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Volume 13, Number 6—June 2007

Volume 13, Number 6—June 2007   PDF Version [PDF - 11.78 MB - 155 pages]

Perspective

  • Economic Evaluation and Catheter-related Bloodstream Infections PDF Version [PDF - 367 KB - 9 pages]
    K. Halton and N. Graves
        View Abstract

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a serious problem. Many interventions reduce risk, and some have been evaluated in cost-effectiveness studies. We review the usefulness and quality of these economic studies. Evidence is incomplete, and data required to inform a coherent policy are missing. The cost-effectiveness studies are characterized by a lack of transparency, short time-horizons, and narrow economic perspectives. Data quality is low for some important model parameters. Authors of future economic evaluations should aim to model the complete policy and not just single interventions. They should be rigorous in developing the structure of the economic model, include all relevant economic outcomes, use a systematic approach for selecting data sources for model parameters, and propagate the effect of uncertainty in model parameters on conclusions. This will inform future data collection and improve our understanding of the economics of preventing these infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Halton K, Graves N. Economic Evaluation and Catheter-related Bloodstream Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):815-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070048
    AMA Halton K, Graves N. Economic Evaluation and Catheter-related Bloodstream Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):815-823. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070048.
    APA Halton, K., & Graves, N. (2007). Economic Evaluation and Catheter-related Bloodstream Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 815-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070048.

Research

  • Levels of Abnormal Prion Protein in Deer and Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease PDF Version [PDF - 360 KB - 7 pages]
    B. L. Race et al.
        View Abstract

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a widespread health concern because its potential for cross-species transmission is undetermined. CWD prevalence in wild elk is much lower than its prevalence in wild deer, and whether CWD-infected deer and elk differ in ability to infect other species is unknown. Because lymphoid tissues are important in the pathogenesis of some transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as sheep scrapie, we investigated whether CWD-affected elk and deer differ in distribution or quantity of disease-associated prion protein (PrPres) in lymphoid tissues. Immunoblot quantification of PrPres from tonsil and retropharyngeal lymph nodes showed much higher levels of PrPres in deer than in elk. This difference correlated with the natural prevalence of CWD in these species and suggested that CWD-infected deer may be more likely than elk to transmit the disease to other cervids and have a greater potential to transmit CWD to noncervids.

        Cite This Article
    EID Race BL, Meade-White KD, Ward A, Jewell J, Miller MW, Williams ES, et al. Levels of Abnormal Prion Protein in Deer and Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):824. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070186
    AMA Race BL, Meade-White KD, Ward A, et al. Levels of Abnormal Prion Protein in Deer and Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):824. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070186.
    APA Race, B. L., Meade-White, K. D., Ward, A., Jewell, J., Miller, M. W., Williams, E. S....Race, R. E. (2007). Levels of Abnormal Prion Protein in Deer and Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 824. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070186.
  • West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes PDF Version [PDF - 334 KB - 7 pages]
    K. B. Platt et al.
        View Abstract

    In eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) inoculated intramuscularly with 101.5 to 105.7 PFU of West Nile virus (WNV), serum titers developed sufficient to infect Aedes triseriatus (Say), Ae. vexans (Meigen), and Culex pipiens (L.). Mean titers (95% confidence interval) of 8 chipmunks were 103.9(3.3–4.5), 106.7(6.4–7.0), and 105.8(4.1–7.5) PFU/mL on days 1–3 postinoculation (p.i.) and 105.8 PFU/mL in 1 chipmunk on day 4 p.i. Mean estimated days that WNV titers were >104.8 and >105.6 were 1.7 (1.1–2.3) and 1.4 (1.0–1.6). The longest period of viremia >104.8 PFU/mL was 3–4 days. WNV antigen was detected in the small intestine of 2 chipmunks and the kidneys of 4 chipmunks by immunohistochemistry. WNV also was detected in urine, saliva, and feces of some chipmunks. These data suggest chipmunks might play a role in enzootic WNV cycles and be an amplifying host for mosquitoes that could infect humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Platt KB, Tucker BJ, Halbur PG, Tiawsirisup S, Blitvich BJ, Fabiosa FG, et al. West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):831. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061008
    AMA Platt KB, Tucker BJ, Halbur PG, et al. West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):831. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061008.
    APA Platt, K. B., Tucker, B. J., Halbur, P. G., Tiawsirisup, S., Blitvich, B. J., Fabiosa, F. G....Rowley, W. A. (2007). West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 831. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061008.
  • Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry Products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 418 KB - 9 pages]
    J. R. Johnson et al.
        View Abstract

