Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 8—August 2007

Volume 13, Number 8—August 2007

[PDF - 5.16 MB - 151 pages]

Perspective

Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds [PDF - 67 KB - 5 pages]
T. P. Weber and N. I. Stilianakis

The claim that migratory birds are responsible for the long-distance spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 rests on the assumption that infected wild birds can remain asymptomatic and migrate long distances unhampered. We critically assess this claim from the perspective of ecologic immunology, a research field that analyzes immune function in an ecologic, physiologic, and evolutionary context. Long-distance migration is one of the most demanding activities in the animal world. We show that several studies demonstrate that such prolonged, intense exercise leads to immunosuppression and that migratory performance is negatively affected by infections. These findings make it unlikely that wild birds can spread the virus along established long-distance migration pathways. However, infected, symptomatic wild birds may act as vectors over shorter distances, as appears to have occurred in Europe in early 2006.

EID Weber TP, Stilianakis NI. Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070319
AMA Weber TP, Stilianakis NI. Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1139. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070319.
APA Weber, T. P., & Stilianakis, N. I. (2007). Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070319.
Research

Risk Factors for Colonization with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit Admission [PDF - 167 KB - 6 pages]
A. D. Harris et al.

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing bacteria are emerging pathogens. To analyze risk factors for colonization with ESBL-producing bacteria at intensive care unit (ICU) admission, we conducted a prospective study of a 3.5-year cohort of patients admitted to medical and surgical ICUs at the University of Maryland Medical Center. Over the study period, admission cultures were obtained from 5,209 patients. Of these, 117 were colonized with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., and 29 (25%) had a subsequent ESBL-positive clinical culture. Multivariable analysis showed the following to be statistically associated with ESBL colonization at admission: piperacillin-tazobactam (odds ratio [OR] 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–3.10), vancomycin (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34–3.31), age >60 years (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.24–2.60), and chronic disease score (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04–1.27). Coexisting conditions and previous antimicrobial drug exposure are thus predictive of colonization, and a large percentage of these patients have subsequent positive clinical cultures for ESBL-producing bacteria.

EID Harris AD, McGregor JC, Johnson JA, Strauss SM, Moore AC, Standiford HC, et al. Risk Factors for Colonization with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit Admission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070071
AMA Harris AD, McGregor JC, Johnson JA, et al. Risk Factors for Colonization with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit Admission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1144. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070071.
APA Harris, A. D., McGregor, J. C., Johnson, J. A., Strauss, S. M., Moore, A. C., Standiford, H. C....Morris, J. (2007). Risk Factors for Colonization with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit Admission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070071.

Occupational Risks during a Monkeypox Outbreak, Wisconsin, 2003 [PDF - 231 KB - 8 pages]
D. R. Croft et al.

We determined factors associated with occupational transmission in Wisconsin during the 2003 outbreak of prairie dog–associated monkeypox virus infections. Our investigation included active contact surveillance, exposure-related interviews, and a veterinary facility cohort study. We identified 19 confirmed, 5 probable, and 3 suspected cases. Rash, headache, sweats, and fever were reported by >80% of patients. Occupationally transmitted infections occurred in 12 veterinary staff, 2 pet store employees, and 2 animal distributors. The following were associated with illness: working directly with animal care (p = 0.002), being involved in prairie dog examination, caring for an animal within 6 feet of an ill prairie dog (p = 0.03), feeding an ill prairie dog (p = 0.002), and using an antihistamine (p = 0.04). Having never handled an ill prairie dog (p = 0.004) was protective. Veterinary staff used personal protective equipment sporadically. Our findings underscore the importance of standard veterinary infection-control guidelines.

EID Croft DR, Sotir MJ, Williams CJ, Kazmierczak JJ, Wegner MV, Rausch D, et al. Occupational Risks during a Monkeypox Outbreak, Wisconsin, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061365
AMA Croft DR, Sotir MJ, Williams CJ, et al. Occupational Risks during a Monkeypox Outbreak, Wisconsin, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1150. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061365.
APA Croft, D. R., Sotir, M. J., Williams, C. J., Kazmierczak, J. J., Wegner, M. V., Rausch, D....Davis, J. P. (2007). Occupational Risks during a Monkeypox Outbreak, Wisconsin, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061365.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Cotton Rats [PDF - 370 KB - 8 pages]
A. Carrara et al.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir hosts has received little study. To determine whether responses to infection vary among geographic populations, we inoculated 3 populations of cotton rats with 2 enzootic VEEV strains (Co97-0054 [enzootic ID subtype] and 68U201 [enzootic IE subtype]). The 3 populations were offspring from wild-caught cotton rats collected in a VEE-enzootic area of south Florida, USA; wild-caught cotton rats from a non–VEE-enzootic area of Texas, USA; and commercially available (Harlan) colony-reared cotton rats from a non–VEE-enzootic region. Although each population had similar early viremia titers, no detectable disease developed in the VEE-sympatric Florida animals, but severe disease and death affected the Texas and Harlan animals. Our findings suggest that the geographic origins of cotton rats are important determinants of the outcome of VEE infection and reservoir potential of these rodents.

