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Issue Cover for Volume 4, Number 3—September 1998

Volume 4, Number 3—September 1998

[PDF - 9.44 MB - 168 pages]

THEME ISSUE
ICEID 1998
Introduction

About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 202 KB - 1 page]
S. A. Morse
EID Morse SA. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980301
AMA Morse SA. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):353. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980301.
APA Morse, S. A. (1998). About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980301.
About Emerging Infectious Diseases

Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases [PDF - 212 KB - 4 pages]
D. E. Shalala
EID Shalala DE. Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):354-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980302
AMA Shalala DE. Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):354-357. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980302.
APA Shalala, D. E. (1998). Collaboration in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 354-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980302.

Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 459 KB - 2 pages]
C. Broome
EID Broome C. Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):358-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980303
AMA Broome C. Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):358-359. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980303.
APA Broome, C. (1998). Effective Global Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 358-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980303.

Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans [PDF - 432 KB - 2 pages]
J. M. Hughes
EID Hughes JM. Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980304
AMA Hughes JM. Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):360-361. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980304.
APA Hughes, J. M. (1998). Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats – Accomplishments and Future Plans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980304.

Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases [PDF - 245 KB - 4 pages]
D. L. Heymann and G. R. Rodier
EID Heymann DL, Rodier GR. Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):362-365. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980305
AMA Heymann DL, Rodier GR. Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):362-365. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980305.
APA Heymann, D. L., & Rodier, G. R. (1998). Global Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 362-365. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980305.

Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective [PDF - 521 KB - 6 pages]
J. Lederberg
EID Lederberg J. Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):366-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980306
AMA Lederberg J. Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):366-371. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980306.
APA Lederberg, J. (1998). Emerging Infections: An Evolutionary Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 366-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980306.

Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage [PDF - 517 KB - 2 pages]
D. P. Drotman
EID Drotman DP. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):372-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980307
AMA Drotman DP. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):372-373. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980307.
APA Drotman, D. P. (1998). Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Brief Biographical Heritage. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 372-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980307.

New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research [PDF - 473 KB - 5 pages]
A. S. Fauci
EID Fauci AS. New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):374-378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980308
AMA Fauci AS. New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):374-378. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980308.
APA Fauci, A. S. (1998). New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 374-378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980308.

Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections [PDF - 2.04 MB - 3 pages]
K. Hein
EID Hein K. Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):379-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980309
AMA Hein K. Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):379-381. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980309.
APA Hein, K. (1998). Health Policy Implications of Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 379-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980309.
New Agents and Disease Associations

Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens [PDF - 570 KB - 8 pages]
D. A. Relman

Features of a number of important but poorly explained human clinical syndromes strongly indicate a microbial etiology. In these syndromes, the failure of cultivation-dependent microbial detection methods reveals our ignorance of microbial growth requirements. Sequence-based molecular methods, however, offer alternative approaches for microbial identification directly from host specimens found in the setting of unexplained acute illnesses, chronic inflammatory disease, and from anatomic sites that contain commensal microflora. The rapid expansion of genome sequence databases and advances in biotechnology present opportunities and challenges: identification of consensus sequences from which reliable, specific phylogenetic information can be inferred for all taxonomic groups of pathogens, broad-range pathogen identification on the basis of virulence-associated gene families, and use of host gene expression response profiles as specific signatures of microbial infection.

EID Relman DA. Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):382-389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980310
AMA Relman DA. Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):382-389. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980310.
APA Relman, D. A. (1998). Detection and Identification of Previously Unrecognized Microbial Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 382-389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980310.

The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases [PDF - 217 KB - 5 pages]
S. J. Pattison

Since 1986, approximately 170,000 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have occurred among approximately one million animals infected by contaminated feed in the United Kingdom. A ruminant feed ban in 1988 resulted in the rapid decline of the epidemic. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to agents indistinguishable from BSE have appeared in small numbers of exotic zoo animals; a small outbreak among domestic cats is declining. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been intensively monitored since 1990 because of the risk BSE could pose to public health. In 1995, two adolescents in the United Kingdom died of CJD, and through the early part of 1996, other relatively young people had cases of what became known as new variant CJD, whose transmissible agent (indistinguishable from that of BSE) is responsible for 26 cases in the United Kingdom and one in France. Areas of concern include how many cases will appear in the future and whether or not use of human blood and blood products may cause a second cycle of human infections.

EID Pattison SJ. The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):390-394. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980311
AMA Pattison SJ. The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):390-394. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980311.
APA Pattison, S. J. (1998). The Emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Related Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 390-394. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980311.

Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
B. A. Perkins and D. Relman
EID Perkins BA, Relman D. Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):395-397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980312
AMA Perkins BA, Relman D. Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):395-397. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980312.
APA Perkins, B. A., & Relman, D. (1998). Explaining the Unexplained in Clinical Infectious Diseases: Looking Forward. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 395-397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980312.
The Global Threat

Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa [PDF - 253 KB - 6 pages]
T. C. Nchinda

A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements. In Africa, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles gambiae complex. Control efforts have been piecemeal and not coordinated. Strategies for control should have a solid research base both for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines and for better understanding the pathogenesis, vector dynamics, epidemiology, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. An international collaborative approach is needed to build appropriate research in a national context and to effectively translate research results into practical applications in the field. The Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa can combine all of the above strategies to plan and coordinate partnerships, networking, and innovative approaches between African scientists and their Northern partners.

EID Nchinda TC. Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):398-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980313
AMA Nchinda TC. Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):398-403. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980313.
APA Nchinda, T. C. (1998). Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 398-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980313.

Vaccine-Preventable Diseases [PDF - 202 KB - 1 page]
A. C. Mawle
EID Mawle AC. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980314
AMA Mawle AC. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):404. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980314.
APA Mawle, A. C. (1998). Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980314.

Travelers' Health [PDF - 239 KB - 3 pages]
M. S. Cetron et al.
EID Cetron MS, Keystone JS, Shlim D, Steffen R. Travelers' Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):405-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980315
AMA Cetron MS, Keystone JS, Shlim D, et al. Travelers' Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):405-407. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980315.
APA Cetron, M. S., Keystone, J. S., Shlim, D., & Steffen, R. (1998). Travelers' Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 405-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980315.

Global Tuberculosis Challenges [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
K. G. Castro
EID Castro KG. Global Tuberculosis Challenges. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):408-409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980316
AMA Castro KG. Global Tuberculosis Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):408-409. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980316.
APA Castro, K. G. (1998). Global Tuberculosis Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 408-409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980316.

Blood Safety [PDF - 239 KB - 2 pages]
M. E. Chamberland et al.
EID Chamberland ME, Epstein J, Dodd RY, Persing D, Will RG, DeMaria A, et al. Blood Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):410-411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980317
AMA Chamberland ME, Epstein J, Dodd RY, et al. Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):410-411. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980317.
APA Chamberland, M. E., Epstein, J., Dodd, R. Y., Persing, D., Will, R. G., DeMaria, A....Khabbaz, R. (1998). Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 410-411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980317.

Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
W. H. Foege
EID Foege WH. Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):412-413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980018
AMA Foege WH. Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):412-413. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980018.
APA Foege, W. H. (1998). Confronting Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Smallpox Eradication Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 412-413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980018.

The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future [PDF - 203 KB - 2 pages]
D. R. Hopkins
EID Hopkins DR. The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):414-415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980319
AMA Hopkins DR. The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):414-415. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980319.
APA Hopkins, D. R. (1998). The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 414-415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980319.
Populations at Risk

Nosocomial Infection Update [PDF - 424 KB - 5 pages]
R. A. Weinstein

Historically, staphylococci, pseudomonads, and Escherichia coli have been the nosocomial infection troika; nosocomial pneumonia, surgical wound infections, and vascular accessrelated bacteremia have caused the most illness and death in hospitalized patients; and intensive care units have been the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Acquired antimicrobial resistance is the major problem, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of greatest concern. The shift to outpatient care is leaving the most vulnerable patients in hospitals. Aging of our population and increasingly aggressive medical and surgical interventions, including implanted foreign bodies, organ transplantations, and xenotransplantation, create a cohort of particularly susceptible persons. Renovation of aging hospitals increases risk of airborne fungal and other infections. To prevent and control these emerging nosocomial infections, we need to increase national surveillance, "risk adjust" infection rates so that interhospital comparisons are valid, develop more noninvasive infection-resistant devices, and work with health-care workers on better implementation of existing control measures such as hand washing.

EID Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):416-420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980320
AMA Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):416-420. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980320.
APA Weinstein, R. A. (1998). Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 416-420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980320.

Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations [PDF - 236 KB - 2 pages]
J. E. Kaplan et al.
EID Kaplan JE, Roselle G, Sepkowitz K. Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):421-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980321
AMA Kaplan JE, Roselle G, Sepkowitz K. Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):421-422. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980321.
APA Kaplan, J. E., Roselle, G., & Sepkowitz, K. (1998). Opportunistic Infections in Immunodeficient Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 421-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980321.