    The food supply, including poultry products, may transmit antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli to humans. To assess this hypothesis, 931 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from human volunteers (hospital inpatients and healthy vegetarians) and commercial poultry products (conventionally raised or raised without antimicrobial drugs) were tested by PCR for phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, D) and 60 virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Isolates resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (n = 331) were compared with drug-susceptible isolates (n = 600) stratified by source. Phylogenetic and virulence markers of drug-susceptible human isolates differed considerably from those of human and poultry isolates. In contrast, drug-resistant human isolates were similar to poultry isolates, and drug-susceptible and drug-resistant poultry isolates were largely indistinguishable. Many drug-resistant human fecal E. coli isolates may originate from poultry, whereas drug-resistant poultry-source E. coli isolates likely originate from susceptible poultry-source precursors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Johnson JR, Sannes MR, Croy C, Johnston B, Clabots C, Kuskowski MA, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry Products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):838. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061576
    AMA Johnson JR, Sannes MR, Croy C, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry Products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):838. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061576.
    APA Johnson, J. R., Sannes, M. R., Croy, C., Johnston, B., Clabots, C., Kuskowski, M. A....Belongia, E. A. (2007). Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry Products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 838. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061576.
  • Molecular Characteristics and Epidemiology of Meningococcal Carriage, Burkina Faso, 2003 PDF Version [PDF - 324 KB - 8 pages]
    J. E. Mueller et al.
        View Abstract

    To describe Neisseria meningitidis strains in the African meningitis belt in 2003, we obtained 2,389 oropharyngeal swabs at 5 monthly visits in a representative population sample (age range 4–29 years) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A total of 152 carriage isolates were grouped, serotyped, and genotyped. Most isolates were NG:NT:NST sequence type (ST) 192 (63% of all N. meningitidis), followed by W135:2a:P1.5,2 of ST-11 (16%) and NG:15:P1.6 of ST-198 (12%). We also found ST-2881 (W135:NT:P1.5,2), ST-751 (X:NT:P1.5), and ST-4375 (Y:14:P1.5,2) but not serogroups A or C. Estimated average duration of carriage was 30 days (95% confidence interval 24–36 days). In the context of endemic group W135 and meningococcal A disease, we found substantial diversity in strains carried, including all strains currently involved in meningitis in this population, except for serogroup A. These findings show the need for large samples and a longitudinal design for N. meningitidis serogroup A carriage studies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mueller JE, Sangaré L, Njanpop-Lafourcade B, Tarnagda Z, Traoré Y, Yaro S, et al. Molecular Characteristics and Epidemiology of Meningococcal Carriage, Burkina Faso, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061395
    AMA Mueller JE, Sangaré L, Njanpop-Lafourcade B, et al. Molecular Characteristics and Epidemiology of Meningococcal Carriage, Burkina Faso, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):847. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061395.
    APA Mueller, J. E., Sangaré, L., Njanpop-Lafourcade, B., Tarnagda, Z., Traoré, Y., Yaro, S....Nicolas, P. (2007). Molecular Characteristics and Epidemiology of Meningococcal Carriage, Burkina Faso, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061395.
  • Incidence and Cost of Rotavirus Hospitalizations in Denmark PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 5 pages]
    T. Fischer et al.
        View Abstract

    In anticipation of licensure and introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the western market, we used modeling of national hospital registry data to determine the incidence and direct medical costs of annual rotavirus-associated admissions over <11 years in Denmark. Diarrhea-associated hospitalizations coded as nonspecified viral or presumed infectious have demonstrated a marked winter peak similar to that of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations, which suggests that the registered rotavirus-coded admissions are grossly underestimated. We therefore obtained more realistic estimates by 2 different models, which indicated ≈2.4 and ≈2.5 (for children <5 years of age) and ≈4.9 and ≈5.3 (for children <2 years of age) rotavirus-associated admissions per 1,000 children per year, respectively. These admissions amount to associated direct medical costs of US $1.7–1.8 million per year. Using 2 simple models to analyze readily available hospital discharge data resulted in more consistent and reliable estimates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fischer T, Nielsen NM, Wohlfahrt J, Pærregaard A. Incidence and Cost of Rotavirus Hospitalizations in Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):855. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061432
    AMA Fischer T, Nielsen NM, Wohlfahrt J, et al. Incidence and Cost of Rotavirus Hospitalizations in Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):855. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061432.
    APA Fischer, T., Nielsen, N. M., Wohlfahrt, J., & Pærregaard, A. (2007). Incidence and Cost of Rotavirus Hospitalizations in Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 855. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061432.
  • Strategies to Reduce Person-to-Person Transmission during Widespread Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 381 KB - 7 pages]
    E. Y. Seto et al.
        View Abstract

