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Conference Summaries

Volume 7—2001

Volume 7, Number 6—December 2001

image of the "Thumbnail" version of the Volume 7, Number 6—December 2001 cover of the CDC"s EID journal

Biological Warfare [PDF - 10 KB - 2 pages]
J. Lederberg
EID Lederberg J. Biological Warfare. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(6):1070-1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0706.010636
AMA Lederberg J. Biological Warfare. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(6):1070-1071. doi:10.3201/eid0706.010636.
APA Lederberg, J. (2001). Biological Warfare. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(6), 1070-1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0706.010636.

Volume 7, Number 7—June 2001

image of the "Thumbnail" version of the Volume 7, Number 7—June 2001 cover of the CDC"s EID journal

The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
V. McGovern
EID McGovern V. The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017737
AMA McGovern V. The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):564. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017737.
APA McGovern, V. (2001). The Wellcome Trust/Burroughs Wellcome Fund Joint Program in Infectious Diseases of the Tropical Developing World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017737.

ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
J. Woodall and C. H. Calisher
EID Woodall J, Calisher CH. ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017736
AMA Woodall J, Calisher CH. ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):563. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017736.
APA Woodall, J., & Calisher, C. H. (2001). ProMED-mail: Background and Purpose. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017736.

Adventitious Agents and Vaccines [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
P. R. Krause
EID Krause PR. Adventitious Agents and Vaccines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017735
AMA Krause PR. Adventitious Agents and Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):562. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017735.
APA Krause, P. R. (2001). Adventitious Agents and Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017735.

Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
T. Sirisanthana
EID Sirisanthana T. Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017734
AMA Sirisanthana T. Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):561. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017734.
APA Sirisanthana, T. (2001). Penicillium marneffei Infection in Patients with AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017734.

Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks [PDF - 371 KB - 5 pages]
M. Carballo and A. Nerurkar
EID Carballo M, Nerurkar A. Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):556-560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017733
AMA Carballo M, Nerurkar A. Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):556-560. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017733.
APA Carballo, M., & Nerurkar, A. (2001). Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 556-560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017733.

Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples [PDF - 358 KB - 2 pages]
J. C. Butler et al.
EID Butler JC, Crengle S, Cheek JE, Leach AJ, Lennon D, O'Brien KL, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):554-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017732
AMA Butler JC, Crengle S, Cheek JE, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):554-555. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017732.
APA Butler, J. C., Crengle, S., Cheek, J. E., Leach, A. J., Lennon, D., O'Brien, K. L....Santosham, M. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases Among Indigenous Peoples. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 554-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017732.

Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety [PDF - 363 KB - 2 pages]
M. E. Chamberland et al.
EID Chamberland ME, Alter HJ, Busch MP, Nemo G, Ricketts M. Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):552-553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017731
AMA Chamberland ME, Alter HJ, Busch MP, et al. Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):552-553. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017731.
APA Chamberland, M. E., Alter, H. J., Busch, M. P., Nemo, G., & Ricketts, M. (2001). Emerging Infectious Disease Issues in Blood Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 552-553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017731.

Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
S. T. Cookson et al.
EID Cookson ST, Carballo M, Nolan CM, Keystone JS, Jong EC. Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017730
AMA Cookson ST, Carballo M, Nolan CM, et al. Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):551. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017730.
APA Cookson, S. T., Carballo, M., Nolan, C. M., Keystone, J. S., & Jong, E. C. (2001). Migrating Populations—A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017730.

GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
S. A. Berger
EID Berger SA. GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017729
AMA Berger SA. GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):550. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017729.
APA Berger, S. A. (2001). GIDEON: A Computer Program for Diagnosis, Simulation, and Informatics in the Fields of Geographic Medicine and Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017729.

Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease [PDF - 357 KB - 1 page]
W. R. Dowdle et al.
EID Dowdle WR, Cochi SL, Oberste S, Sutter RW. Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017728
AMA Dowdle WR, Cochi SL, Oberste S, et al. Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):549. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017728.
APA Dowdle, W. R., Cochi, S. L., Oberste, S., & Sutter, R. W. (2001). Preventing Polio from Becoming a Reemerging Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017728.

Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000 [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
T. Naimi et al.
EID Naimi T, Ringwald P, Besser R, Thompson S. Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017727
AMA Naimi T, Ringwald P, Besser R, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):548. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017727.
APA Naimi, T., Ringwald, P., Besser, R., & Thompson, S. (2001). Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017727.

Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
J. Pape
EID Pape J. Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017726
AMA Pape J. Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):547. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017726.
APA Pape, J. (2001). Institutional Review Boards: Developing Countries Consideration. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017726.

Malaria [PDF - 358 KB - 1 page]
A. Teklehaimanot et al.
EID Teklehaimanot A, Keusch G, Binder S. Malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):546. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017725
AMA Teklehaimanot A, Keusch G, Binder S. Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):546. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017725.
APA Teklehaimanot, A., Keusch, G., & Binder, S. (2001). Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 546. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017725.

Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
D. r. Chapman
EID Chapman Dr. Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017724
AMA Chapman Dr. Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):545. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017724.
APA Chapman, D. r. (2001). Xenotransplantation: Benefits and Risks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017724.

Panel on Waterborne Diseases [PDF - 357 KB - 1 page]
P. R. Hunter et al.
EID Hunter PR, Colford JM, LeChevallier MW, Binder S, Berger PS. Panel on Waterborne Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017723
AMA Hunter PR, Colford JM, LeChevallier MW, et al. Panel on Waterborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):544. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017723.
APA Hunter, P. R., Colford, J. M., LeChevallier, M. W., Binder, S., & Berger, P. S. (2001). Panel on Waterborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017723.

Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
E. P. Richards
EID Richards EP. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017722
AMA Richards EP. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):543. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017722.
APA Richards, E. P. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Law. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017722.

International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control [PDF - 357 KB - 1 page]
J. Breman and J. LeDuc
EID Breman J, LeDuc J. International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017721
AMA Breman J, LeDuc J. International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):542. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017721.
APA Breman, J., & LeDuc, J. (2001). International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017721.

Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions [PDF - 350 KB - 1 page]
J. E. Kaplan et al.
EID Kaplan JE, Sepkowitz K, Masur H, Sirisanthana T, Russo M, Chapman L. Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017720
AMA Kaplan JE, Sepkowitz K, Masur H, et al. Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):541. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017720.
APA Kaplan, J. E., Sepkowitz, K., Masur, H., Sirisanthana, T., Russo, M., & Chapman, L. (2001). Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV or Other Immunocompromising Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017720.

Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks [PDF - 358 KB - 1 page]
M. Malkinson et al.
EID Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman Y, Pokamonski S, King R, Deubel V. Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017719
AMA Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman Y, et al. Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):540. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017719.
APA Malkinson, M., Banet, C., Weisman, Y., Pokamonski, S., King, R., & Deubel, V. (2001). Intercontinental Transmission of West Nile Virus by Migrating White Storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017719.

Plague in the Americas [PDF - 366 KB - 1 page]
A. Ruiz
EID Ruiz A. Plague in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017718
AMA Ruiz A. Plague in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):539. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017718.
APA Ruiz, A. (2001). Plague in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017718.

Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance
D. B. Jernigan
EID Jernigan DB. Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017717
AMA Jernigan DB. Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):538. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017717.
APA Jernigan, D. B. (2001). Electronic Laboratory-Based Reporting: Opportunities and Challenges for Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017717.

Emerging Zoonotic Diseases [PDF - 354 KB - 1 page]
G. R. Hansen et al.
EID Hansen GR, Woodall J, Brown C, Jaax N, McNamara T, Ruiz A. Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017716
AMA Hansen GR, Woodall J, Brown C, et al. Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):537. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017716.
APA Hansen, G. R., Woodall, J., Brown, C., Jaax, N., McNamara, T., & Ruiz, A. (2001). Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017716.

West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease [PDF - 350 KB - 1 page]
V. Deubel et al.
EID Deubel V, Gubler DJ, Layton M, Malkinson M. West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):536. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017715
AMA Deubel V, Gubler DJ, Layton M, et al. West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):536. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017715.
APA Deubel, V., Gubler, D. J., Layton, M., & Malkinson, M. (2001). West Nile Virus: A Newly Emergent Epidemic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 536. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017715.

