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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 5—May 2007

Volume 13, Number 5—May 2007

[PDF - 4.51 MB - 139 pages]

Perspective

Response to Malaria Epidemics in Africa [PDF - 68 KB - 6 pages]
T. A. Abeku

Malaria epidemics affect nonimmune populations in many highland and semi-arid areas of Africa. Effective prevention of these epidemics is challenging, particularly in the highlands, where predictive accuracy of indicators is not sufficiently high to allow decisions involving expensive measures such as indoor residual spraying of insecticides. Advances in geographic information systems have proved useful in stratification of areas to guide selective targeting of interventions, including barrier application of insecticides in transmission foci to prevent spread of infection. Because rainfall is associated with epidemics in semi-arid areas, early warning methods based on seasonal climate predictions have been proposed. For most areas, response measures should focus on early recognition of anomalies and rapid mass drug administration. Vector control measures are useful if abnormal transmission is highly likely and if they can be selectively implemented at the early stages of an outbreak.

EID Abeku TA. Response to Malaria Epidemics in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061333
AMA Abeku TA. Response to Malaria Epidemics in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):681. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061333.
APA Abeku, T. A. (2007). Response to Malaria Epidemics in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061333.
Research

Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania [PDF - 229 KB - 7 pages]
A. Laudisoit et al.

Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P. irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because they provide an indicator that can be surveyed to assess the risk for plague.

EID Laudisoit A, Leirs H, Makundi RH, Van Dongen S, Davis S, Neerinckx S, et al. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061084
AMA Laudisoit A, Leirs H, Makundi RH, et al. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):687. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061084.
APA Laudisoit, A., Leirs, H., Makundi, R. H., Van Dongen, S., Davis, S., Neerinckx, S....Libois, R. (2007). Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061084.

Trends for Influenza-related Deaths during Pandemic and Epidemic Seasons, Italy, 1969–2001 [PDF - 377 KB - 6 pages]
C. Rizzo et al.

Age-specific patterns of death from influenza vary, depending on whether the influenza season is epidemic or pandemic. We assessed age patterns and geographic trends in monthly influenza-related deaths in Italy from 1969 through 2001, focusing on differences between epidemic and pandemic seasons. We evaluated age-standardized excess deaths from pneumonia and influenza and from all causes, using a modified version of a cyclical Serfling model. Excess deaths were highest for elderly persons in all seasons except the influenza A (H3N2) pandemic season (1969–70), when rates were greater for younger persons, confirming a shift toward death of younger persons during pandemic seasons. When comparing northern, central, and southern Italy, we found a high level of synchrony in the amplitude of peaks of influenza-related deaths.

EID Rizzo C, Bella A, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller MA, Rota M, et al. Trends for Influenza-related Deaths during Pandemic and Epidemic Seasons, Italy, 1969–2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061309
AMA Rizzo C, Bella A, Viboud C, et al. Trends for Influenza-related Deaths during Pandemic and Epidemic Seasons, Italy, 1969–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):694. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061309.
APA Rizzo, C., Bella, A., Viboud, C., Simonsen, L., Miller, M. A., Rota, M....degli Atti, M. L. (2007). Trends for Influenza-related Deaths during Pandemic and Epidemic Seasons, Italy, 1969–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061309.

Respirator Donning in Post-Hurricane New Orleans [PDF - 369 KB - 8 pages]
K. J. Cummings et al.

We evaluated correctness of N95 filtering facepiece respirator donning by the public in post-hurricane New Orleans, where respirators were recommended for mold remediation. We randomly selected, interviewed, and observed 538 participants, using multiple logistic regression for analysis. Only 129 (24%) participants demonstrated proper donning. Errors included nose clip not tightened (71%) and straps incorrectly placed (52%); 22% put on the respirator upside down. Factors independently associated with proper donning were as follows: ever having used a mask or respirator (odds ratio [OR] 5.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79–22.64); ever having had a respirator fit test (OR 4.40; 95% CI, 2.52–7.81); being male (OR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.50–4.03); Caucasian race (OR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.32–3.33); having a certified respirator (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.20–3.28); and having participated in mold clean-up (OR 1.82; 95% CI,1.00–3.41). Interventions to improve respirator donning should be considered in planning for influenza epidemics and disasters.