    During the Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in 2006 in the United States, the primary strategy to prevent illness was to advise consumers not to eat spinach. No widespread warnings were issued about preventing person-to-person (secondary) transmission. A disease transmission model, fitted to the current data, was used to investigate likely reductions in illnesses that could result from interventions to prevent secondary transmission. The model indicates that exposure to contaminated spinach occurred early in the outbreak and that the secondary illness transmission was similar to that in previous E. coli outbreaks (≈12%). The model also suggests that even a modestly effective strategy to interrupt secondary transmission (prevention of only 2%–3% of secondary illnesses) could result in a reduction of ≈5%–11% of symptomatic cases. This analysis supports the use of widespread public health messages during outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 with specific advice on how to interrupt secondary transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Seto EY, Soller JA, Colford JM. Strategies to Reduce Person-to-Person Transmission during Widespread Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):860-866. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061264
    AMA Seto EY, Soller JA, Colford JM. Strategies to Reduce Person-to-Person Transmission during Widespread Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):860-866. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061264.
    APA Seto, E. Y., Soller, J. A., & Colford, J. M. (2007). Strategies to Reduce Person-to-Person Transmission during Widespread Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 860-866. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061264.
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Spatial Analysis of the Feed Industry PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 6 pages]
    M. Paul et al.
        View Abstract

    In France, despite the ban of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in hundreds of cattle born after the ban. To study the role of MBM, animal fat, and dicalcium phosphate on the risk for BSE after the feed ban, we conducted a spatial analysis of the feed industry. We used data from 629 BSE cases as well as on use of each byproduct and market area of the feed factories. We mapped risk for BSE in 951 areas supplied by the same factories and connection with use of byproducts. A disease map of BSE with covariates was built with the hierarchical Bayesian modeling methods, based on Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing. Only use of MBM was spatially linked to risk for BSE, which highlights cross-contamination as the most probable source of infection after the feed ban.

        Cite This Article
    EID Paul M, Abrial D, Jarrige N, Rican S, Garrido M, Calavas D, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Spatial Analysis of the Feed Industry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):867-872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061169
    AMA Paul M, Abrial D, Jarrige N, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Spatial Analysis of the Feed Industry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):867-872. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061169.
    APA Paul, M., Abrial, D., Jarrige, N., Rican, S., Garrido, M., Calavas, D....Ducrot, C. (2007). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Spatial Analysis of the Feed Industry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 867-872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061169.
  • Minority-Variant pfcrt K76T Mutations and Chloroquine Resistance, Malawi PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 5 pages]
    J. J. Juliano et al.
        View Abstract

    Genotyping of the chloroquine-resistance biomarker pfcrt (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene) suggests that, in the absence of chloroquine pressure, Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Malawi have reverted to chloroquine sensitivity. However, malaria infections in Africa are commonly polyclonal, and standard PCRs cannot detect minority genotypes if present in <20% of the parasites in an individual host. We have developed a multiple site–specific heteroduplex tracking assay (MSS-HTA) that can detect pfcrt 76T mutant parasites consisting of as little as 1% of the parasite population. In clinical samples, no pfcrt 76T was detected in 87 pregnant Malawian women by standard PCR. However, 22 (25%) contained minority-variant resistant genotypes detected by the MSS-HTA. These results were confirmed by subcloning and sequencing. This finding suggests that the chloroquine-resistant genotype remains common in Malawians and that PCR-undetectable drug-resistant genotypes may be present in disease-endemic populations. Surveillance for minority-variant drug-resistant mutations may be useful in making antimalarial drug policy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Juliano JJ, Kwiek JJ, Cappell K, Mwapasa V, Meshnick S. Minority-Variant pfcrt K76T Mutations and Chloroquine Resistance, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):873-877. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061182
    AMA Juliano JJ, Kwiek JJ, Cappell K, et al. Minority-Variant pfcrt K76T Mutations and Chloroquine Resistance, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):873-877. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061182.
    APA Juliano, J. J., Kwiek, J. J., Cappell, K., Mwapasa, V., & Meshnick, S. (2007). Minority-Variant pfcrt K76T Mutations and Chloroquine Resistance, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 873-877. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061182.
  • Human Alveolar Echinococcosis after Fox Population Increase, Switzerland PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 5 pages]
    A. Schweiger et al.
        View Abstract

    We analyzed databases spanning 50 years, which included retrospective alveolar echinococcosis (AE) case-finding studies and databases of the 3 major centers for treatment of AE in Switzerland. A total of 494 cases were recorded. Annual incidence of AE per 100,000 population increased from 0.12– 0.15 during 1956–1992 and a mean of 0.10 during 1993–2000 to a mean of 0.26 during 2001–2005. Because the clinical stage of the disease did not change between observation periods, this increase cannot be explained by improved diagnosis. Swiss hunting statistics suggested that the fox population increased 4-fold from 1980 through 1995 and has persisted at these higher levels. Because the period between infection and development of clinical disease is long, the increase in the fox population and high Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence rates in foxes in rural and urban areas may have resulted in an emerging epidemic of AE 10–15 years later.

