170309
AMA Drexler NA, Yaglom H, Casal M, et al. Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever along the United States–Mexico Border, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1621-1626. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170309.
APA Drexler, N. A., Yaglom, H., Casal, M., Fierro, M., Kriner, P., Murphy, B....Paddock, C. D. (2017). Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever along the United States–Mexico Border, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1621-1626. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170309.

Surveillance of Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections, Oregon, USA, 2007–2012 [PDF - 397 KB - 4 pages]
E. Henkle et al.

Limited data are available describing extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in the general population. We describe results from statewide population-based laboratory surveillance in Oregon, USA, during 2007–2012. We defined a case of extrapulmonary NTM infection as >1 isolate from skin/soft tissue, disseminated sites, lymph node, joint, or other sites. The annual incidence of extrapulmonary NTM infection (other than Mycobacterium gordonae) was stable, averaging 1.5 cases/100,000 population. Median age of the 334 patients was 51 years, and 53% of patients were female. Half of cases were caused by M. avium complex, but rapid-growing NTM species accounted for one third of cases. Most extrapulmonary NTM infections are skin/soft tissue. Compared with pulmonary NTM infection, more extrapulmonary infections are caused by rapid-growing NTM species. the designation of NTM as a reportable disease in Oregon in 2014 will result in better detection of changes in the incidence and patterns of disease in the future.

EID Henkle E, Hedberg K, Schafer SD, Winthrop KL. Surveillance of Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections, Oregon, USA, 2007–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1627-1630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170845
AMA Henkle E, Hedberg K, Schafer SD, et al. Surveillance of Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections, Oregon, USA, 2007–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1627-1630. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170845.
APA Henkle, E., Hedberg, K., Schafer, S. D., & Winthrop, K. L. (2017). Surveillance of Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections, Oregon, USA, 2007–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1627-1630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170845.
Research

Investigation of Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Its Monophasic Variants Using Whole-Genome Sequencing, Denmark [PDF - 2.25 MB - 9 pages]
P. Gymoese et al.

Whole-genome sequencing is rapidly replacing current molecular typing methods for surveillance purposes. Our study evaluates core-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis for outbreak detection and linking of sources of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and its monophasic variants during a 7-month surveillance period in Denmark. We reanalyzed and defined 8 previously characterized outbreaks from the phylogenetic relatedness of the isolates, epidemiologic data, and food traceback investigations. All outbreaks were identified, and we were able to exclude unrelated and include additional related human cases. We were furthermore able to link possible food and veterinary sources to the outbreaks. Isolates clustered according to sequence types (STs) 19, 34, and 36. Our study shows that core-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis is suitable for surveillance and outbreak investigation for Salmonella Typhimurium (ST19 and ST36), but whole genome–wide analysis may be required for the tight genetic clone of monophasic variants (ST34).

EID Gymoese P, Sørensen G, Litrup E, Olsen J, Nielsen E, Torpdahl M. Investigation of Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Its Monophasic Variants Using Whole-Genome Sequencing, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1631-1639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161248
AMA Gymoese P, Sørensen G, Litrup E, et al. Investigation of Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Its Monophasic Variants Using Whole-Genome Sequencing, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1631-1639. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161248.
APA Gymoese, P., Sørensen, G., Litrup, E., Olsen, J., Nielsen, E., & Torpdahl, M. (2017). Investigation of Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Its Monophasic Variants Using Whole-Genome Sequencing, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1631-1639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161248.

Medscape CME Activity
Enteric Infections Circulating during Hajj Seasons, 2011–2013 [PDF - 936 KB - 10 pages]
M. Abd El Ghany et al.

Hajj, the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is a unique mass gathering event that raises public health concerns in the host country and globally. Although gastroenteritis and diarrhea are common among Hajj pilgrims, the microbial etiologies of these infections are unknown. We collected 544 fecal samples from pilgrims with medically attended diarrheal illness from 40 countries during the 2011–2013 Hajj seasons and screened the samples for 16 pathogens commonly associated with diarrheal infections. Bacteria were the main agents detected, in 82.9% of the 228 positive samples, followed by viral (6.1%) and parasitic (5.3%) agents. Salmonella spp., Shigella/enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli were the main pathogens associated with severe symptoms. We identified genes associated with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins ≈40% of Salmonella- and E. coli–positive samples. Hajj-associated foodborne infections pose a major public health risk through the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial drug–resistant bacteria.

EID Abd El Ghany M, Alsomali M, Almasri M, Padron Regalado E, Naeem R, Tukestani A, et al. Enteric Infections Circulating during Hajj Seasons, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1640-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161642
AMA Abd El Ghany M, Alsomali M, Almasri M, et al. Enteric Infections Circulating during Hajj Seasons, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1640-1649. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161642.
APA Abd El Ghany, M., Alsomali, M., Almasri, M., Padron Regalado, E., Naeem, R., Tukestani, A....Memish, Z. A. (2017). Enteric Infections Circulating during Hajj Seasons, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1640-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161642.