EID Cummings KJ, Cox-Ganser J, Riggs MA, Edwards N, Kreiss K. Respirator Donning in Post-Hurricane New Orleans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061490
AMA Cummings KJ, Cox-Ganser J, Riggs MA, et al. Respirator Donning in Post-Hurricane New Orleans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):700. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061490.
APA Cummings, K. J., Cox-Ganser, J., Riggs, M. A., Edwards, N., & Kreiss, K. (2007). Respirator Donning in Post-Hurricane New Orleans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061490.

Apoptosis and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Humans [PDF - 299 KB - 5 pages]
M. Uiprasertkul et al.

The pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans has not been clearly elucidated. Apoptosis may also play an important role. We studied autopsy specimens from 2 patients who died of infection with this virus. Apoptosis was observed in alveolar epithelial cells, which is the major target cell type for the viral replication. Numerous apoptotic leukocytes were observed in the lung of a patient who died on day 6 of illness. Our data suggest that apoptosis may play a major role in the pathogenesis of influenza (H5N1) virus in humans by destroying alveolar epithelial cells. This pathogenesis causes pneumonia and destroys leukocytes, leading to leukopenia, which is a prominent clinical feature of influenza (H5N1) virus in humans. Whether observed apoptotic cells were a direct result of the viral replication or a consequence of an overactivation of the immune system requires further studies.

EID Uiprasertkul M, Kitphati R, Puthavathana P, Kriwong R, Kongchanagul A, Ungchusak K, et al. Apoptosis and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060572
AMA Uiprasertkul M, Kitphati R, Puthavathana P, et al. Apoptosis and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):708. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060572.
APA Uiprasertkul, M., Kitphati, R., Puthavathana, P., Kriwong, R., Kongchanagul, A., Ungchusak, K....Auewarakul, P. (2007). Apoptosis and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060572.

Genome Analysis Linking Recent European and African Influenza (H5N1) Viruses [PDF - 317 KB - 6 pages]
S. L. Salzberg et al.

To better understand the ecology and epidemiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in its transcontinental spread, we sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of 36 recent influenza A (H5N1) viruses collected from birds in Europe, northern Africa, and southeastern Asia. These sequences, among the first complete genomes of influenza (H5N1) viruses outside Asia, clearly depict the lineages now infecting wild and domestic birds in Europe and Africa and show the relationships among these isolates and other strains affecting both birds and humans. The isolates fall into 3 distinct lineages, 1 of which contains all known non-Asian isolates. This new Euro-African lineage, which was the cause of several recent (2006) fatal human infections in Egypt and Iraq, has been introduced at least 3 times into the European-African region and has split into 3 distinct, independently evolving sublineages. One isolate provides evidence that 2 of these sublineages have recently reassorted.

EID Salzberg SL, Kingsford C, Cattoli G, Spiro DJ, Janies DA, Aly MM, et al. Genome Analysis Linking Recent European and African Influenza (H5N1) Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070013
AMA Salzberg SL, Kingsford C, Cattoli G, et al. Genome Analysis Linking Recent European and African Influenza (H5N1) Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):713. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070013.
APA Salzberg, S. L., Kingsford, C., Cattoli, G., Spiro, D. J., Janies, D. A., Aly, M. M....Capua, I. (2007). Genome Analysis Linking Recent European and African Influenza (H5N1) Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070013.

Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients [PDF - 180 KB - 7 pages]
B. R. Amman et al.

In April 2005, 4 transplant recipients became ill after receiving organs infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV); 3 subsequently died. All organs came from a donor who had been exposed to a hamster infected with LCMV. The hamster was traced back through a Rhode Island pet store to a distribution center in Ohio, and more LCMV-infected hamsters were discovered in both. Rodents from the Ohio facility and its parent facility in Arkansas were tested for the same LCMV strain as the 1 involved in the transplant-associated deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of virus sequences linked the rodents from the Ohio facility to the Rhode Island pet store, the index hamster, and the transplant recipients. This report details the animal traceback and the supporting laboratory investigations.

EID Amman BR, Pavlin BI, Albariño CG, Comer JA, Erickson BR, Oliver JB, et al. Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061269
AMA Amman BR, Pavlin BI, Albariño CG, et al. Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):719. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061269.
APA Amman, B. R., Pavlin, B. I., Albariño, C. G., Comer, J. A., Erickson, B. R., Oliver, J. B....Ksiazek, T. G. (2007). Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061269.