        Cite This Article
    EID Schweiger A, Ammann RW, Candinas D, Clavien P, Eckert J, Gottstein B, et al. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis after Fox Population Increase, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061074
    AMA Schweiger A, Ammann RW, Candinas D, et al. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis after Fox Population Increase, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):878. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061074.
    APA Schweiger, A., Ammann, R. W., Candinas, D., Clavien, P., Eckert, J., Gottstein, B....Deplazes, P. (2007). Human Alveolar Echinococcosis after Fox Population Increase, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061074.
  • Risk Factors for Imported Fatal Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003
    F. Legros et al.
        View Abstract

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious health hazard for travelers to malaria-endemic areas and is often diagnosed on return to the country of residence. We conducted a retrospective study of imported falciparum malaria among travelers returning to France from malaria-endemic areas from 1996 through 2003. Epidemiologic, clinical, and parasitologic data were collected by a network of 120 laboratories. Factors associated with fatal malaria were identified by logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 21,888 falciparum malaria cases were reported. There were 96 deaths, for a case-fatality rate of 4.4 per 1,000 cases of falciparum malaria. In multivariate analysis, risk factors independently associated with death from imported malaria were older age, European origin, travel to East Africa, and absence of chemoprophylaxis. Fatal imported malaria remains rare and preventable. Pretravel advice and malaria management should take into account these risk factors, particularly for senior travelers.

        Cite This Article
    EID Legros F, Bouchaud O, Ancelle T, Arnaud A, Cojean S, Le Bras J, et al. Risk Factors for Imported Fatal Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):883-888. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060955
    AMA Legros F, Bouchaud O, Ancelle T, et al. Risk Factors for Imported Fatal Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):883-888. doi:10.3201/eid1306.060955.
    APA Legros, F., Bouchaud, O., Ancelle, T., Arnaud, A., Cojean, S., Le Bras, J....Epidemiology, A. M. (2007). Risk Factors for Imported Fatal Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 883-888. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060955.
  • Isolation and Characterization of Novel Human Parechovirus from Clinical Samples PDF Version [PDF - 252 KB - 7 pages]
    K. Watanabe et al.
        View Abstract

    Using Vero cells, we isolated a virus (NII561-2000) from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen of a 1-year-old girl with Reye syndrome. The determined amino acid sequence of the virus indicated that the isolate was a human parechovirus (HPeV), a member of Picornaviridae. Neutralization test showed that the NII561-2000 virus had distinct antigenicity to HPeV-1, HPeV-2, and HPeV-3, and that the sequence was distinct from these types as well as from HPeV-4 and HPeV-5. Thus, we propose the virus (NII561-2000) as the prototype of HPeV-6. We isolated 10 NII561-2000–related viruses, 14 HPeV-1, 16 HPeV-3, and 1 HPeV-4 of 41 HPeVs from various clinical samples collected in Niigata, Japan. Clinical symptoms of the persons infected with the NII561-2000–related viruses were infectious gastroenteritis, rash, upper respiratory tract infection, and paralysis, in addition to Reye syndrome in the 1-year-old girl.

        Cite This Article
    EID Watanabe K, Oie M, Higuchi M, Nishikawa M, Fujii M. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Human Parechovirus from Clinical Samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):889-895. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060896
    AMA Watanabe K, Oie M, Higuchi M, et al. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Human Parechovirus from Clinical Samples. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):889-895. doi:10.3201/eid1306.060896.
    APA Watanabe, K., Oie, M., Higuchi, M., Nishikawa, M., & Fujii, M. (2007). Isolation and Characterization of Novel Human Parechovirus from Clinical Samples. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 889-895. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060896.

Dispatches

  • Melioidosis Outbreak after Typhoon, Southern Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 327 KB - 3 pages]
    W. Ko et al.
        View Abstract

    From July through September 2005, shortly after a typhoon, 40 cases of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis) were identified in southern Taiwan. Two genotypes that had been present in 2000 were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Such a case cluster confirms that melioidosis is endemic to Taiwan.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ko W, Cheung BM, Tang H, Shih H, Lau Y, Wang L, et al. Melioidosis Outbreak after Typhoon, Southern Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):896. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060646
    AMA Ko W, Cheung BM, Tang H, et al. Melioidosis Outbreak after Typhoon, Southern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):896. doi:10.3201/eid1306.060646.
    APA Ko, W., Cheung, B. M., Tang, H., Shih, H., Lau, Y., Wang, L....Chuang, Y. (2007). Melioidosis Outbreak after Typhoon, Southern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 896. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060646.
  • Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Influenza A (H5N1) Virus PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Jayawardena et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe a 1-step reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. The assay was tested by using a panel of highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes isolated over the past 10 years and clinical specimens. The assay produced negative results for all non-H5N1 subtypes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jayawardena S, Cheung CY, Barr IG, Chan KH, Chen H, Guan Y, et al. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):899-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061572
    AMA Jayawardena S, Cheung CY, Barr IG, et al. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):899-901. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061572.
    APA Jayawardena, S., Cheung, C. Y., Barr, I. G., Chan, K. H., Chen, H., Guan, Y....Poon, L. (2007). Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 899-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061572.
  • Nosocomial Buffalopoxvirus Infection, Karachi, Pakistan PDF Version [PDF - 332 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Zafar et al.
        View Abstract