Host Genes and Infectious Diseases [PDF - 246 KB - 4 pages]
J. McNicholl
EID McNicholl J. Host Genes and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):423-426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980322
AMA McNicholl J. Host Genes and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):423-426. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980322.
APA McNicholl, J. (1998). Host Genes and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 423-426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980322.

Immigrant and Refugee Health [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
S. T. Cookson et al.
EID Cookson ST, Waldman R, Gushulak B, MacPherson D, Burkle F, Paquet C, et al. Immigrant and Refugee Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):427-428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980323
AMA Cookson ST, Waldman R, Gushulak B, et al. Immigrant and Refugee Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):427-428. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980323.
APA Cookson, S. T., Waldman, R., Gushulak, B., MacPherson, D., Burkle, F., Paquet, C....Walker, P. (1998). Immigrant and Refugee Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 427-428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980323.
Zoonotic and Vector-borne Issues

Emerging Zoonoses [PDF - 408 KB - 7 pages]
F. A. Murphy

In the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic or species-jumping infectious agents. Because there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Such investigation may be described in terms of a discovery-to-control continuum: from recognition of a new disease in a new setting to complex phases involving the hard science disciplines pertaining to discovery, the epidemiologic sciences pertaining to risk assessment, and activities pertaining to risk management. Today, many activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of a failed investigative infrastructure or financial base. Because zoonotic diseases are distinct, their prevention and control will require unique strategies, based more on fundamental research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require that we rebuild a cadre of career-committed professionals with a holistic appreciation of several medical and biologic sciences.

EID Murphy FA. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):429-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980324
AMA Murphy FA. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):429-435. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980324.
APA Murphy, F. A. (1998). Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 429-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980324.

Influenza: An Emerging Disease [PDF - 255 KB - 6 pages]
R. G. Webster

Because all known influenza A subtypes exist in the aquatic bird reservoir, influenza is not an eradicable disease; prevention and control are the only realistic goals. If people, pigs, and aquatic birds are the principal variables associated with interspecies transfer of influenza virus and the emergence of new human pandemic strains, influenza surveillance in these species is indicated. Live-bird markets housing a wide variety of avian species together (chickens, ducks, geese, pigeon, turkeys, pheasants, guinea fowl), occasionally with pigs, for sale directly to the public provide outstanding conditions for genetic mixing and spreading of influenza viruses; therefore, these birds should be monitored for influenza viruses. Moreover, if pigs are the mixing vessel for influenza viruses, surveillance in this population may also provide an early warning system for humans.

EID Webster RG. Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):436-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980325
AMA Webster RG. Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):436-441. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980325.
APA Webster, R. G. (1998). Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 436-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980325.

Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem [PDF - 681 KB - 9 pages]
D. J. Gubler

Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, demographic and societal changes, and genetic changes in pathogens. Effective prevention strategies can reverse this trend. Research on vaccines, environmentally safe insecticides, alternative approaches to vector control, and training programs for health-care workers are needed.

EID Gubler DJ. Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):442-450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980326
AMA Gubler DJ. Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):442-450. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980326.
APA Gubler, D. J. (1998). Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 442-450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980326.

Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases [PDF - 337 KB - 2 pages]
R. Colwell et al.
EID Colwell R, Epstein P, Gubler D, Hall M, Reiter P, Shukla J, et al. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):451-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980327
AMA Colwell R, Epstein P, Gubler D, et al. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):451-452. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980327.
APA Colwell, R., Epstein, P., Gubler, D., Hall, M., Reiter, P., Shukla, J....Trtanj, J. (1998). Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 451-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980327.

Emerging Zoonoses [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
J. Childs et al.
EID Childs J, Shope RE, Fish D, Meslin FX, Peters CJ, Johnson K, et al. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):453-454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980328
AMA Childs J, Shope RE, Fish D, et al. Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):453-454. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980328.
APA Childs, J., Shope, R. E., Fish, D., Meslin, F. X., Peters, C. J., Johnson, K....Jenkins, S. (1998). Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 453-454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980328.
Emerging Foodborne Pathogens

New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
R. V. Tauxe
EID Tauxe RV. New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):455-456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980329
AMA Tauxe RV. New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):455-456. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980329.
APA Tauxe, R. V. (1998). New Approaches to Surveillance and Control of Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 455-456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980329.

FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases [PDF - 322 KB - 2 pages]
S. Yang
EID Yang S. FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):457-458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980330
AMA Yang S. FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):457-458. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980330.
APA Yang, S. (1998). FoodNet and Enter-net: Emerging Surveillance Programs for Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 457-458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980330.

Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
D. A. Deppe
EID Deppe DA. Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):459-460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980331
AMA Deppe DA. Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):459-460. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980331.
APA Deppe, D. A. (1998). Enhancing State Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 459-460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980331.
Communicating the Threat

International Cooperation [PDF - 200 KB - 1 page]
J. LeDuc
EID LeDuc J. International Cooperation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980332
AMA LeDuc J. International Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):461. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980332.
APA LeDuc, J. (1998). International Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980332.

Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
R. W. Pinner
EID Pinner RW. Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):462-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980333
AMA Pinner RW. Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):462-464. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980333.
APA Pinner, R. W. (1998). Public Health Surveillance and Information Technology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 462-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980333.

Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies [PDF - 204 KB - 2 pages]
B. A. Kay et al.
EID Kay BA, Timperi RJ, Morse SS, Forslund D, McGowan JJ, O'Brien T. Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):465-466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980334
AMA Kay BA, Timperi RJ, Morse SS, et al. Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):465-466. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980334.
APA Kay, B. A., Timperi, R. J., Morse, S. S., Forslund, D., McGowan, J. J., & O'Brien, T. (1998). Innovative Information-Sharing Strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 465-466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980334.

Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
L. F. Folkers et al.
EID Folkers LF, Cerqueira MT, Quick RE, Kanu J, Galea G. Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):467-469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980335
AMA Folkers LF, Cerqueira MT, Quick RE, et al. Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):467-469. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980335.
APA Folkers, L. F., Cerqueira, M. T., Quick, R. E., Kanu, J., & Galea, G. (1998). Getting the Handle off the Proverbial Pump: Communication Works. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 467-469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980335.

Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public [PDF - 234 KB - 2 pages]
E. Abrutyn
EID Abrutyn E. Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):470-471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980336
AMA Abrutyn E. Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):470-471. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980336.
APA Abrutyn, E. (1998). Communicating Infectious Disease Information to the Public. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 470-471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980336.

APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation [PDF - 200 KB - 1 page]
A. M. Kimball et al.
EID Kimball AM, Horwitch C, O'Carroll P, Arjoso S, Kunanusont C, Lin Y, et al. APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980337
AMA Kimball AM, Horwitch C, O'Carroll P, et al. APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):472. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980337.
APA Kimball, A. M., Horwitch, C., O'Carroll, P., Arjoso, S., Kunanusont, C., Lin, Y....Dunham, P. (1998). APEC Emerging Infections Network: Prospects for Comprehensive Information Sharing on Emerging Infections within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980337.
Critical Issues for the Future

Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance [PDF - 204 KB - 2 pages]
D. Bell
EID Bell D. Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):473-474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980338
AMA Bell D. Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):473-474. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980338.
APA Bell, D. (1998). Controversies in the Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 473-474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980338.

Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer [PDF - 293 KB - 13 pages]
G. H. Cassell

Powerful diagnostic technology, plus the realization that organisms of otherwise unimpressive virulence can produce slowly progressive chronic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes, has resulted in the discovery of new infectious agents and new concepts of infectious diseases. The demonstration that final outcome of infection is as much determined by the genetic background of the patient as by the genetic makeup of the infecting agent is indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents. One well-known example is the discovery that stomach ulcers are due to Helicobacter pylori. Mycoplasmas may cause chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults, and Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently identified common cause of acute respiratory infection, has been associated with atherosclerosis. A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years. The association and causal role of infectious agents in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention.

EID Cassell GH. Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):475-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980339
AMA Cassell GH. Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):475-487. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980339.
APA Cassell, G. H. (1998). Infectious Causes of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 475-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980339.

Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat [PDF - 218 KB - 5 pages]
D. Henderson

The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern: smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use.

EID Henderson D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980340
AMA Henderson D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):488-492. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980340.
APA Henderson, D. (1998). Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980340.

Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat [PDF - 622 KB - 2 pages]
J. E. McDade and D. Franz
EID McDade JE, Franz D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980341
AMA McDade JE, Franz D. Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):493-494. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980341.
APA McDade, J. E., & Franz, D. (1998). Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980341.