International Spread of Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Schwarzengrund in Food Products [PDF - 173 KB - 6 pages]
F. M. Aarestrup et al.

We compared 581 Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund isolates from persons, food, and food animals in Denmark, Thailand, and the United States by antimicrobial drug susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Resistance, including resistance to nalidixic acid, was frequent among isolates from persons and chickens in Thailand, persons in the United States, and food imported from Thailand to Denmark and the United States. A total of 183 PFGE patterns were observed, and 136 (23.4%) isolates had the 3 most common patterns. Seven of 14 isolates from persons in Denmark had patterns found in persons and chicken meat in Thailand; 22 of 390 human isolates from the United States had patterns found in Denmark and Thailand. This study suggests spread of multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund from chickens to persons in Thailand, and from imported Thai food products to persons in Denmark and the United States.

EID Aarestrup FM, Hendriksen RS, Lockett J, Gay K, Teates K, McDermott PF, et al. International Spread of Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Schwarzengrund in Food Products. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061489
AMA Aarestrup FM, Hendriksen RS, Lockett J, et al. International Spread of Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Schwarzengrund in Food Products. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):726. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061489.
APA Aarestrup, F. M., Hendriksen, R. S., Lockett, J., Gay, K., Teates, K., McDermott, P. F....Gerner-Smidt, P. (2007). International Spread of Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Schwarzengrund in Food Products. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061489.
Historical Review

Rudolf Virchow and the Recognition of Alveolar Echinococcosis, 1850s [PDF - 1.30 MB - 4 pages]
D. Tappe and M. Frosch

Alveolar echinococcosis, which is caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most dangerous parasitic diseases. It is endemic in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere and an emerging health problem in the People’s Republic of China. In Europe and North America, human cases are rare, but concomitant with an increase in the population of the final host, the red fox, an increase of human infections is expected. Rudolf Virchow, the father of the concept of cellular pathology, determined in the 1850s that an Echinococcus sp. was the causative agent of this enigmatic emerging disease. In his famous publication in 1855, he described the clinical course of the disease, its macroscopic aspects, and histopathologic findings in detail. He also identified the disease formerly known as alveolar colloid of the liver to be an infection with the larval stage of an Echinococcus sp.

EID Tappe D, Frosch M. Rudolf Virchow and the Recognition of Alveolar Echinococcosis, 1850s. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):732. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070216
AMA Tappe D, Frosch M. Rudolf Virchow and the Recognition of Alveolar Echinococcosis, 1850s. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):732. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070216.
APA Tappe, D., & Frosch, M. (2007). Rudolf Virchow and the Recognition of Alveolar Echinococcosis, 1850s. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 732. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070216.
Dispatches

Fatal Disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata Acanthamebiasis in a Heart Transplant Patient [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
S. Barete et al.

We report a fatal case of disseminated acanthamebiasis caused by Acanthamoeba lenticulata (genotype T5) in a 39-year-old heart transplant recipient. The diagnosis was based on skin histopathologic results and confirmed by isolation of the ameba from involved skin and molecular analysis of a partial 18S rRNA gene sequence (DF3).

EID Barete S, Combes A, de Jonckheere JF, Datry A, Varnous S, Martinez V, et al. Fatal Disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata Acanthamebiasis in a Heart Transplant Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):736. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061347
AMA Barete S, Combes A, de Jonckheere JF, et al. Fatal Disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata Acanthamebiasis in a Heart Transplant Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):736. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061347.
APA Barete, S., Combes, A., de Jonckheere, J. F., Datry, A., Varnous, S., Martinez, V....Chosidow, O. (2007). Fatal Disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata Acanthamebiasis in a Heart Transplant Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 736. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061347.

Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany [PDF - 395 KB - 4 pages]
A. Jansen et al.

We found antibodies to leptospires in 25 (18%) of 141 wild boars from Berlin (95% confidence interval 12–25). Seropositivity was associated with chronic interstitial nephritis (odds ratio 10.5; p = 0.01), and leptospires were detected in kidney tissues. Wild boars represent a potential source for human leptospirosis in urban environments.