Economic Assessment of Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis [PDF - 995 KB - 7 pages]
A. Chyzheuskaya et al.

In 2007, a waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection occurred in western Ireland, resulting in 242 laboratory-confirmed cases and an uncertain number of unconfirmed cases. A boil water notice was in place for 158 days that affected 120,432 persons residing in the area, businesses, visitors, and commuters. This outbreak represented the largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of this outbreak. We adopted a societal perspective in estimating costs associated with the outbreak. Economic cost estimated was based on totaling direct and indirect costs incurred by public and private agencies. The cost of the outbreak was estimated based on 2007 figures. We estimate that the cost of the outbreak was >€19 million (≈€120,000/day of the outbreak). The US dollar equivalent based on today’s exchange rates would be $22.44 million (≈$142,000/day of the outbreak). This study highlights the economic need for a safe drinking water supply.

EID Chyzheuskaya A, Cormican M, Srivinas R, O’Donovan D, Prendergast M, O’Donoghue C, et al. Economic Assessment of Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1650-1656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.152037
AMA Chyzheuskaya A, Cormican M, Srivinas R, et al. Economic Assessment of Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1650-1656. doi:10.3201/eid2310.152037.
APA Chyzheuskaya, A., Cormican, M., Srivinas, R., O’Donovan, D., Prendergast, M., O’Donoghue, C....Morris, D. (2017). Economic Assessment of Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1650-1656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.152037.

Antimicrobial Drug Prescription and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Susceptibility, United States, 2005–2013 [PDF - 455 KB - 7 pages]
R. D. Kirkcaldy et al.

We investigated whether outpatient antimicrobial drug prescribing is associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial drug susceptibility in the United States. Using susceptibility data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project during 2005–2013 and QuintilesIMS data on outpatient cephalosporin, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone prescribing, we constructed multivariable linear mixed models for each antimicrobial agent with 1-year lagged annual prescribing per 1,000 persons as the exposure and geometric mean MIC as the outcome of interest. Multivariable models did not demonstrate associations between antimicrobial drug prescribing and N. gonorrhoeae susceptibility for any of the studied antimicrobial drugs during 2005–2013. Elucidation of epidemiologic factors contributing to resistance, including further investigation of the potential role of antimicrobial drug use, is needed.

EID Kirkcaldy RD, Bartoces MG, Soge OO, Riedel S, Kubin G, Del Rio C, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Prescription and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Susceptibility, United States, 2005–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1657-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170488
AMA Kirkcaldy RD, Bartoces MG, Soge OO, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Prescription and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Susceptibility, United States, 2005–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1657-1663. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170488.
APA Kirkcaldy, R. D., Bartoces, M. G., Soge, O. O., Riedel, S., Kubin, G., Del Rio, C....Hicks, L. A. (2017). Antimicrobial Drug Prescription and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Susceptibility, United States, 2005–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1657-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170488.

Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India [PDF - 1.19 MB - 7 pages]
M. Mohanty et al.

Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014–April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID). We isolated 8 enteroviruses (3 polioviruses and 5 nonpolio enteroviruses) in cell culture of 105 fecal samples collected from 42 patients. Only 1 patient with severe combined immunodeficiency was identified as a long-term VDPV3 excreter (for 2 years after identification of infection). Our results show that the risk of enterovirus excretion among children in India with PID is low; however, systematic screening is necessary to identify long-term poliovirus excreters until the use of oral polio vaccine is stopped.

EID Mohanty M, Madkaikar M, Desai M, Taur P, Nalavade U, Sharma D, et al. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1664-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170724
AMA Mohanty M, Madkaikar M, Desai M, et al. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1664-1670. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170724.
APA Mohanty, M., Madkaikar, M., Desai, M., Taur, P., Nalavade, U., Sharma, D....Deshpande, J. (2017). Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1664-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170724.

Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006–2014 [PDF - 723 KB - 9 pages]
J. Ho et al.

Cross-sectional studies suggest an increasing trend in incidence and relatively low recurrence rates of Clostridium difficile infections in Asia than in Europe and North America. The temporal trend of C. difficile infection in Asia is not completely understood. We conducted a territory-wide population-based observational study to investigate the burden and clinical outcomes in Hong Kong, China, over a 9-year period. A total of 15,753 cases were identified, including 14,402 (91.4%) healthcare-associated cases and 817 (5.1%) community-associated cases. After adjustment for diagnostic test, we found that incidence increased from 15.41 cases/100,000 persons in 2006 to 36.31 cases/100,000 persons in 2014, an annual increase of 26%. This increase was associated with elderly patients, for whom incidence increased 3-fold over the period. Recurrence at 60 days increased from 5.7% in 2006 to 9.1% in 2014 (p<0.001). Our data suggest the need for further surveillance, especially in Asia, which contains ≈60% of the world’s population.