Injection Safety [PDF - 344 KB - 1 page]
S. Luby
EID Luby S. Injection Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017714
AMA Luby S. Injection Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):535. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017714.
APA Luby, S. (2001). Injection Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017714.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
C. Grady et al.
EID Grady C, Ramjee G, Pape JW, Hofman K, Speers M. Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017713
AMA Grady C, Ramjee G, Pape JW, et al. Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):534. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017713.
APA Grady, C., Ramjee, G., Pape, J. W., Hofman, K., & Speers, M. (2001). Ethical and Legal Issues in Infectious Disease Research and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017713.

Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease [PDF - 358 KB - 1 page]
A. P. Liang et al.
EID Liang AP, Koopmans M, Doyle MP, Bernard DT, Brewer CE. Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017712
AMA Liang AP, Koopmans M, Doyle MP, et al. Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):533. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017712.
APA Liang, A. P., Koopmans, M., Doyle, M. P., Bernard, D. T., & Brewer, C. E. (2001). Teaming Up to Prevent Foodborne Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017712.

Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants [PDF - 353 KB - 1 page]
A. Schuchat et al.
EID Schuchat A, Hillier S, Edwards K, Schrag S, Labbok M. Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017711
AMA Schuchat A, Hillier S, Edwards K, et al. Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):532. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017711.
APA Schuchat, A., Hillier, S., Edwards, K., Schrag, S., & Labbok, M. (2001). Early Opportunities for Prevention: Infections of Pregnant Women and Young Infants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017711.

Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
M. R. Skeels
EID Skeels MR. Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):531. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017710
AMA Skeels MR. Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):531. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017710.
APA Skeels, M. R. (2001). Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 531. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017710.

Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa [PDF - 355 KB - 2 pages]
F. Zicker
EID Zicker F. Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):529-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017709
AMA Zicker F. Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):529-530. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017709.
APA Zicker, F. (2001). Strengthening Capability for Malaria Research in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 529-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017709.

Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence? [PDF - 401 KB - 3 pages]
F. R. Mooi et al.

In The Netherlands, as in many other western countries, pertussis vaccines have been used extensively for more than 40 years. Therefore, it is conceivable that vaccine-induced immunity has affected the evolution of B. pertussis. Consistent with this notion, pertussis has reemerged in The Netherlands, despite high vaccination coverage. Further, a notable change in the population structure of B. pertussis was observed in The Netherlands subsequent to the introduction of vaccination in the 1950s. Finally, we observed antigenic divergence between clinical isolates and vaccine strains, in particular with respect to the surface-associated proteins pertactin and pertussis toxin. Adaptation may have allowed B. pertussis to remain endemic despite widespread vaccination and may have contributed to the reemergence of pertussis in The Netherlands.

EID Mooi FR, van Loo I, King A. Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):526-528. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017708
AMA Mooi FR, van Loo I, King A. Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):526-528. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017708.
APA Mooi, F. R., van Loo, I., & King, A. (2001). Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 526-528. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017708.

Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
E. C. Bond

This paper gives examples of public/private partnerships that support research, support drug development and that advance policy development, suggesting that such partnerships can advance our understanding and control of emerging infections. The investment in emerging infectious diseases from government and from industry is currently much larger than that from philanthropy. Nevertheless philanthropy, even with limited dollars, is able to play a catalytic function and provide risk capital for innovative partnerships and could in the future play an even larger role if the value of such investment is better defined and argued to recruit additional dollars to this area.

EID Bond EC. Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):522-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017707
AMA Bond EC. Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):522-525. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017707.
APA Bond, E. C. (2001). Public/Private Sector Partnership For Emerging Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 522-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017707.

Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections [PDF - 393 KB - 6 pages]
R. V. Tauxe
EID Tauxe RV. Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections . Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):516-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017706
AMA Tauxe RV. Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):516-521. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017706.
APA Tauxe, R. V. (2001). Food Safety and Irradiation: Protecting the Public from Foodborne Infections . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 516-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017706.

Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern [PDF - 375 KB - 4 pages]
S. B. Levy

The recent entry of products containing antibacterial agents into healthy households has escalated from a few dozen products in the mid-1990s to more than 700 today. Antibacterial products were developed and have been successfully used to prevent transmission of disease-causing microorganisms among patients, particularly in hospitals. They are now being added to products used in healthy households, even though an added health benefit has not been demonstrated. Scientists are concerned that the antibacterial agents will select bacteria resistant to them and cross-resistant to antibiotics. Moreover, if they alter a person's microflora, they may negatively affect the normal maturation of the T helper cell response of the immune system to commensal flora antigens; this change could lead to a greater chance of allergies in children. As with antibiotics, prudent use of these products is urged. Their designated purpose is to protect vulnerable patients.

EID Levy SB. Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):512-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017705
AMA Levy SB. Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):512-515. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017705.
APA Levy, S. B. (2001). Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 512-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017705.

Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic [PDF - 457 KB - 7 pages]
B. R. Levin et al.

We used mathematical models to address several questions concerning the epidemiologic and evolutionary future of HIV/AIDS in human populations. Our analysis suggests that 1) when HIV first enters a human population, and for many subsequent years, the epidemic is driven by early transmissions, possibly occurring before donors have seroconverted to HIV-positive status; 2) new HIV infections in a subpopulation (risk group) may decline or level off due to the saturation of the susceptible hosts rather than to evolution of the virus or to the efficacy of intervention, education, and public health measures; 3) evolution in humans for resistance to HIV infection or for the infection to engender a lower death rate will require thousands of years and will be achieved only after vast numbers of persons die of AIDS; 4) evolution is unlikely to increase the virulence of HIV; and 5) if HIV chemotherapy reduces the transmissibility of the virus, treating individual patients can reduce the frequency of HIV infections and AIDS deaths in the general population.

EID Levin BR, Bull J, Stewart FM. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):505-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017704
AMA Levin BR, Bull J, Stewart FM. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):505-511. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017704.
APA Levin, B. R., Bull, J., & Stewart, F. M. (2001). Epidemiology, Evolution, and Future of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 505-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017704.

Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific [PDF - 410 KB - 8 pages]
J. Mackenzie et al.

Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including the flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV.

EID Mackenzie J, Chua K, Daniels P, Eaton B, Field H, Hall R, et al. Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):497-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017703
AMA Mackenzie J, Chua K, Daniels P, et al. Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):497-504. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017703.
APA Mackenzie, J., Chua, K., Daniels, P., Eaton, B., Field, H., Hall, R....Williams, D. (2001). Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 497-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017703.

Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective [PDF - 508 KB - 3 pages]
J. M. Hughes
EID Hughes JM. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):494-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017702
AMA Hughes JM. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):494-496. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017702.
APA Hughes, J. M. (2001). Emerging Infectious Diseases: A CDC Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 494-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017702.

About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000 [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
D. Drotman et al.
EID Drotman D, Jaffe HW, Schable CA, Feinman L. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(7):493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017701
AMA Drotman D, Jaffe HW, Schable CA, et al. About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(7):493. doi:10.3201/eid0707.017701.
APA Drotman, D., Jaffe, H. W., Schable, C. A., & Feinman, L. (2001). About the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0707.017701.

Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001

image of the "Thumbnail" version of the Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001 cover of the CDC"s EID journal

Health-Care Quality Promotion through Infection Prevention: Beyond 2000 [PDF - 46 KB - 4 pages]
J. Gerberding

Health-care value purchasing, complex health-care systems, and information technology are the three most important change drivers influencing the interrelated themes of the 4th decennial conference: accountability, quality promotion through infection prevention across the health-care delivery system, and medical informatics. Among the change drivers influencing themes of future conferences may be a societal mandate for health promotion and health-care access for all.

EID Gerberding J. Health-Care Quality Promotion through Infection Prevention: Beyond 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):363-366. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700363
AMA Gerberding J. Health-Care Quality Promotion through Infection Prevention: Beyond 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):363-366. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700363.
APA Gerberding, J. (2001). Health-Care Quality Promotion through Infection Prevention: Beyond 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 363-366. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700363.