EID Jansen A, Luge E, Guerra B, Wittschen P, Gruber AD, Loddenkemper C, et al. Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061302
AMA Jansen A, Luge E, Guerra B, et al. Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):739. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061302.
APA Jansen, A., Luge, E., Guerra, B., Wittschen, P., Gruber, A. D., Loddenkemper, C....Nöckler, K. (2007). Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061302.

Mycobacterium liflandii Infection in European Colony of Silurana tropicalis [PDF - 385 KB - 4 pages]
P. Suykerbuyk et al.

Mycobacterium liflandii causes a fatal frog disease in captive anurans. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first epizootic of mycobacteriosis in a European colony of clawed frogs (Silurana tropicalis), previously imported from a United States biologic supply company. Our findings suggest the emerging potential of this infection through international trade.

EID Suykerbuyk P, Vleminckx K, Pasmans F, Stragier P, Ablordey A, Tran HT, et al. Mycobacterium liflandii Infection in European Colony of Silurana tropicalis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):743. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060625
AMA Suykerbuyk P, Vleminckx K, Pasmans F, et al. Mycobacterium liflandii Infection in European Colony of Silurana tropicalis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):743. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060625.
APA Suykerbuyk, P., Vleminckx, K., Pasmans, F., Stragier, P., Ablordey, A., Tran, H. T....Portaels, F. (2007). Mycobacterium liflandii Infection in European Colony of Silurana tropicalis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 743. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060625.

Environmental Source of Candida dubliniensis [PDF - 287 KB - 4 pages]
M. A. Nunn et al.

We isolated Candida dubliniensis from a nonhuman source, namely, tick samples from an Irish seabird colony. The species was unambiguously identified by phenotypic and genotypic means. Analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene showed that the environmental isolates belong to C. dubliniensis genotype 1.

EID Nunn MA, Schäfer SM, Petrou MA, Brown JR. Environmental Source of Candida dubliniensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061179
AMA Nunn MA, Schäfer SM, Petrou MA, et al. Environmental Source of Candida dubliniensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):747. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061179.
APA Nunn, M. A., Schäfer, S. M., Petrou, M. A., & Brown, J. R. (2007). Environmental Source of Candida dubliniensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061179.

Gulf Coast Ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) and Rickettsia parkeri, United States [PDF - 189 KB - 3 pages]
J. W. Sumner et al.

Geographic distribution of Rickettsia parkeri in its US tick vector, Amblyomma maculatum, was evaluated by PCR. R. parkeri was detected in ticks from Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, which suggests that A. maculatum may be responsible for additional cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis throughout much of its US range.

EID Sumner JW, Durden LA, Goddard J, Stromdahl EY, Clark KL, Reeves WK, et al. Gulf Coast Ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) and Rickettsia parkeri, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):751. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061468
AMA Sumner JW, Durden LA, Goddard J, et al. Gulf Coast Ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) and Rickettsia parkeri, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):751. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061468.
APA Sumner, J. W., Durden, L. A., Goddard, J., Stromdahl, E. Y., Clark, K. L., Reeves, W. K....Paddock, C. D. (2007). Gulf Coast Ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) and Rickettsia parkeri, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 751. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061468.

Outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica Serogroup O:9 Infection and Processed Pork, Norway [PDF - 126 KB - 3 pages]
D. Grahek-Ogden et al.

An outbreak involving 11 persons infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was investigated in Norway in February 2006. A case-control study and microbiologic investigation indicated a ready-to-eat pork product as the probable source. Appropriate control measures are needed to address consumer risk associated with this product.

EID Grahek-Ogden D, Schimmer B, Cudjoe KS, Nygård K, Kapperud G. Outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica Serogroup O:9 Infection and Processed Pork, Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061062
AMA Grahek-Ogden D, Schimmer B, Cudjoe KS, et al. Outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica Serogroup O:9 Infection and Processed Pork, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):754. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061062.
APA Grahek-Ogden, D., Schimmer, B., Cudjoe, K. S., Nygård, K., & Kapperud, G. (2007). Outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica Serogroup O:9 Infection and Processed Pork, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061062.

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Related to Uropathogenic Clonal Group A [PDF - 187 KB - 4 pages]
F. Wallace-Gadsden et al.