EID Ho J, Dai R, Kwong T, Wang X, Zhang L, Ip M, et al. Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1671-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170797
AMA Ho J, Dai R, Kwong T, et al. Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1671-1679. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170797.
APA Ho, J., Dai, R., Kwong, T., Wang, X., Zhang, L., Ip, M....Wong, S. H. (2017). Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1671-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170797.
Dispatches

Molecular Tracing to Find Source of Protracted Invasive Listeriosis Outbreak, Southern Germany, 2012–2016 [PDF - 806 KB - 4 pages]
S. Kleta et al.

We investigated 543 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food having a temporal and spatial distribution compatible with that of the invasive listeriosis outbreak occurring 2012–2016 in southern Germany. Using forensic microbiology, we identified several products from 1 manufacturer contaminated with the outbreak genotype. Continuous molecular surveillance of food isolates could prevent such outbreaks.

EID Kleta S, Hammerl J, Dieckmann R, Malorny B, Borowiak M, Halbedel S, et al. Molecular Tracing to Find Source of Protracted Invasive Listeriosis Outbreak, Southern Germany, 2012–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1680-1683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161623
AMA Kleta S, Hammerl J, Dieckmann R, et al. Molecular Tracing to Find Source of Protracted Invasive Listeriosis Outbreak, Southern Germany, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1680-1683. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161623.
APA Kleta, S., Hammerl, J., Dieckmann, R., Malorny, B., Borowiak, M., Halbedel, S....Al Dahouk, S. (2017). Molecular Tracing to Find Source of Protracted Invasive Listeriosis Outbreak, Southern Germany, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1680-1683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161623.

Dengue Virus 1 Outbreak in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2016 [PDF - 312 KB - 2 pages]
E. Tittarelli et al.

The largest outbreak of dengue in Buenos Aires, Argentina, occurred during 2016. Phylogenetic, phylodynamic, and phylogeographic analyses of 82 samples from dengue patients revealed co-circulation of 2 genotype V dengue virus lineages, suggesting that this virus has become endemic to the Buenos Aires metropolitan area.

EID Tittarelli E, Lusso SB, Goya S, Rojo GL, Natale MI, Viegas M, et al. Dengue Virus 1 Outbreak in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1684-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161718
AMA Tittarelli E, Lusso SB, Goya S, et al. Dengue Virus 1 Outbreak in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1684-1685. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161718.
APA Tittarelli, E., Lusso, S. B., Goya, S., Rojo, G. L., Natale, M. I., Viegas, M....Valinotto, L. E. (2017). Dengue Virus 1 Outbreak in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1684-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161718.

Mild Illness during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin−Producing Escherichia coli O157 Infections Associated with Agricultural Show, Australia [PDF - 903 KB - 4 pages]
B. R. Vasant et al.

During a large outbreak of Shiga toxin−producing Escherichia coli illness associated with an agricultural show in Australia, we used whole-genome sequencing to detect an IS1203v insertion in the Shiga toxin 2c subunit A gene of Shiga toxin−producing E. coli. Our study showed that clinical illness was mild, and hemolytic uremic syndrome was not detected.

EID Vasant BR, Stafford RJ, Jennison AV, Bennett SM, Bell RJ, Doyle CJ, et al. Mild Illness during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin−Producing Escherichia coli O157 Infections Associated with Agricultural Show, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1686-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161836
AMA Vasant BR, Stafford RJ, Jennison AV, et al. Mild Illness during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin−Producing Escherichia coli O157 Infections Associated with Agricultural Show, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1686-1689. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161836.
APA Vasant, B. R., Stafford, R. J., Jennison, A. V., Bennett, S. M., Bell, R. J., Doyle, C. J....Lambert, S. B. (2017). Mild Illness during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin−Producing Escherichia coli O157 Infections Associated with Agricultural Show, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1686-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161836.

Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Immunocompromised Woman, Italy [PDF - 1.12 MB - 4 pages]
E. Giombini et al.

In Italy in 2016, acute flaccid myelitis developed in a woman who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Enterovirus D68 viral genome was detected in respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid samples, and the viral protein 1 sequence clustered with lineage B3. Immunocompromised adults may be at risk for enterovirus D68–associated neurologic complications.

