Volume 23, Number 8—August 2017
Characterization of Fitzroy River Virus and Serologic Evidence of Human and Animal Infection
*EHV, Edge Hill virus; FRV, Fitzroy River virus; SEPV, Sepik virus; YFV, yellow fever virus; +, positive (optical density of >0.2 and at least 2 times the mean of negative control wells); –, negative.
†Original descriptions of monoclonal antibody from (31) (4G2), (32) (4G4), (33) (6F7), and (34) (7C6, 8G2, 6A9, 3D11, 3B11, 3G1, 5D3, and 7C3).
‡Monoclonal antibody binding patterns of all FRV isolates were identical to those of the prototype isolate K73884.
- Broom AK, Lindsay MDA, Harrington SA, Smith DW. Investigation of the southern limits of Murray Valley encephalitis activity in Western Australia during the 2000 wet season. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002;2:87–95.
- Broom AK, Lindsay MDA, Johansen CA, Wright AET, Mackenzie JS. Two possible mechanisms for survival and initiation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus activity in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53:95–9.
- Johansen CA, Susai V, Hall RA, Mackenzie JS, Clark DC, May FJ, et al. Genetic and phenotypic differences between isolates of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in Western Australia, 1972-2003. Virus Genes. 2007;35:147–54.
- Russell RC. Arboviruses and their vectors in Australia: an update on the ecology and epidemiology of some mosquito-borne arboviruses. Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 1995;83:141–58.
- Johansen C, Broom A, Lindsay M, Avery V, Power S, Dixon G, et al. Arbovirus and vector surveillance in Western Australia, 2004/05 to 2007/08. Arbovirus Research in Australia. 2009;10:76–81.
- Cowled C, Palacios G, Melville L, Weir R, Walsh S, Davis S, et al. Genetic and epidemiological characterization of Stretch Lagoon orbivirus, a novel orbivirus isolated from Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in northern Australia. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1433–9.
- Rohe D, Fall RP. A miniature battery powered CO2 baited light trap for mosquito borne encephalitis surveillance. Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecology. 1979;4:24–7.
- Broom AK, Wright AE, Mackenzie JS, Lindsay MD, Robinson D. Isolation of Murray Valley encephalitis and Ross River viruses from Aedes normanensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Australia. J Med Entomol. 1989;26:100–3.
- Lindsay MDA, Broom AK, Wright AE, Johansen CA, Mackenzie JS. Ross River virus isolations from mosquitoes in arid regions of Western Australia: implication of vertical transmission as a means of persistence of the virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993;49:686–96.
- Quan PL, Williams DT, Johansen CA, Jain K, Petrosov A, Diviney SM, et al. Genetic characterization of K13965, a strain of Oak Vale virus from Western Australia. Virus Res. 2011;160:206–13.
- Pierre V, Drouet MT, Deubel V. Identification of mosquito-borne flavivirus sequences using universal primers and reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. Res Virol. 1994;145:93–104.
- Schmieder R, Edwards R. Quality control and preprocessing of metagenomic datasets. Bioinformatics. 2011;27:863–4.
- Langmead B, Salzberg SL. Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2. Nat Methods. 2012;9:357–9.
- Chevreux B, Wetter T, Suhai S. Genome sequence assembly using trace signals and additional sequence information. Computer Science and Biology: Proceedings of the German Conference on Bioinformatics. 1999;99:45–56.
- King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ. Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses: London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2012.
- Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, et al. Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:1647–9.
- Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:1870–4.
- Rice CM, Lenches EM, Eddy SR, Shin SJ, Sheets RL, Strauss JH. Nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus: implications for flavivirus gene expression and evolution. Science. 1985;229:726–33.
- Kuno G, Chang GJ. Characterization of Sepik and Entebbe bat viruses closely related to yellow fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:1165–70.
- Martin DP, Murrell B, Golden M, Khoosal A, Muhire B. RDP4: detection and analysis of recombination patterns in virus genomes. Virus Evol. 2015;1:vev003.
- Prow NA, May FJ, Westlake DJ, Hurrelbrink RJ, Biron RM, Leung JY, et al. Determinants of attenuation in the envelope protein of the flavivirus Alfuy. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2286–96.
- Reed LJ, Muench H. A simple method for estimating fifty percent end points. Am J Hyg. 1938;27:493–7.
- Prow NA, Setoh YX, Biron RM, Sester DP, Kim KS, Hobson-Peters J, et al. The West Nile virus-like flavivirus Koutango is highly virulent in mice due to delayed viral clearance and the induction of a poor neutralizing antibody response. J Virol. 2014;88:9947–62.
- Suen WW, Prow NA, Setoh YX, Hall RA, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H. End-point disease investigation for virus strains of intermediate virulence as illustrated by flavivirus infections. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:366–77.