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are heterogeneous, diarrheagenic E. coli. Of EAEC strains from Nigeria, 10 independent antimicrobial-resistant isolates belonged to the multilocus sequence type 69 clonal complex, to which uropathogenic E. coli clonal group A belongs. This finding suggests a recent common ancestor for these distinct groups of pathogenic E. coli.

EID Wallace-Gadsden F, Johnson JR, Wain J, Okeke IN. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Related to Uropathogenic Clonal Group A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061057
AMA Wallace-Gadsden F, Johnson JR, Wain J, et al. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Related to Uropathogenic Clonal Group A. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):757. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061057.
APA Wallace-Gadsden, F., Johnson, J. R., Wain, J., & Okeke, I. N. (2007). Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Related to Uropathogenic Clonal Group A. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061057.

Antimicrobial Drugs and Community–acquired Clostridium difficile–associated Disease, UK [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
J. A. Delaney et al.

In a population-based case-control study of community-acquired Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD), we matched 1,233 cases to 12,330 controls. CDAD risk increased 3-fold with use of any antimicrobial agent and 6-fold with use of fluoroquinolones. Prior use of antimicrobial agent did not affect risk for CDAD after 6 months.

EID Delaney JA, Dial S, Barkun A, Suissa S. Antimicrobial Drugs and Community–acquired Clostridium difficile–associated Disease, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061124
AMA Delaney JA, Dial S, Barkun A, et al. Antimicrobial Drugs and Community–acquired Clostridium difficile–associated Disease, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):761. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061124.
APA Delaney, J. A., Dial, S., Barkun, A., & Suissa, S. (2007). Antimicrobial Drugs and Community–acquired Clostridium difficile–associated Disease, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061124.

Chikungunya Virus in US Travelers Returning from India, 2006 [PDF - 213 KB - 4 pages]
R. S. Lanciotti et al.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquitoborne alphavirus; is endemic in Africa and Asia. In 2005–2006, CHIKV epidemics were reported in islands in the Indian Ocean and in southern India. We present data on laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections among travelers returning from India to the United States during 2006.

EID Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, Panella AJ, Velez JO, Lambert AJ, et al. Chikungunya Virus in US Travelers Returning from India, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070015
AMA Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, et al. Chikungunya Virus in US Travelers Returning from India, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):764. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070015.
APA Lanciotti, R. S., Kosoy, O. L., Laven, J. J., Panella, A. J., Velez, J. O., Lambert, A. J....Campbell, G. L. (2007). Chikungunya Virus in US Travelers Returning from India, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070015.

Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006 [PDF - 228 KB - 4 pages]
C. N. Peyrefitte et al.

We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a patient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cameroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

EID Peyrefitte CN, Rousset D, Pastorino B, Pouillot R, Bessaud M, Tock F, et al. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061500
AMA Peyrefitte CN, Rousset D, Pastorino B, et al. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):768. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061500.
APA Peyrefitte, C. N., Rousset, D., Pastorino, B., Pouillot, R., Bessaud, M., Tock, F....Grandadam, M. (2007). Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061500.

Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus in Waterfowl and Chickens, Central China [PDF - 299 KB - 4 pages]
Z. Yu et al.

In 2004, 3 and 4 strains of avian influenza virus (subtype H5N1) were isolated from waterfowl and chickens, respectively, in central People’s Republic of China. Viral replication and pathogenicity were evaluated in chickens, quails, pigeons, and mice. We analyzed the sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the isolates and found broad diversity among them.

EID Yu Z, Song Y, Zhou H, Xu X, Hu Q, Wu H, et al. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus in Waterfowl and Chickens, Central China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061209
AMA Yu Z, Song Y, Zhou H, et al. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus in Waterfowl and Chickens, Central China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):772. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061209.
APA Yu, Z., Song, Y., Zhou, H., Xu, X., Hu, Q., Wu, H....Jin, M. (2007). Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus in Waterfowl and Chickens, Central China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061209.

Tuberculosis Drug Resistance and HIV Infection, the Netherlands [PDF - 1.43 MB - 3 pages]
C. H. Haar et al.

In the Netherlands during 1993–2001, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among newly diagnosed patients was more frequent in those with HIV coinfection (5/308, 1.6%) than in those with no HIV infection (39/646, 0.6%; adjusted odds ratio 3.43, p = 0.015). Four of the 5 patients coinfected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV were foreign-born. DNA fingerprint analysis suggested that transmission had occurred outside the Netherlands.