EID Giombini E, Rueca M, Barberi W, Iori A, Castilletti C, Scognamiglio P, et al. Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Immunocompromised Woman, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1690-1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170792
AMA Giombini E, Rueca M, Barberi W, et al. Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Immunocompromised Woman, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1690-1693. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170792.
APA Giombini, E., Rueca, M., Barberi, W., Iori, A., Castilletti, C., Scognamiglio, P....Valli, M. (2017). Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Immunocompromised Woman, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1690-1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170792.

Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014–2015 [PDF - 1.50 MB - 4 pages]
B. Mannasse et al.

We identified Usutu virus (USUV) RNA in 6 pools of mosquitoes trapped in northern Israel during 2014–2015. These Israeli strains were most similar to strains identified in Senegal and Germany, which further elucidates common ancestry and evolutionary dynamics of USUV. Our findings suggest that human infection with USUV might occur in Israel.

EID Mannasse B, Mendelson E, Orshan L, Mor O, Shalom U, Yeger T, et al. Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1699-1702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171017
AMA Mannasse B, Mendelson E, Orshan L, et al. Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1699-1702. doi:10.3201/eid2310.171017.
APA Mannasse, B., Mendelson, E., Orshan, L., Mor, O., Shalom, U., Yeger, T....Lustig, Y. (2017). Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1699-1702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171017.

Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection, Japan, 2008–2015 [PDF - 1.03 MB - 4 pages]
T. Tanaka et al.

We evaluated isolates obtained from children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection throughout Japan during 2008–2015. The highest prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae was 81.6% in 2012, followed by 59.3% in 2014 and 43.6% in 2015. The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae among children in Japan has decreased.

EID Tanaka T, Oishi T, Miyata I, Wakabayashi S, Kono M, Ono S, et al. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection, Japan, 2008–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1703-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170106
AMA Tanaka T, Oishi T, Miyata I, et al. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection, Japan, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1703-1706. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170106.
APA Tanaka, T., Oishi, T., Miyata, I., Wakabayashi, S., Kono, M., Ono, S....Ouchi, K. (2017). Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection, Japan, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1703-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170106.

Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005–2015 [PDF - 1.14 MB - 4 pages]
C. Lee et al.

Annual incidence of scarlet fever in Hong Kong remained elevated after an upsurge in 2011. Incidence increased from 3.3/10,000 children <5 years of age during 2005–2010 to 18.1/10,000 during 2012–2015. Incidence was higher among boys and was 32%–42% lower in the week following school holidays.

EID Lee C, Cowling BJ, Lau E. Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1707-1710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161456
AMA Lee C, Cowling BJ, Lau E. Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1707-1710. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161456.
APA Lee, C., Cowling, B. J., & Lau, E. (2017). Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1707-1710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161456.

Off-Label Use of Bedaquiline in Children and Adolescents with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis [PDF - 346 KB - 3 pages]
J. Achar et al.

We describe 27 children and adolescents <18 years of age who received bedaquiline during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We report good treatment responses and no cessation attributable to adverse effects. Bedaquiline could be considered for use with this age group for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis when treatment options are limited.

EID Achar J, Hewison C, Cavalheiro AP, Skrahina A, Cajazeiro J, Nargiza P, et al. Off-Label Use of Bedaquiline in Children and Adolescents with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1711-1713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170303
AMA Achar J, Hewison C, Cavalheiro AP, et al. Off-Label Use of Bedaquiline in Children and Adolescents with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1711-1713. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170303.
APA Achar, J., Hewison, C., Cavalheiro, A. P., Skrahina, A., Cajazeiro, J., Nargiza, P....du Cros, P. (2017). Off-Label Use of Bedaquiline in Children and Adolescents with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1711-1713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170303.

Monitoring Avian Influenza Viruses from Chicken Carcasses Sold at Markets, China, 2016 [PDF - 622 KB - 4 pages]
X. Mao et al.

During 2016 in Guangzhou, China, we detected infectious avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in 39.8% of samples from chicken carcasses slaughtered at live poultry markets but none from carcasses supplied to supermarkets by facilities bypassing live poultry markets. Promoting supply chains with high biosecurity may reduce the risk for zoonotic AIV transmission.

EID Mao X, Wu J, Lau E, Cheng K, Zhong Z, Song Y, et al. Monitoring Avian Influenza Viruses from Chicken Carcasses Sold at Markets, China, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1714-1717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170679
AMA Mao X, Wu J, Lau E, et al. Monitoring Avian Influenza Viruses from Chicken Carcasses Sold at Markets, China, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1714-1717. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170679.
APA Mao, X., Wu, J., Lau, E., Cheng, K., Zhong, Z., Song, Y....Belser, J. A. (2017). Monitoring Avian Influenza Viruses from Chicken Carcasses Sold at Markets, China, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1714-1717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170679.

Bedaquiline and Delamanid Combination Treatment of 5 Patients with Pulmonary Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis [PDF - 998 KB - 4 pages]
A. Maryandyshev et al.