- Roby JA, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Prow NA, Chang DC, Hall RA, Khromykh AA. Increased expression of capsid protein in trans enhances production of single-round infectious particles by West Nile virus DNA vaccine candidate. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:2176–91.
- Hall RA, Broom AK, Hartnett AC, Howard MJ, Mackenzie JS. Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum. J Virol Methods. 1995;51:201–10.
- Johansen CA, Mackenzie JS, Smith DW, Lindsay MD. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies to Barmah Forest, Sindbis and Trubanaman viruses in animals and humans in the south-west of Western Australia. Aust J Zool. 2005;53:51–8.
- Uren MF. Bovine ephemeral fever virus. In: Corner L, Bagust T, editors. Australian Standard Diagnostic Techniques for Animal Disease. Melbourne (Australia): The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; 1993.
- Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel RN, Holmes EC, Gould EA, de Lamballerie X. Genomics and evolution of Aedes-borne flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:87–94.
- Kuno G, Chang G-JJ, Tsuchiya KR, Karabatsos N, Cropp CB. Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. J Virol. 1998;72:73–83.
- Henchal EA, Gentry MK, McCown JM, Brandt WE. Dengue virus-specific and flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982;31:830–6.
- Clark DC, Lobigs M, Lee E, Howard MJ, Clark K, Blitvich BJ, et al. In situ reactions of monoclonal antibodies with a viable mutant of Murray Valley encephalitis virus reveal an absence of dimeric NS1 protein. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1175–83.
- Broom AK, Hall RA, Johansen CA, Oliveira N, Howard MA, Lindsay MD, et al. Identification of Australian arboviruses in inoculated cell cultures using monoclonal antibodies in ELISA. Pathology. 1998;30:286–8.
- Macdonald J, Poidinger M, Mackenzie JS, Russell RC, Doggett S, Broom AK, et al. Molecular phylogeny of edge hill virus supports its position in the yellow Fever virus group and identifies a new genetic variant. Evol Bioinform Online. 2010;6:91–6.
- Chiang CL, Reeves WC. Statistical estimation of virus infection rates in mosquito vector populations. Am J Hyg. 1962;75:377–91.
- Campbell CL, Smith DR, Sanchez-Vargas I, Zhang B, Shi PY, Ebel GD. A positively selected mutation in the WNV 2K peptide confers resistance to superinfection exclusion in vivo. Virology. 2014;464-465:228–32.
- Miller S, Kastner S, Krijnse-Locker J, Bühler S, Bartenschlager R. The non-structural protein 4A of dengue virus is an integral membrane protein inducing membrane alterations in a 2K-regulated manner. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8873–82.
- Gritsun TS, Gould EA. Origin and evolution of 3'UTR of flaviviruses: long direct repeats as a basis for the formation of secondary structures and their significance for virus transmission. Adv Virus Res. 2007;69:203–48.
- Liehne CG, Leivers S, Stanley NF, Alpers MP, Paul S, Liehne PFS, et al. Ord River arboviruses—isolations from mosquitoes. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1976;54:499–504.
- Liehne PFS, Stanley NF, Alpers MP, Liehne CG. Ord River arboviruses—the study site and mosquitoes. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1976;54:487–97.
- Tsetsarkin KA, Vanlandingham DL, McGee CE, Higgs S. A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e201.
- Whelan P, Hayes G, Tucker G, Carter J, Wilson A, Haigh B. The detection of exotic mosquitoes in the Northern Territory of Australia. Arbovirus Research in Australia. 2001;8:395–404.
- Johansen CA, Lindsay MDA, Harrington SA, Whelan PI, Russell RC, Broom AK. First record of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2005;21:222–4.
- Johansen CA, van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Zborowski P, Nisbet DJ, Paru R, et al. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, 1997-1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:631–8.
- Pritchard LI, Sendow I, Lunt R, Hassan SH, Kattenbelt J, Gould AR, et al. Genetic diversity of bluetongue viruses in south east Asia. Virus Res. 2004;101:193–201.
- Melville LF, Pritchard LI, Hunt NT, Daniels PW, Eaton B. Genotypic evidence of incursions of new strains of bluetongue viruses in the Northern Territory. Arbovirus Research in Australia. 1997;7:181–6.
- Weir RP, Harmsen MB, Hunt NT, Blacksell SD, Lunt RA, Pritchard LI, et al. EHDV-1, a new Australian serotype of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus isolated from sentinel cattle in the Northern Territory. Vet Microbiol. 1997;58:135–43.
- Webb C, Dogggett S, Russell R. A guide to mosquitoes of Australia. Melbourne (Australia): CSIRO Publishing; 2016.
- Geoghegan JL, Walker PJ, Duchemin JB, Jeanne I, Holmes EC. Seasonal drivers of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses in Australia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3325.
1These authors contributed equally to this article.