EID Haar CH, Cobelens FG, Kalisvaart NA, van der Have JJ, van Gerven PJ, van Soolingen D. Tuberculosis Drug Resistance and HIV Infection, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060334
AMA Haar CH, Cobelens FG, Kalisvaart NA, et al. Tuberculosis Drug Resistance and HIV Infection, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):776. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060334.
APA Haar, C. H., Cobelens, F. G., Kalisvaart, N. A., van der Have, J. J., van Gerven, P. J., & van Soolingen, D. (2007). Tuberculosis Drug Resistance and HIV Infection, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060334.
Letters

Detecting Epidemic Malaria, Uganda [PDF - 175 KB - 2 pages]
J. Cox et al.
EID Cox J, Abeku T, Beard J, Turyeimuka J, Tumwesigye E, Okia M, et al. Detecting Epidemic Malaria, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061410
AMA Cox J, Abeku T, Beard J, et al. Detecting Epidemic Malaria, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):779. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061410.
APA Cox, J., Abeku, T., Beard, J., Turyeimuka, J., Tumwesigye, E., Okia, M....Rwakimari, J. (2007). Detecting Epidemic Malaria, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061410.

Buruli Ulcer, Nigeria [PDF - 186 KB - 2 pages]
O. Chukwuekezie et al.
EID Chukwuekezie O, Ampadu E, Sopoh G, Dossou A, Tiendrebeogo A, Sadiq L, et al. Buruli Ulcer, Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070065
AMA Chukwuekezie O, Ampadu E, Sopoh G, et al. Buruli Ulcer, Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):782. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070065.
APA Chukwuekezie, O., Ampadu, E., Sopoh, G., Dossou, A., Tiendrebeogo, A., Sadiq, L....Asiedu, K. (2007). Buruli Ulcer, Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070065.

Acetobacter cibinongensis Bacteremia in Human [PDF - 167 KB - 2 pages]
A. Gouby et al.
EID Gouby A, Teyssier C, Vecina F, Marchandin H, Granolleras C, Zorgniotti I, et al. Acetobacter cibinongensis Bacteremia in Human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060532
AMA Gouby A, Teyssier C, Vecina F, et al. Acetobacter cibinongensis Bacteremia in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):784. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060532.
APA Gouby, A., Teyssier, C., Vecina, F., Marchandin, H., Granolleras, C., Zorgniotti, I....Jumas-Bilak, E. (2007). Acetobacter cibinongensis Bacteremia in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060532.

Risk for Epidemics after Natural Disasters [PDF - 182 KB - 2 pages]
R. Michel et al.
EID Michel R, Demoncheaux J, Boutin J, Baudon D. Risk for Epidemics after Natural Disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):785. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070080
AMA Michel R, Demoncheaux J, Boutin J, et al. Risk for Epidemics after Natural Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):785. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070080.
APA Michel, R., Demoncheaux, J., Boutin, J., & Baudon, D. (2007). Risk for Epidemics after Natural Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 785. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070080.

Recombinant Sapovirus Gastroenteritis, Japan [PDF - 169 KB - 3 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.
EID Hansman GS, Ishida S, Yoshizumi S, Miyoshi M, Ikeda T, Oka T, et al. Recombinant Sapovirus Gastroenteritis, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070049
AMA Hansman GS, Ishida S, Yoshizumi S, et al. Recombinant Sapovirus Gastroenteritis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):786. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070049.
APA Hansman, G. S., Ishida, S., Yoshizumi, S., Miyoshi, M., Ikeda, T., Oka, T....Takeda, N. (2007). Recombinant Sapovirus Gastroenteritis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070049.

Salmonella Typhimurium in Hihi, New Zealand [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
J. G. Ewen et al.
EID Ewen JG, Thorogood R, Nicol C, Armstrong DP, Alley M. Salmonella Typhimurium in Hihi, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060824
AMA Ewen JG, Thorogood R, Nicol C, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium in Hihi, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):788. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060824.
APA Ewen, J. G., Thorogood, R., Nicol, C., Armstrong, D. P., & Alley, M. (2007). Salmonella Typhimurium in Hihi, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060824.