We report the experiences of 5 patients taking bedaquiline with delamanid in combination: 1 patient was cured; 3 culture converted, with 2 continuing and 1 changing therapy; and 1 died from respiratory insufficiency. For 2 patients, QT-interval prolongation but no arrhythmias occurred. Use of this therapy is justified for patients with limited options.

EID Maryandyshev A, Pontali E, Tiberi S, Akkerman O, Ganatra S, Sadutshang T, et al. Bedaquiline and Delamanid Combination Treatment of 5 Patients with Pulmonary Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1718-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170834
AMA Maryandyshev A, Pontali E, Tiberi S, et al. Bedaquiline and Delamanid Combination Treatment of 5 Patients with Pulmonary Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1718-1721. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170834.
APA Maryandyshev, A., Pontali, E., Tiberi, S., Akkerman, O., Ganatra, S., Sadutshang, T....Migliori, G. (2017). Bedaquiline and Delamanid Combination Treatment of 5 Patients with Pulmonary Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1718-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170834.

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008–2016 [PDF - 694 KB - 4 pages]
S. Matheus et al.

We report 5 human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome found during surveillance in French Guiana in 2008–2016; of the 5 patients, 4 died. This pathogen should continue to be monitored in humans and rodents in effort to reduce the occurrence of these lethal infections in humans stemming from ecosystem disturbances.

EID Matheus S, Kallel H, Mayence C, Bremand L, Houcke S, Rousset D, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1722-1725. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170842
AMA Matheus S, Kallel H, Mayence C, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1722-1725. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170842.
APA Matheus, S., Kallel, H., Mayence, C., Bremand, L., Houcke, S., Rousset, D....Lavergne, A. (2017). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1722-1725. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170842.

Berlin Squirrelpox Virus, a New Poxvirus in Red Squirrels, Berlin, Germany [PDF - 617 KB - 4 pages]
G. Wibbelt et al.

Near Berlin, Germany, several juvenile red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) were found with moist, crusty skin lesions. Histology, electron microscopy, and cell culture isolation revealed an orthopoxvirus-like infection. Subsequent PCR and genome analysis identified a new poxvirus (Berlin squirrelpox virus) that could not be assigned to any known poxvirus genera.

EID Wibbelt G, Tausch SH, Dabrowski PW, Kershaw O, Nitsche A, Schrick L. Berlin Squirrelpox Virus, a New Poxvirus in Red Squirrels, Berlin, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1726-1729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171008
AMA Wibbelt G, Tausch SH, Dabrowski PW, et al. Berlin Squirrelpox Virus, a New Poxvirus in Red Squirrels, Berlin, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1726-1729. doi:10.3201/eid2310.171008.
APA Wibbelt, G., Tausch, S. H., Dabrowski, P. W., Kershaw, O., Nitsche, A., & Schrick, L. (2017). Berlin Squirrelpox Virus, a New Poxvirus in Red Squirrels, Berlin, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1726-1729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171008.

Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016 [PDF - 1.92 MB - 5 pages]
C. Y. Chiu et al.

We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015–2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States.

EID Chiu CY, Coffey LL, Murkey J, Symmes K, Sample HA, Wilson MR, et al. Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1964-1968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161986
AMA Chiu CY, Coffey LL, Murkey J, et al. Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1964-1968. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161986.
APA Chiu, C. Y., Coffey, L. L., Murkey, J., Symmes, K., Sample, H. A., Wilson, M. R....Klausner, J. D. (2017). Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1964-1968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161986.
Research Letters

Bedaquiline and Linezolid for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Pregnant Woman [PDF - 341 KB - 2 pages]
M. Jaspard et al.

A woman with extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis treated with a drug regimen including linezolid and bedaquiline during her last 3 weeks of pregnancy gave birth to a child without abnormalities. No fetal toxicities were noted by 2 years after delivery. This drug combination might be safe during the late third trimester of pregnancy.

EID Jaspard M, Elefant-Amoura E, Melonio I, De Montgolfier I, Veziris N, Caumes E. Bedaquiline and Linezolid for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Pregnant Woman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1731-1732. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161398
AMA Jaspard M, Elefant-Amoura E, Melonio I, et al. Bedaquiline and Linezolid for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Pregnant Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1731-1732. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161398.
APA Jaspard, M., Elefant-Amoura, E., Melonio, I., De Montgolfier, I., Veziris, N., & Caumes, E. (2017). Bedaquiline and Linezolid for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Pregnant Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1731-1732. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161398.

Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia [PDF - 374 KB - 3 pages]
B. Varghese et al.

We explored in detail the nationwide existence of Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. In 18 months, 12 new cases of M. riyadhense infection were observed, predominantly among Saudi nationals, as a cause of pulmonary disease. M. riyadhense may be emerging as a more common pathogen in Saudi Arabia.

