, Agnes Agunos, Sheryl P. Gow, Carolee A. Carson, and Thomas P. Van Boeckel
Figure 5. Mean antimicrobial use through injection, water, and feed in broiler chicken flocks where Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter were isolated, Canada, 2013–2019. A) Salmonella; B) Escherichia coli; C) Campylobacter. Route of administration in each panel: top, in ovo or subcutaneous injections; middle, water; bottom, feed. Arrows represent directionality from no multidrug resistance (MDR; gray) to MDR (red). Asterisks (*) indicates p<0.05, obtained from mixed effects logistic regression including antimicrobial use as fixed effect and flock and veterinarian identification as random effects. AGL, aminoglycoside; BAC, bacitracin; CC, chemical coccidiostats; FFL, flavophospholipid; FQ, fluoroquinolone; LINC, lincomycin; LNCACL, lincosamides; MACR, macrolide; ORTH, orthomycin; PEN, penicillin; STRGR, streptogramin; TET, tetracycline; TMS, trimethropim-sulfonamides; 3GC, third-generation cephalosporin.