Travel-related Salmonella Agama, Gabon [PDF - 183 KB - 2 pages]
S. Bélard et al.
EID Bélard S, Kist M, Ramharter M. Travel-related Salmonella Agama, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):790. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061275
AMA Bélard S, Kist M, Ramharter M. Travel-related Salmonella Agama, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):790. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061275.
APA Bélard, S., Kist, M., & Ramharter, M. (2007). Travel-related Salmonella Agama, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 790. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061275.

Small Anellovirus Infections in Korean Children [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
J. Chung et al.
EID Chung J, Han T, Koo JW, Kim S, Seo JK, Hwang ES. Small Anellovirus Infections in Korean Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061149
AMA Chung J, Han T, Koo JW, et al. Small Anellovirus Infections in Korean Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):791. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061149.
APA Chung, J., Han, T., Koo, J. W., Kim, S., Seo, J. K., & Hwang, E. S. (2007). Small Anellovirus Infections in Korean Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061149.

Antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Captive Collared Peccaries, Peru [PDF - 145 KB - 2 pages]
P. Mayor et al.
EID Mayor P, Mendoza P, Gálvez HA, Céspedes MJ, Jori F. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Captive Collared Peccaries, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):793. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060027
AMA Mayor P, Mendoza P, Gálvez HA, et al. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Captive Collared Peccaries, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):793. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060027.
APA Mayor, P., Mendoza, P., Gálvez, H. A., Céspedes, M. J., & Jori, F. (2007). Antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Captive Collared Peccaries, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 793. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060027.

High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection Rate, Johannesburg [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
M. John et al.
EID John M, Menezes CN, Chita G, Sanne I, Grobusch MP. High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection Rate, Johannesburg. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):795. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060908
AMA John M, Menezes CN, Chita G, et al. High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection Rate, Johannesburg. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):795. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060908.
APA John, M., Menezes, C. N., Chita, G., Sanne, I., & Grobusch, M. P. (2007). High Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection Rate, Johannesburg. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 795. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060908.

Tuberculosis Trends, Vietnam [PDF - 166 KB - 2 pages]
M. Vree et al.
EID Vree M, Duong BD, Sy DN, Viet N, Borgdorff MW, Cobelens FG. Tuberculosis Trends, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060904
AMA Vree M, Duong BD, Sy DN, et al. Tuberculosis Trends, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):796. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060904.
APA Vree, M., Duong, B. D., Sy, D. N., Viet, N., Borgdorff, M. W., & Cobelens, F. G. (2007). Tuberculosis Trends, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060904.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, Mexico City [PDF - 195 KB - 2 pages]
J. Cuellar-Rodríguez et al.
EID Cuellar-Rodríguez J, Galindo-Fraga A, Guevara V, Pérez-Jiménez C, Espinosa-Aguilar L, Rolón AL, et al. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, Mexico City. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061421
AMA Cuellar-Rodríguez J, Galindo-Fraga A, Guevara V, et al. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, Mexico City. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):798. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061421.
APA Cuellar-Rodríguez, J., Galindo-Fraga, A., Guevara, V., Pérez-Jiménez, C., Espinosa-Aguilar, L., Rolón, A. L....Sifuentes-Osornio, J. (2007). Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, Mexico City. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061421.

Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection and Immunodeficiency [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
E. A. Bernatowska et al.
EID Bernatowska EA, Wolska-Kusnierz B, Pac M, Kurenko-Deptuch M, Zwolska Z, Casanova J, et al. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection and Immunodeficiency. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060865
AMA Bernatowska EA, Wolska-Kusnierz B, Pac M, et al. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection and Immunodeficiency. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):799. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060865.
APA Bernatowska, E. A., Wolska-Kusnierz, B., Pac, M., Kurenko-Deptuch, M., Zwolska, Z., Casanova, J....Liberek, A. (2007). Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection and Immunodeficiency. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060865.

Clindamycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae [PDF - 170 KB - 2 pages]
F. Montagnani et al.
EID Montagnani F, Zanchi A, Stolzuoli L, Croci L, Cellesi C. Clindamycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060699
AMA Montagnani F, Zanchi A, Stolzuoli L, et al. Clindamycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):801. doi:10.3201/eid1305.060699.
APA Montagnani, F., Zanchi, A., Stolzuoli, L., Croci, L., & Cellesi, C. (2007). Clindamycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.060699.

