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Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014

Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue

Gertrude Case BuehringComments to Author , Hua Min Shen, Hanne M. Jensen, K. Yeon Choi1, Dejun Sun, and Gerard Nuovo
Author affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (G.C. Buehring, H.M. Shen, K.Y. Choi, D. Sun); University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA (H.M. Jensen); Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA (G. Nuovo)

Main Article

Table 1

Lack of cross-reactivity of primers from 5 BLV genome regions with representatives of mammalian and avian retrovirus subfamilies and human exogenous and endogenous viruses previously identified in human breast tissue*

Virus Subfamily Cell line harboring virus (source†) Nested liquid-phase PCR for BLV genome regions
LTR gag pol env tax
RSV Alpharetrovirus XC, rat cell line, transformed with RSV (CCL/NBRL)
MSV Alpharetrovirus F81, cat cell line, MSV infected (CCL/NBRL)
MMTV Betaretrovirus GR, mouse mammary tumor cell line (G. Firestone)
MPMV Betaretrovirus CMMT, rhesus monkey cell line (CCL/NBRL)
MuLV Gammaretrovirus JLSV5, mouse cell line (CCL/NBRL 14)
FeLV Gammaretrovirus FeLV 3281, cat cell line (CCL/NBRL)
BLV Deltaretrovirus FLK cell line (K. Radke) + + + + +
Bat2Clone6 cell line, BLV infected (K. Radke) + + + + +
None Tb1Lu, parental line of Bat2Clone6 before it was infected with BLV (K. Radke)
STLV Deltaretrovirus KIA, baboon cell line (ARRRP)
HTLV-1 Deltaretrovirus MT2, human lymphocyte cell line (C. Hanson)
HTLV-2 Deltaretrovirus Clone 19, human lymphocyte cell line (C. Hanson)
HIV-1 Lentivirus H9, human cell line, HIV-1 infected (C. Hanson)
HIV-2 Lentivirus H9, human cell line, HIV-2 infected (C. Hanson)
HPV-16 Papillomavirus Caski, human uterine cervix cell line (ATCC)
HPV-18 Papillomavirus HeLa, human uterine cervix cell line (CCL/NBRL)
EBV Gamma-1 herpesvirus Raji, human B-cell line (ATCC)
HERV-K HERV, Class II MCF-7, human breast cell line (ATCC)
Purified, cloned HERV-K DNA (F. Wang-Johanning)

*In addition to assurances from the sources of the above biologicals, presence of the viruses in the respective cell lines was supported by rescue/syncytia formation when cell lines with replication defective viruses (RSV and MSV) were co-infected with replication competent retroviruses; positive reaction with primers specific for the virus (BLV, HTLV-1, -2, EBV, HPV-16); reaction with antibodies to the respective virus (MMTV, MMPV, MuLV); or receipt as formalin-fixed specimen so virus could not have been altered or lost (HIV-1, -2). BLV, bovine leukemia virus; LTR, long terminal repeat (promoter region); gag, group-specific antigen (capsid region); pol, polymerase (reverse transcription); env, envelope; tax, trans-activating region of the X gene; RSV, Rous sarcoma virus; MSV, murine sarcoma virus; MMTV, mouse mammary tumor virus; MPMV, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus; MuLV, murine leukemia virus; FeLV, feline leukemia virus; FLK, fetal lamb kidney; STLV, simian T-cell leukemia virus; HTLV, human T-cell leukemia virus; HPV, human papillomavirus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; HERV, human endogenous retrovirus.
†Individually named sources listed in Acknowledgments. CCL/NBRL, former Cell Culture Laboratory of the Naval Bioscience Research Laboratory, Oakland, CA, USA; ARRRP, AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (; ATCC, American Type Culture Collection.

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1Current affiliation: Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, College Station, Texas, USA.

Page created: April 16, 2014
Page updated: April 16, 2014
Page reviewed: April 16, 2014
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