EID Varghese B, Enani M, Althawadi S, Johani S, Fernandez G, Al-Ghafli H, et al. Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1732-1734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161430
AMA Varghese B, Enani M, Althawadi S, et al. Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1732-1734. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161430.
APA Varghese, B., Enani, M., Althawadi, S., Johani, S., Fernandez, G., Al-Ghafli, H....Al-Hajoj, S. (2017). Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1732-1734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161430.

Carbapenemase VCC-1–Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany [PDF - 385 KB - 3 pages]
J. A. Hammerl et al.

During antimicrobial drug resistance testing for Vibrio spp. from coastal waters of Germany, we identified 4 nontoxigenic, carbapenem-resistant V. cholerae isolates. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the carbapenemase gene blaVCC-1. In addition, a molecular survey showed that more blaVCC-1–harboring isolates are present in coastal waters of Germany.

EID Hammerl JA, Jäckel C, Bortolaia V, Schwartz K, Bier N, Hendriksen RS, et al. Carbapenemase VCC-1–Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1735-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161625
AMA Hammerl JA, Jäckel C, Bortolaia V, et al. Carbapenemase VCC-1–Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1735-1737. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161625.
APA Hammerl, J. A., Jäckel, C., Bortolaia, V., Schwartz, K., Bier, N., Hendriksen, R. S....Strauch, E. (2017). Carbapenemase VCC-1–Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1735-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161625.

Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil [PDF - 646 KB - 3 pages]
M. S. Cunha et al.

We isolated East/Central/South African genotype chikungunya virus during the 2016 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed unique mutations in the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4-A481D) and envelope protein 1 (E1-K211T). Moreover, all Brazil East/Central/South isolates shared the exclusive mutations E1-M407L and E2-A103T.

EID Cunha MS, Cruz N, Schnellrath LC, Medaglia M, Casotto ME, Albano RM, et al. Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1737-1739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161855
AMA Cunha MS, Cruz N, Schnellrath LC, et al. Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1737-1739. doi:10.3201/eid2310.161855.
APA Cunha, M. S., Cruz, N., Schnellrath, L. C., Medaglia, M., Casotto, M. E., Albano, R. M....Damaso, C. R. (2017). Autochthonous Transmission of East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1737-1739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.161855.

Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Alcaligenes faecalis Related to Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Angola [PDF - 371 KB - 3 pages]
M. Filipe et al.

We found that 20 (10.6%) of 188 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media in Angola were co-colonized with fluoroquinolone-resistant Alcaligenes faecalis, commonly found in birds. A likely explanation for our findings was the use of bird feces by residents as a traditional remedy to prevent ear secretions caused by primary ear infection.

EID Filipe M, Reimer Å, Matuschek E, Paul M, Pelkonen T, Riesbeck K. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Alcaligenes faecalis Related to Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Angola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1740-1742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170268
AMA Filipe M, Reimer Å, Matuschek E, et al. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Alcaligenes faecalis Related to Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Angola. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1740-1742. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170268.
APA Filipe, M., Reimer, Å., Matuschek, E., Paul, M., Pelkonen, T., & Riesbeck, K. (2017). Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Alcaligenes faecalis Related to Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Angola. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1740-1742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170268.

Spread of Chikungunya Virus East/Central/South African Genotype in Northeast Brazil [PDF - 516 KB - 3 pages]
A. Charlys da Costa et al.

We investigated an outbreak of exanthematous illness in Maceió by using molecular surveillance; 76% of samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. Genetic analysis of 23 newly generated genomes identified the East/Central/South African genotype, suggesting that this lineage has persisted since mid-2014 in Brazil and may spread in the Americas and beyond.

EID Charlys da Costa A, Thézé J, Komninakis S, Sanz-Duro R, Felinto M, Moura L, et al. Spread of Chikungunya Virus East/Central/South African Genotype in Northeast Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1742-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170307
AMA Charlys da Costa A, Thézé J, Komninakis S, et al. Spread of Chikungunya Virus East/Central/South African Genotype in Northeast Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1742-1744. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170307.
APA Charlys da Costa, A., Thézé, J., Komninakis, S., Sanz-Duro, R., Felinto, M., Moura, L....Faria, N. R. (2017). Spread of Chikungunya Virus East/Central/South African Genotype in Northeast Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1742-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170307.

Familial Transmission of emm12 Group A Streptococcus [PDF - 321 KB - 2 pages]
C. Duployez et al.

Incidence and severity of invasive group A Streptococcus infections are of increasing concern in France and worldwide. The risk for secondary infection of close contacts is known but rarely described. We report a case of intrafamilial and life-threatening transmission of emm12 group A Streptococcus.