    During 5 months in 2004–2005, buffalopoxvirus infection, confirmed by virus isolation and limited nucleic acid sequencing, spread between 5 burns units in Karachi, Pakistan. The outbreak was related to movement of patients between units. Control measures reduced transmission, but sporadic cases continued due to the admission of new patients with community-acquired infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zafar A, Swanepoel R, Hewson R, Nizam M, Ahmed A, Husain A, et al. Nosocomial Buffalopoxvirus Infection, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061068
    AMA Zafar A, Swanepoel R, Hewson R, et al. Nosocomial Buffalopoxvirus Infection, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):902. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061068.
    APA Zafar, A., Swanepoel, R., Hewson, R., Nizam, M., Ahmed, A., Husain, A....Hasan, R. (2007). Nosocomial Buffalopoxvirus Infection, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061068.
  • Tickborne Encephalitis in Naturally Exposed Monkey (Macaca sylvanus) PDF Version [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Süss et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in a monkey (Macaca sylvanus) after natural exposure in an area at risk for TBE. TBE virus was present in the brain and could be identified as closely related to the European subtype, strain Neudoerfl.

        Cite This Article
    EID Süss J, Gelpi E, Klaus C, Bagon A, Liebler-Tenorio EM, Budka H, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis in Naturally Exposed Monkey (Macaca sylvanus). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061173
    AMA Süss J, Gelpi E, Klaus C, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis in Naturally Exposed Monkey (Macaca sylvanus). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):905. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061173.
    APA Süss, J., Gelpi, E., Klaus, C., Bagon, A., Liebler-Tenorio, E. M., Budka, H....Hotzel, H. (2007). Tickborne Encephalitis in Naturally Exposed Monkey (Macaca sylvanus). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061173.
  • Norovirus Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Madagascar, 2004–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 286 KB - 4 pages]
    D. C. Papaventsis et al.
        View Abstract

    Of 237 children with acute gastroenteritis in Antananarivo, Madagascar, during May 2004–May 2005, 14 (≈6%) were infected with norovirus. Seasonality (November–December peak) was detected. Reverse transcription–PCR identified GII as the most common genogroup. GIs belonged to GI.1, GI.3, and GI.4. Noroviruses in Madagascar show extensive genetic diversity.

        Cite This Article
    EID Papaventsis DC, Dove W, Cunliffe NA, Combe P, Grosjean P, Hart CA, et al. Norovirus Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Madagascar, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070215
    AMA Papaventsis DC, Dove W, Cunliffe NA, et al. Norovirus Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Madagascar, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):908. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070215.
    APA Papaventsis, D. C., Dove, W., Cunliffe, N. A., Combe, P., Grosjean, P., Hart, C. A....Nakagomi, T. (2007). Norovirus Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Madagascar, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070215.
  • Reemergence of Oropouche Fever, Northern Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 4 pages]
    R. d. Azevedo et al.
        View Abstract

    Oropouche fever has reemerged in Parauapebas and Porto de Moz municipalities, Pará State, Brazil. Serologic analysis (immunoglobulin M–ELISA) and virus isolation confirmed Oropouche virus (OROV) in both municipalities. Nucleotide sequencing of 2 OROV isolates from each location indicated genotypes I (Parauapebas) and II (Porto de Moz) in Brazil.

        Cite This Article
    EID Azevedo Rd, Nunes MR, Chiang JO, Bensabath G, Vasconcelos HB, Pinto AY, et al. Reemergence of Oropouche Fever, Northern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061114
    AMA Azevedo Rd, Nunes MR, Chiang JO, et al. Reemergence of Oropouche Fever, Northern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):912. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061114.
    APA Azevedo, R. d., Nunes, M. R., Chiang, J. O., Bensabath, G., Vasconcelos, H. B., Pinto, A. Y....Vasconcelos, P. (2007). Reemergence of Oropouche Fever, Northern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061114.
  • Emergence of Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Hungary PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
    K. Bányai et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe the emergence of serotype G12 rotaviruses (67 [6.9%] of 971 specimens tested) among children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Hungary during 2005. These findings are consistent with recent reports of the possible global spread and increasing epidemiologic importance of these strains, which may have implications for current rotavirus vaccination strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bányai K, Bogdán Á, Kisfali P, Molnár P, Mihály I, Melegh B, et al. Emergence of Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061181
    AMA Bányai K, Bogdán Á, Kisfali P, et al. Emergence of Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):916. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061181.
    APA Bányai, K., Bogdán, Á., Kisfali, P., Molnár, P., Mihály, I., Melegh, B....Szücs, G. (2007). Emergence of Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061181.
  • Meningitis Serogroup W135 Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2002 PDF Version [PDF - 336 KB - 4 pages]
    N. Nathan et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2002, the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 occurred in Burkina Faso. The highest attack rate was in children <5 years of age. We describe cases from 1 district and evaluate the performance of the Pastorex test, which had good sensitivity (84%) and specificity (89%) compared with culture or PCR.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nathan N, Rose AM, Legros D, Tiendrebeogo SR, Bachy C, Bjørløw E, et al. Meningitis Serogroup W135 Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060940
    AMA Nathan N, Rose AM, Legros D, et al. Meningitis Serogroup W135 Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):920. doi:10.3201/eid1306.060940.
    APA Nathan, N., Rose, A. M., Legros, D., Tiendrebeogo, S. R., Bachy, C., Bjørløw, E....Caugant, D. A. (2007). Meningitis Serogroup W135 Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060940.
  • Age and Clinical Dengue Illness PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 2 pages]
    J. R. Egger and P. G. Coleman
        View Abstract