Expanded-spectrum β-Lactamase and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
L. Poirel et al.
EID Poirel L, Villa L, Bertini A, Pitout JD, Nordmann P, Carattoli A. Expanded-spectrum β-Lactamase and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061293
AMA Poirel L, Villa L, Bertini A, et al. Expanded-spectrum β-Lactamase and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):803. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061293.
APA Poirel, L., Villa, L., Bertini, A., Pitout, J. D., Nordmann, P., & Carattoli, A. (2007). Expanded-spectrum β-Lactamase and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061293.

Viral Load and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever [PDF - 176 KB - 2 pages]
A. Papa et al.
EID Papa A, Park S, Bino S, Papadimitriou Ε, Panning M, Velo E, et al. Viral Load and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061588
AMA Papa A, Park S, Bino S, et al. Viral Load and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):805. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061588.
APA Papa, A., Park, S., Bino, S., Papadimitriou, Ε., Panning, M., Velo, E....Antoniadis, A. (2007). Viral Load and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061588.

Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine [PDF - 165 KB - 2 pages]
Z. Vajo et al.
EID Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, Jankovics M, Jankovics I. Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061248
AMA Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, et al. Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):807. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061248.
APA Vajo, Z., Kosa, L., Visontay, I., Jankovics, M., & Jankovics, I. (2007). Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061248.

Resistance to Dihydroartemisinin [PDF - 138 KB - 2 pages]
S. Cojean et al.
EID Cojean S, Hubert V, Le Bras J, Durand R, Legrand E, Volney B, et al. Resistance to Dihydroartemisinin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):808-809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061442
AMA Cojean S, Hubert V, Le Bras J, et al. Resistance to Dihydroartemisinin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):808-809. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061442.
APA Cojean, S., Hubert, V., Le Bras, J., Durand, R., Legrand, E., Volney, B....Mercereau-Puijalon, O. (2007). Resistance to Dihydroartemisinin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 808-809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.061442.

Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis, Italy and Germany [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
G. B. Migliori et al.
EID Migliori GB, Ortmann J, Girardi E, Besozzi G, Lange C, Cirillo DM, et al. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis, Italy and Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):780-782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070200
AMA Migliori GB, Ortmann J, Girardi E, et al. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis, Italy and Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):780-782. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070200.
APA Migliori, G. B., Ortmann, J., Girardi, E., Besozzi, G., Lange, C., Cirillo, D. M....Raviglione, M. (2007). Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis, Italy and Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 780-782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070200.
Books and Media

Exposure: A Guide to Sources of Infection [PDF - 147 KB - 1 page]
S. K. Schumacher
EID Schumacher SK. Exposure: A Guide to Sources of Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070180
AMA Schumacher SK. Exposure: A Guide to Sources of Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):810. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070180.
APA Schumacher, S. K. (2007). Exposure: A Guide to Sources of Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070180.

Several Worlds: Reminiscences and Reflections of a Chinese-American Physician
P. Hsueh
EID Hsueh P. Several Worlds: Reminiscences and Reflections of a Chinese-American Physician. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070241
AMA Hsueh P. Several Worlds: Reminiscences and Reflections of a Chinese-American Physician. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):810. doi:10.3201/eid1305.070241.
APA Hsueh, P. (2007). Several Worlds: Reminiscences and Reflections of a Chinese-American Physician. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.070241.
About the Cover

Protect Me, Lord, from Oil, from Water, from Fire, and from Ants and Save Me from Falling into the Hands of Fools
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Protect Me, Lord, from Oil, from Water, from Fire, and from Ants and Save Me from Falling into the Hands of Fools. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):812-813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.ac1305
AMA Potter P. Protect Me, Lord, from Oil, from Water, from Fire, and from Ants and Save Me from Falling into the Hands of Fools. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):812-813. doi:10.3201/eid1305.ac1305.
APA Potter, P. (2007). Protect Me, Lord, from Oil, from Water, from Fire, and from Ants and Save Me from Falling into the Hands of Fools. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 812-813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1305.ac1305.
Page created: July 09, 2012
Page updated: July 09, 2012
Page reviewed: July 09, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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