EID Duployez C, Vachée A, Robineau O, Giraud F, Deny A, Senneville E, et al. Familial Transmission of emm12 Group A Streptococcus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1745-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170343
AMA Duployez C, Vachée A, Robineau O, et al. Familial Transmission of emm12 Group A Streptococcus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1745-1746. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170343.
APA Duployez, C., Vachée, A., Robineau, O., Giraud, F., Deny, A., Senneville, E....Loïez, C. (2017). Familial Transmission of emm12 Group A Streptococcus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1745-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170343.

Six-Month Response to Delamanid Treatment in MDR TB Patients [PDF - 337 KB - 3 pages]
C. Hewison et al.

Delamanid, recently available for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), has had limited use outside clinical trials. We present the early treatment results for 53 patients from 7 countries who received a delamanid-containing treatment for MDR TB. Results show good tolerability and treatment response at 6 months.

EID Hewison C, Ferlazzo G, Avaliani Z, Hayrapetyan A, Jonckheere S, Khaidarkhanova Z, et al. Six-Month Response to Delamanid Treatment in MDR TB Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1746-1748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170468
AMA Hewison C, Ferlazzo G, Avaliani Z, et al. Six-Month Response to Delamanid Treatment in MDR TB Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1746-1748. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170468.
APA Hewison, C., Ferlazzo, G., Avaliani, Z., Hayrapetyan, A., Jonckheere, S., Khaidarkhanova, Z....Varaine, F. (2017). Six-Month Response to Delamanid Treatment in MDR TB Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1746-1748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170468.

Mycobacterium orygis Lymphadenitis in New York, USA [PDF - 359 KB - 3 pages]
L. A. Marcos et al.

We report a case of lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium orygis in an immunocompetent person in Stony Brook, New York, USA. Initial real-time PCR assay failed to provide a final subspecies identification within the M. tuberculosis complex, but whole-genome sequencing characterized the isolate as M. orygis.

EID Marcos LA, Spitzer ED, Mahapatra R, Ma Y, Halse TA, Shea J, et al. Mycobacterium orygis Lymphadenitis in New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1749-1751. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170490
AMA Marcos LA, Spitzer ED, Mahapatra R, et al. Mycobacterium orygis Lymphadenitis in New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1749-1751. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170490.
APA Marcos, L. A., Spitzer, E. D., Mahapatra, R., Ma, Y., Halse, T. A., Shea, J....Escuyer, V. E. (2017). Mycobacterium orygis Lymphadenitis in New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1749-1751. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170490.

Ross River Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015 [PDF - 333 KB - 3 pages]
M. Aubry et al.

Ross River virus (RRV), spread by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, is the most commonly transmitted arbovirus in Australia. A serosurvey of blood donors in French Polynesia during 2011–2013 suggested that RRV circulated without being detected. We report RRV circulation in French Polynesia based on further screening of blood samples collected during 2014–2015.

EID Aubry M, Teissier A, Huart M, Merceron S, Vanhomwegen J, Roche C, et al. Ross River Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1751-1753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170583
AMA Aubry M, Teissier A, Huart M, et al. Ross River Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1751-1753. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170583.
APA Aubry, M., Teissier, A., Huart, M., Merceron, S., Vanhomwegen, J., Roche, C....Cao-Lormeau, V. (2017). Ross River Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1751-1753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170583.

Unrecognized Subclinical Infection with Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Japan [PDF - 320 KB - 2 pages]
K. Yoshii et al.

During early 2017, we conducted a seroepidemiologic investigation for tickborne encephalitis virus among 291 Japan Self-Defense Forces members in Hokkaido. Two (0.7%) tested positive. Neither had clinically apparent symptoms after removing ticks.

EID Yoshii K, Kojima R, Nishiura H. Unrecognized Subclinical Infection with Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1753-1754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170918
AMA Yoshii K, Kojima R, Nishiura H. Unrecognized Subclinical Infection with Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1753-1754. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170918.
APA Yoshii, K., Kojima, R., & Nishiura, H. (2017). Unrecognized Subclinical Infection with Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1753-1754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170918.

blaCTX-M-27–Encoding Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Lineage C1-M27 Clone in Clinical Isolates, Germany [PDF - 404 KB - 3 pages]
H. Ghosh et al.

We examined extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates from livestock, humans, companion animals, food, and the environment during 2009–2016 in Germany for the presence of CTX-M-27 allele within Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131. E. coli ST131 C1-M27 was exclusively present in humans; its incidence increased from 0% in 2009 to 45% in 2016.