Can Managed Health Care Help Manage Health-Care-Associated Infections? [PDF - 63 KB - 5 pages]
R. Platt and B. Caldwell

Managed-care organizations have a unique opportunity, still largely unrealized, to collaborate with health-care providers and epidemiologists to prevent health care-associated infections. Several attributes make these organizations logical collaborators for infection control programs: they have responsibility for defined populations of enrollees and for their overall health, including preventive care; they possess unique data resources about their members and their care; and they are able to make systemwide changes in care. Health-care associated infections merit the attention and effort of managed-care organizations because these infections are common, incur substantial illness and costs, and can be effectively prevented by using methods that are unevenly applied in different health-care settings. Both national and local discussions will be required to enable the most effective and efficient collaborations between managed care organizations and health-care epidemiologists. It will be important to articulate clear goals and standards that can be readily understood and widely adopted.

EID Platt R, Caldwell B. Can Managed Health Care Help Manage Health-Care-Associated Infections?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):358-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700358
AMA Platt R, Caldwell B. Can Managed Health Care Help Manage Health-Care-Associated Infections?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):358-362. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700358.
APA Platt, R., & Caldwell, B. (2001). Can Managed Health Care Help Manage Health-Care-Associated Infections?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 358-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700358.

Engineering Infection Control through Facility Design [PDF - 54 KB - 4 pages]
G. A. Noskin and L. R. Peterson

Many medical centers have modified their facility design to provide a safer environment for patients. From an infection control perspective, the primary objective of hospital design is to place the patient at no risk for infection while hospitalized. We describe historical landmarks about hospital design, modern facility design, and specific designs to prevent acquisition and spread of infections such as tuberculosis and aspergillosis.

EID Noskin GA, Peterson LR. Engineering Infection Control through Facility Design. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):354-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700354
AMA Noskin GA, Peterson LR. Engineering Infection Control through Facility Design. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):354-357. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700354.
APA Noskin, G. A., & Peterson, L. R. (2001). Engineering Infection Control through Facility Design. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 354-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700354.

New Disinfection and Sterilization Methods [PDF - 62 KB - 6 pages]
W. A. Rutala and D. J. Weber

New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial-drug coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial drug that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4- hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50).

EID Rutala WA, Weber DJ. New Disinfection and Sterilization Methods. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):348-353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700348
AMA Rutala WA, Weber DJ. New Disinfection and Sterilization Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):348-353. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700348.
APA Rutala, W. A., & Weber, D. J. (2001). New Disinfection and Sterilization Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 348-353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700348.

Emerging Mechanisms of Fluoroquinolone Resistance [PDF - 55 KB - 5 pages]
D. C. Hooper

Broad use of fluoroquinolones has been followed by emergence of resistance, which has been due mainly to chromosomal mutations in genes encoding the subunits of the drugs' target enzymes, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and in genes that affect the expression of diffusion channels in the outer membrane and multidrug-resistance efflux systems. Resistance emerged first in species in which single mutations were sufficient to cause clinically important levels of resistance (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Subsequently, however, resistance has emerged in bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in which multiple mutations are required to generate clinically important resistance. In these circumstances, the additional epidemiologic factors of drug use in animals and human-to-human spread appear to have contributed. Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is currently low, will require close monitoring as fluoroquinolones are used more extensively for treating respiratory tract infections.

EID Hooper DC. Emerging Mechanisms of Fluoroquinolone Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):337-341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700337
AMA Hooper DC. Emerging Mechanisms of Fluoroquinolone Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):337-341. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700337.
APA Hooper, D. C. (2001). Emerging Mechanisms of Fluoroquinolone Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 337-341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700337.

Increasing Resistance to Vancomycin and Other Glycopeptides in Staphylococcus aureus [PDF - 82 KB - 6 pages]
F. C. Tenover et al.