    The relationship between age and risk for classic dengue fever has never been quantified. We use data from clinical patients to show that the relative risk of having classical disease after primary dengue virus infection increases with age. This relationship has implications for strategies aimed at controlling dengue fever.

        Cite This Article
    EID Egger JR, Coleman PG. Age and Clinical Dengue Illness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):924-927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070008
    AMA Egger JR, Coleman PG. Age and Clinical Dengue Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):924-927. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070008.
    APA Egger, J. R., & Coleman, P. G. (2007). Age and Clinical Dengue Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 924-927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070008.
  • Murine Typhus in Children, South Texas PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Purcell et al.
        View Abstract

    Children from South Texas were evaluated for immunoglobulin G to Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus. Of 513 children, 8.6% of those 1–5 years of age, 13.3% of those 6–11 years of age, and 13.8% of those 12–17 years of age had positive results.

        Cite This Article
    EID Purcell K, Fergie J, Richman K, Rocha L. Murine Typhus in Children, South Texas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):926. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061566
    AMA Purcell K, Fergie J, Richman K, et al. Murine Typhus in Children, South Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):926. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061566.
    APA Purcell, K., Fergie, J., Richman, K., & Rocha, L. (2007). Murine Typhus in Children, South Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 926. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061566.
  • Full Recovery from Baylisascaris procyonis Eosinophilic Meningitis PDF Version [PDF - 182 KB - 3 pages]
    P. J. Pai et al.
        View Abstract

    Infection by Baylisascaris procyonis is an uncommon but devastating cause of eosinophilic meningitis. We report the first case-patient, to our knowledge, who recovered from B. procyonis eosinophilic meningitis without any recognizable neurologic deficits. The spectrum of illness for this organism may be wider than previously recognized.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pai PJ, Blackburn BG, Kazacos KR, Warrier RP, Bégué RE. Full Recovery from Baylisascaris procyonis Eosinophilic Meningitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):928-930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061541
    AMA Pai PJ, Blackburn BG, Kazacos KR, et al. Full Recovery from Baylisascaris procyonis Eosinophilic Meningitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):928-930. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061541.
    APA Pai, P. J., Blackburn, B. G., Kazacos, K. R., Warrier, R. P., & Bégué, R. E. (2007). Full Recovery from Baylisascaris procyonis Eosinophilic Meningitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 928-930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061541.
  • Plasmodium malariae in Haitian Refugees, Jamaica PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
    J. F. Lindo et al.
        View Abstract

    Since 1963, reported malaria transmission in Haiti has been restricted to Plasmodium falciparum. However, screening of Haitian refugees in Jamaica in 2004, by microscopic examination, identified P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae. PCR confirmed the P. malariae and P. falciparum but not P. vivax infections. DNA sequencing and rRNA gene sequences showed transmission of P. malariae. This report confirms that P. malariae is still being transmitted in Haiti.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lindo JF, Bryce JH, Ducasse MB, Howitt C, Barrett DM, Morales JL, et al. Plasmodium malariae in Haitian Refugees, Jamaica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061227
    AMA Lindo JF, Bryce JH, Ducasse MB, et al. Plasmodium malariae in Haitian Refugees, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):931. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061227.
    APA Lindo, J. F., Bryce, J. H., Ducasse, M. B., Howitt, C., Barrett, D. M., Morales, J. L....Sutherland, C. J. (2007). Plasmodium malariae in Haitian Refugees, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061227.
  • Endemic Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 297 KB - 4 pages]
    A. W. Rimoin et al.
        View Abstract