Who Speaks for the Microbes? [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
S. Falkow
EID Falkow S. Who Speaks for the Microbes?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):495-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980342
AMA Falkow S. Who Speaks for the Microbes?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):495-497. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980342.
APA Falkow, S. (1998). Who Speaks for the Microbes?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 495-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980342.

Emerging Diseases–What Now? [PDF - 209 KB - 3 pages]
G. A. Alleyne
EID Alleyne GA. Emerging Diseases–What Now?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980343
AMA Alleyne GA. Emerging Diseases–What Now?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):498-500. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980343.
APA Alleyne, G. A. (1998). Emerging Diseases–What Now?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980343.
Summaries from satellite partnership meetings (March 8-12)

Plague Diagnostic Workshop [PDF - 232 KB - 1 page]
M. C. Chu
EID Chu MC. Plague Diagnostic Workshop. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980344
AMA Chu MC. Plague Diagnostic Workshop. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):501. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980344.
APA Chu, M. C. (1998). Plague Diagnostic Workshop. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980344.

The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections [PDF - 238 KB - 2 pages]
A. Levitt
EID Levitt A. The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):502-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980345
AMA Levitt A. The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):502-503. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980345.
APA Levitt, A. (1998). The U.S.–EU Conference on Extension of the Salm/Enter-net Surveillance System for Human Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 502-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980345.

ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 204 KB - 2 pages]
K. Western
EID Western K. ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):504-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980346
AMA Western K. ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):504-505. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980346.
APA Western, K. (1998). ASM/CDC/NIH Training in Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 504-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980346.
Volume 4, Number 3—September 1998 - Continued

Letters

Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India [PDF - 240 KB - 2 pages]
R. Chaudhry et al.
EID Chaudhry R, Dhawan B, Kumar D, Bhatia R, Gandhi J, Patel R, et al. Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980347
AMA Chaudhry R, Dhawan B, Kumar D, et al. Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):506-507. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980347.
APA Chaudhry, R., Dhawan, B., Kumar, D., Bhatia, R., Gandhi, J., Patel, R....Purohit, B. (1998). Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980347.

Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India [PDF - 241 KB - 2 pages]
K. Thong et al.
EID Thong K, Nair S, Chaudhry R, Seth P, Kapil A, Kumar D, et al. Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):507-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980348
AMA Thong K, Nair S, Chaudhry R, et al. Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):507-508. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980348.
APA Thong, K., Nair, S., Chaudhry, R., Seth, P., Kapil, A., Kumar, D....Pang, T. (1998). Molecular Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A From an Outbreak in New Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 507-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980348.

Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 245 KB - 3 pages]
M. Bonnet et al.
EID Bonnet M, Akamituna P, Mazaya A. Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980349
AMA Bonnet M, Akamituna P, Mazaya A. Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):508-510. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980349.
APA Bonnet, M., Akamituna, P., & Mazaya, A. (1998). Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980349.

Classification of Reactive Arthritides [PDF - 244 KB - 3 pages]
D. R. Blumberg and V. S. Sloan
EID Blumberg DR, Sloan VS. Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):510-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980350
AMA Blumberg DR, Sloan VS. Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):510-512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980350.
APA Blumberg, D. R., & Sloan, V. S. (1998). Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 510-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980350.

Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan [PDF - 235 KB - 1 page]
J. A. Lindsay
EID Lindsay JA. Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980351
AMA Lindsay JA. Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980351.
APA Lindsay, J. A. (1998). Reply to Drs. Blumberg and Sloan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980351.

Cost of Blood Screening [PDF - 235 KB - 1 page]
O. J. Chang
EID Chang OJ. Cost of Blood Screening. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980352
AMA Chang OJ. Cost of Blood Screening. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980352.
APA Chang, O. J. (1998). Cost of Blood Screening. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980352.
Books and Media

Emerging Infections [PDF - 233 KB - 1 page]
B. W. Mahy
EID Mahy BW. Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980353
AMA Mahy BW. Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):513. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980353.
APA Mahy, B. W. (1998). Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980353.
About the Cover

Phantasmagoria
Corrections

Vol. 4, No. 2 [PDF - 167 KB - 1 page]
EID Vol. 4, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980355
AMA Vol. 4, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):515. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980355.
APA (1998). Vol. 4, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980355.
News and Notes

CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan [PDF - 203 KB - 1 page]
EID CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(3):514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980354
AMA CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):514. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980354.
APA (1998). CDC To Release Updated Emerging Infectious Disease Plan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0403.980354.
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Page updated: January 23, 2012
Page reviewed: January 23, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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