EID Ghosh H, Doijad S, Falgenhauer L, Fritzenwanker M, Imirzalioglu C, Chakraborty T. blaCTX-M-27–Encoding Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Lineage C1-M27 Clone in Clinical Isolates, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1754-1756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170938
AMA Ghosh H, Doijad S, Falgenhauer L, et al. blaCTX-M-27–Encoding Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Lineage C1-M27 Clone in Clinical Isolates, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1754-1756. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170938.
APA Ghosh, H., Doijad, S., Falgenhauer, L., Fritzenwanker, M., Imirzalioglu, C., & Chakraborty, T. (2017). blaCTX-M-27–Encoding Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Lineage C1-M27 Clone in Clinical Isolates, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1754-1756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170938.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis Eosinophilic Meningitis in an Infant, Tennessee, USA [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
T. Flerlage et al.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis worldwide. This parasite is endemic to Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, and its global distribution is increasing. We report A. cantonensis meningoencephalitis in a 12-month-old boy in Tennessee, USA, who had not traveled outside of southwestern Tennessee or northwestern Mississippi.

EID Flerlage T, Qvarnstrom Y, Noh J, Devincenzo JP, Madni A, Bagga B, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Eosinophilic Meningitis in an Infant, Tennessee, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1756-1758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170978
AMA Flerlage T, Qvarnstrom Y, Noh J, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Eosinophilic Meningitis in an Infant, Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1756-1758. doi:10.3201/eid2310.170978.
APA Flerlage, T., Qvarnstrom, Y., Noh, J., Devincenzo, J. P., Madni, A., Bagga, B....Hysmith, N. D. (2017). Angiostrongylus cantonensis Eosinophilic Meningitis in an Infant, Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1756-1758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.170978.

Dengue Virus Exported from Côte d’Ivoire to Japan, June 2017 [PDF - 1.12 MB - 3 pages]
T. Suzuki et al.

Since April 2017, a dengue fever outbreak has been ongoing in Côte d’Ivoire. We diagnosed dengue fever (type 2 virus) in a traveler returning to Japan from Côte d’Ivoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strain homology with the Burkina Faso 2016 strain. This case may serve as an alert to possible disease spread outside Africa.

EID Suzuki T, Kutsuna S, Taniguchi S, Tajima S, Maeki T, Kato F, et al. Dengue Virus Exported from Côte d’Ivoire to Japan, June 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1758-1760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171132
AMA Suzuki T, Kutsuna S, Taniguchi S, et al. Dengue Virus Exported from Côte d’Ivoire to Japan, June 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1758-1760. doi:10.3201/eid2310.171132.
APA Suzuki, T., Kutsuna, S., Taniguchi, S., Tajima, S., Maeki, T., Kato, F....Ohmagari, N. (2017). Dengue Virus Exported from Côte d’Ivoire to Japan, June 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1758-1760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171132.
Letters

Etymologia: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [PDF - 1.75 MB - 2 pages]
D. Lanska
EID Lanska D. Etymologia: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1760-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171142
AMA Lanska D. Etymologia: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1760-1761. doi:10.3201/eid2310.171142.
APA Lanska, D. (2017). Etymologia: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1760-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171142.
Another Dimension

Summer dreams [PDF - 254 KB - 1 page]
V. Liyanapathirana
EID Liyanapathirana V. Summer dreams. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171117
AMA Liyanapathirana V. Summer dreams. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1730. doi:10.3201/eid2310.171117.
APA Liyanapathirana, V. (2017). Summer dreams. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171117.
Books and Media

Zika: The Emerging Epidemic [PDF - 409 KB - 1 page]
M. F. Boni
EID Boni MF. Zika: The Emerging Epidemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171139
AMA Boni MF. Zika: The Emerging Epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1762. doi:10.3201/eid2310.171139.
APA Boni, M. F. (2017). Zika: The Emerging Epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.171139.
About the Cover

Chaos in Form and Color Yields to Harmony [PDF - 3.36 MB - 1 page]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Chaos in Form and Color Yields to Harmony. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1763-1764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.ac2310
AMA Breedlove B. Chaos in Form and Color Yields to Harmony. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1763-1764. doi:10.3201/eid2310.ac2310.
APA Breedlove, B. (2017). Chaos in Form and Color Yields to Harmony. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1763-1764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.ac2310.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Marburg Virus [PDF - 478 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry and F. A. Murphy
EID Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Marburg Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.et2310
AMA Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Marburg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1689. doi:10.3201/eid2310.et2310.
APA Henry, R., & Murphy, F. A. (2017). Etymologia: Marburg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.et2310.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 23, No. 6 [PDF - 346 KB]
EID Correction: Vol. 23, No. 6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(10):1762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.c12310
AMA Correction: Vol. 23, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(10):1762. doi:10.3201/eid2310.c12310.
APA (2017). Correction: Vol. 23, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(10), 1762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2310.c12310.
Page created: January 07, 2018
Page updated: January 07, 2018
Page reviewed: January 07, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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