Strains of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides have been reported from Japan, the United States, Europe, and the Far East. Although isolates with homogeneous resistance to vancomycin (MICs = 8 µg/mL) continue to be rare, there are increasing reports of strains showing heteroresistance, often with vancomycin MICs in the 1-4 µg/mL range. Most isolates with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin appear to have developed from preexisting methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Many of the isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides have been associated with therapeutic failures with vancomycin. Although nosocomial spread of the vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains has not been observed in U.S. hospitals, spread of VISA strains has apparently occurred in Japan. Broth microdilution tests held a full 24 hours are optimal for detecting resistance in the laboratory; however, methods for detecting heteroresistant strains are still in flux. Disk-diffusion tests, including the Stokes method, do not detect VISA strains. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other groups have issued recommendations regarding appropriate infection control procedures for patients infected with these strains.

EID Tenover FC, Biddle JW, Lancaster MV. Increasing Resistance to Vancomycin and Other Glycopeptides in Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):327-332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.070327
AMA Tenover FC, Biddle JW, Lancaster MV. Increasing Resistance to Vancomycin and Other Glycopeptides in Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):327-332. doi:10.3201/eid0702.070327.
APA Tenover, F. C., Biddle, J. W., & Lancaster, M. V. (2001). Increasing Resistance to Vancomycin and Other Glycopeptides in Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 327-332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.070327.

Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus [PDF - 129 KB - 4 pages]
B. Shopsin and B. N. Kreiswirth

Subtyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and tracking nosocomial infections have evolved from phenotypic to genotypic approaches; most laboratories now depend on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We discuss the limitations of current image-based genotyping methods, including PFGE, and the advantages (including ease of entering data into a database) of using DNA sequence analysis to control MRSA infections in health-care facilities.

EID Shopsin B, Kreiswirth BN. Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):323-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700323
AMA Shopsin B, Kreiswirth BN. Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):323-326. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700323.
APA Shopsin, B., & Kreiswirth, B. N. (2001). Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 323-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700323.

HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis in the 21st Century [PDF - 53 KB - 5 pages]
D. K. Henderson

The administration of postexposure prophylaxis has become the standard of care for occupational exposures to HIV. We have learned a great deal about the safety and potential efficacy of these agents, as well as the optimal management of health-care workers occupationally exposed to HIV. This article describes the current state of knowledge in this field, identifies substantive questions to be answered, and summarizes basic principles of postexposure management.

EID Henderson DK. HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis in the 21st Century. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):254-258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700254
AMA Henderson DK. HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis in the 21st Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):254-258. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700254.
APA Henderson, D. K. (2001). HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis in the 21st Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 254-258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700254.

Epidemiology and Prevention of Pediatric Viral Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Institutions [PDF - 55 KB - 5 pages]
D. A. Goldmann

Nosocomial viral respiratory infections cause considerable illness and death on pediatric wards. Common causes of these infections include respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. While primarily a community pathogen, rhinovirus also occasionally results in hospitalization and serious sequelae. This article reviews effective infection control interventions for these three pathogens, as well as ongoing controversies.

EID Goldmann DA. Epidemiology and Prevention of Pediatric Viral Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Institutions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):249-253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700249
AMA Goldmann DA. Epidemiology and Prevention of Pediatric Viral Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Institutions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):249-253. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700249.
APA Goldmann, D. A. (2001). Epidemiology and Prevention of Pediatric Viral Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Institutions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 249-253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700249.

About the Fourth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections [PDF - 101 KB - 1 page]
S. L. Solomon
EID Solomon SL. About the Fourth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700169
AMA Solomon SL. About the Fourth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(2):169. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700169.
APA Solomon, S. L. (2001). About the Fourth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2), 169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700169.

Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001

image of the "Thumbnail" version of the Volume 7, Number 1—February 2001 cover of the CDC"s EID journal

The 5th International Conference on Legionella [PDF - 33 KB - 1 page]
EID The 5th International Conference on Legionella. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(1):166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700166
AMA The 5th International Conference on Legionella. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):166. doi:10.3201/eid0701.700166.
APA (2001). The 5th International Conference on Legionella. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(1), 166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0701.700166.
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Page updated: 4/27/2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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