    By analyzing vesicle fluids and crusted scabs from 136 persons with suspected monkeypox, we identified 51 cases of monkeypox by PCR, sequenced the hemagglutinin gene, and confirmed 94% of cases by virus culture. PCR demonstrated chickenpox in 61 patients. Coinfection with both viruses was found in 1 additional patient.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rimoin AW, Kisalu N, Kebela-Ilunga B, Mukaba T, Wright LL, Formenty P, et al. Endemic Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061540
    AMA Rimoin AW, Kisalu N, Kebela-Ilunga B, et al. Endemic Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):934. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061540.
    APA Rimoin, A. W., Kisalu, N., Kebela-Ilunga, B., Mukaba, T., Wright, L. L., Formenty, P....Meyer, H. (2007). Endemic Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061540.
  • Bartonella Species in Blood of Immunocompetent Persons with Animal and Arthropod Contact PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 4 pages]
    E. B. Breitschwerdt et al.
        View Abstract

    Using PCR in conjunction with pre-enrichment culture, we detected Bartonella henselae and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii in the blood of 14 immunocompetent persons who had frequent animal contact and arthropod exposure.

        Cite This Article
    EID Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Duncan AW, Nicholson WL, Hegarty BC, Woods CW, et al. Bartonella Species in Blood of Immunocompetent Persons with Animal and Arthropod Contact. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061337
    AMA Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Duncan AW, et al. Bartonella Species in Blood of Immunocompetent Persons with Animal and Arthropod Contact. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):938. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061337.
    APA Breitschwerdt, E. B., Maggi, R. G., Duncan, A. W., Nicholson, W. L., Hegarty, B. C., & Woods, C. W. (2007). Bartonella Species in Blood of Immunocompetent Persons with Animal and Arthropod Contact. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061337.

Letters

  • Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
    W. M. Kalka-Moll et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kalka-Moll WM, Aurbach U, Schaumann R, Schwarz R, Seifert H. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061336
    AMA Kalka-Moll WM, Aurbach U, Schaumann R, et al. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):942. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061336.
    APA Kalka-Moll, W. M., Aurbach, U., Schaumann, R., Schwarz, R., & Seifert, H. (2007). Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 942. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061336.
  • Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii PDF Version [PDF - 81 KB - 2 pages]
    V. Krcmery and E. Kalavsky
            Cite This Article
    EID Krcmery V, Kalavsky E. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):943-944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070064
    AMA Krcmery V, Kalavsky E. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):943-944. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070064.
    APA Krcmery, V., & Kalavsky, E. (2007). Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 943-944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070064.
  • Serogroup X in Meningococcal Disease, Western Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Materu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Materu S, Cox HS, Isaakidis P, Baruani B, Ogaro T, Caugant DA, et al. Serogroup X in Meningococcal Disease, Western Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):944-945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070042
    AMA Materu S, Cox HS, Isaakidis P, et al. Serogroup X in Meningococcal Disease, Western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):944-945. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070042.
    APA Materu, S., Cox, H. S., Isaakidis, P., Baruani, B., Ogaro, T., & Caugant, D. A. (2007). Serogroup X in Meningococcal Disease, Western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 944-945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070042.
  • Imported Cutaneous Melioidosis in Traveler, Belgium PDF Version [PDF - 89 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Ezzedine et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ezzedine K, Heenen M, Malvy D. Imported Cutaneous Melioidosis in Traveler, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061460
    AMA Ezzedine K, Heenen M, Malvy D. Imported Cutaneous Melioidosis in Traveler, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):946. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061460.
    APA Ezzedine, K., Heenen, M., & Malvy, D. (2007). Imported Cutaneous Melioidosis in Traveler, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061460.
  • Coronaviruses in Children, Greece PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Papa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Papa A, Papadimitriou E, Luna LK, Al Masri M, Souliou E, Eboriadou M, et al. Coronaviruses in Children, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061353
    AMA Papa A, Papadimitriou E, Luna LK, et al. Coronaviruses in Children, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):947. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061353.
    APA Papa, A., Papadimitriou, E., Luna, L. K., Al Masri, M., Souliou, E., Eboriadou, M....Park, S. (2007). Coronaviruses in Children, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061353.
  • Bartonella DNA in Loggerhead Sea Turtles PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 2 pages]
    K. H. Valentine et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Valentine KH, Harms CA, Cadenas MB, Birkenheuer AJ, Marr HS, Braun-McNeill J, et al. Bartonella DNA in Loggerhead Sea Turtles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061551
    AMA Valentine KH, Harms CA, Cadenas MB, et al. Bartonella DNA in Loggerhead Sea Turtles. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):949. doi:10.3201/eid1306.061551.
    APA Valentine, K. H., Harms, C. A., Cadenas, M. B., Birkenheuer, A. J., Marr, H. S., Braun-McNeill, J....Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2007). Bartonella DNA in Loggerhead Sea Turtles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.061551.
  • Human Oestrus sp. Infection, Canary Islands PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Hemmersbach-Miller et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hemmersbach-Miller M, Sánchez-Andrade R, Domínguez-Coello A, Meilud AH, Paz-Silva A, Carranza C, et al. Human Oestrus sp. Infection, Canary Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060882
    AMA Hemmersbach-Miller M, Sánchez-Andrade R, Domínguez-Coello A, et al. Human Oestrus sp. Infection, Canary Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):950. doi:10.3201/eid1306.060882.
    APA Hemmersbach-Miller, M., Sánchez-Andrade, R., Domínguez-Coello, A., Meilud, A. H., Paz-Silva, A., Carranza, C....Pérez-Arellano, J. (2007). Human Oestrus sp. Infection, Canary Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.060882.
  • European Hedgehogs as Hosts for Borrelia spp., Germany PDF Version [PDF - 97 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Skuballa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Skuballa J, Oehme R, Hartelt K, Petney T, Bücher T, Kimmig P, et al. European Hedgehogs as Hosts for Borrelia spp., Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):952-953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070224
    AMA Skuballa J, Oehme R, Hartelt K, et al. European Hedgehogs as Hosts for Borrelia spp., Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):952-953. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070224.
    APA Skuballa, J., Oehme, R., Hartelt, K., Petney, T., Bücher, T., Kimmig, P....Taraschewski, H. (2007). European Hedgehogs as Hosts for Borrelia spp., Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 952-953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070224.
  • Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
    J. P. Horcajada et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Horcajada JP, Peña JL, Martínez-Taboada VM, Pina T, Belaustegui I, Cano ME, et al. Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):953-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070154
    AMA Horcajada JP, Peña JL, Martínez-Taboada VM, et al. Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):953-955. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070154.
    APA Horcajada, J. P., Peña, J. L., Martínez-Taboada, V. M., Pina, T., Belaustegui, I., Cano, M. E....Fariñas, M. C. (2007). Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 953-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070154.
  • Determining Risk Factors for Infection with Influenza A (H5N1) PDF Version [PDF - 91 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Lukrafka et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Lukrafka J, Zavascki A, Barcellos N, Fuchs S. Determining Risk Factors for Infection with Influenza A (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):955-956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070025
    AMA Lukrafka J, Zavascki A, Barcellos N, et al. Determining Risk Factors for Infection with Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):955-956. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070025.
    APA Lukrafka, J., Zavascki, A., Barcellos, N., & Fuchs, S. (2007). Determining Risk Factors for Infection with Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 955-956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070025.
  • Ilheus Virus Isolate from a Human, Ecuador PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
    B. W. Johnson et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Johnson BW, Cruz C, Felices V, Espinoza WR, Manock SR, Guevara C, et al. Ilheus Virus Isolate from a Human, Ecuador. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):956-958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070118
    AMA Johnson BW, Cruz C, Felices V, et al. Ilheus Virus Isolate from a Human, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):956-958. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070118.
    APA Johnson, B. W., Cruz, C., Felices, V., Espinoza, W. R., Manock, S. R., Guevara, C....Kochel, T. J. (2007). Ilheus Virus Isolate from a Human, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 956-958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070118.

Books and Media

  • Prions: The New Biology of Proteins
    E. D. Belay
            Cite This Article
    EID Belay ED. Prions: The New Biology of Proteins. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070311
    AMA Belay ED. Prions: The New Biology of Proteins. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):959. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070311.
    APA Belay, E. D. (2007). Prions: The New Biology of Proteins. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070311.
  • Battle of the Genomes: The Struggle for Survival in a Microbial World PDF Version [PDF - 87 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Gwinn
            Cite This Article
    EID Gwinn M. Battle of the Genomes: The Struggle for Survival in a Microbial World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):959-960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070332
    AMA Gwinn M. Battle of the Genomes: The Struggle for Survival in a Microbial World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):959-960. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070332.
    APA Gwinn, M. (2007). Battle of the Genomes: The Struggle for Survival in a Microbial World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 959-960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070332.
  • Atlas of Human Parasitology, 5th Edition PDF Version [PDF - 71 KB - 1 page]
    T. J. Styles
            Cite This Article
    EID Styles TJ. Atlas of Human Parasitology, 5th Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070321
    AMA Styles TJ. Atlas of Human Parasitology, 5th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):960. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070321.
    APA Styles, T. J. (2007). Atlas of Human Parasitology, 5th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070321.
  • Food Safety: Old Habits, New Perspectives
    C. Higgins
            Cite This Article
    EID Higgins C. Food Safety: Old Habits, New Perspectives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):960-961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070310
    AMA Higgins C. Food Safety: Old Habits, New Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):960-961. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070310.
    APA Higgins, C. (2007). Food Safety: Old Habits, New Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 960-961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.070310.

About the Cover

  • “What Did I Do to Be so Black and Blue?”
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. “What Did I Do to Be so Black and Blue?”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):962-963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.AC1306
    AMA Potter P. “What Did I Do to Be so Black and Blue?”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):962-963. doi:10.3201/eid1306.AC1306.
    APA Potter, P. (2007). “What Did I Do to Be so Black and Blue?”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 962-963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1306.AC1306.
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