EID Carrara A, Coffey LL, Aguilar PV, Moncayo AC, Da Rosa AP, Nunes MR, et al. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Cotton Rats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061157
AMA Carrara A, Coffey LL, Aguilar PV, et al. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Cotton Rats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1158. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061157.
APA Carrara, A., Coffey, L. L., Aguilar, P. V., Moncayo, A. C., Da Rosa, A. P., Nunes, M. R....Vasilakis, N. (2007). Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Cotton Rats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061157.

Source of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease outside United Kingdom [PDF - 191 KB - 4 pages]
P. Sanchez-Juan et al.

We studied the occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) outside the United Kingdom in relation to the incidence of indigenous bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to the level of live bovines and bovine products imported from the UK during the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. Our study provides evidence that a country’s number of vCJD cases correlates with the number of live bovines it imported from the UK from 1980 to 1990 (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [rs] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42–0.89, p<0.001). Similar correlations were observed with the number of indigenous BSE cases (rs 0.70, 95% CI 0.37–0.87, p = 0.001) and carcass meat imported from the UK from 1980 to 1996 (rs 0.75, 95% CI 0.45–0.89; p<0.001) Bovine imports from the UK may have been an important source of human exposure to BSE and may have contributed to the global risk for disease.

EID Sanchez-Juan P, Cousens SN, Will RG, van Duijn CM. Source of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease outside United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070178
AMA Sanchez-Juan P, Cousens SN, Will RG, et al. Source of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease outside United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1166. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070178.
APA Sanchez-Juan, P., Cousens, S. N., Will, R. G., & van Duijn, C. M. (2007). Source of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease outside United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070178.

Infection with Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans, Australia [PDF - 325 KB - 8 pages]
L. Cooley et al.

Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans are fungi of increasing clinical importance, particularly in persons with underlying diseases. We reviewed the records of 59 patients in Australia from whom Scedosporium spp. were isolated from June 30, 1997, through December 31, 2003. S. apiospermum was isolated predominantly from the respiratory tracts of 28 of 31 patients with underlying lung diseases and resulted in 2 infections and 1 death. The annual number of S. apiospermum isolates remained constant. S. prolificans was isolated from 28 patients only after November 1999. Eight patients with acute myeloid leukemia or hematopoietic stem cell transplants had invasive infection; 4 had fungemia and 6 died from infection. S. prolificans caused locally invasive infection in 2 immunocompetent patients and was found in the respiratory tract of 18 patients with underlying respiratory disease but did not cause fungemia or deaths in these patients. Scedosporium spp. showed distinct clinical and epidemiologic features.

EID Cooley L, Spelman D, Thursky K, Slavin M. Infection with Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060576
AMA Cooley L, Spelman D, Thursky K, et al. Infection with Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1170. doi:10.3201/eid1308.060576.
APA Cooley, L., Spelman, D., Thursky, K., & Slavin, M. (2007). Infection with Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060576.

Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae in Human Infection Detected with Multispacer Typing [PDF - 187 KB - 6 pages]
W. Li et al.

We applied multispacer typing (MST) by incorporating 9 variable intergenic spacers to Bartonella henselae DNA detected in lymph node biopsy specimens from 70 patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), in cardiac valve specimens from 2 patients with endocarditis, and in 3 human isolates from patients with bacillary angiomatosis, CSD, and endocarditis. Sixteen MST genotypes were found, 5 previously identified in cats and 11 new. Of the studied DNA, 78.7% belonged to 2 genotypes, which were phylogenetically organized into 4 lineages. Human strains were mostly grouped within 2 lineages, previously identified as Marseille and Houston-1. Our results suggest a greater genetic diversity in human-infecting B. henselae than what has previously been evaluated by using other genotyping methods. However, the diversity is not significantly different from that of cat strains. MST is thus a suitable genotyping tool for evaluating the genetic heterogeneity of B. henselae among isolates obtained from human patients.

EID Li W, Raoult D, Fournier P. Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae in Human Infection Detected with Multispacer Typing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070085
AMA Li W, Raoult D, Fournier P. Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae in Human Infection Detected with Multispacer Typing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1178. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070085.
APA Li, W., Raoult, D., & Fournier, P. (2007). Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae in Human Infection Detected with Multispacer Typing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070085.

Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle [PDF - 213 KB - 5 pages]
K. Mattison et al.

Human noroviruses are the predominant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Strains of norovirus also exist that are uniquely associated with animals; their contribution to the incidence of human illness remains unclear. We tested animal fecal samples and identified GIII (bovine), GII.18 (swine), and GII.4 (human) norovirus sequences, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that GII.4-like strains can be present in livestock. In addition, we detected GII.4-like noroviral RNA from a retail meat sample. This finding highlights a possible route for indirect zoonotic transmission of noroviruses through the food chain.

EID Mattison K, Shukla A, Cook A, Pollari F, Friendship R, Kelton D, et al. Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070005
AMA Mattison K, Shukla A, Cook A, et al. Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1184. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070005.
APA Mattison, K., Shukla, A., Cook, A., Pollari, F., Friendship, R., Kelton, D....Farber, J. M. (2007). Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070005.

High Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Previously Treated Patients, Cape Town, South Africa [PDF - 188 KB - 6 pages]
S. den Boon et al.

The tuberculosis (TB) notification rate is high and increasing in 2 communities in Cape Town, South Africa. In 2002, we conducted a prevalence survey among adults >15 years of age to determine the TB prevalence rate; 15% of households in these communities were randomly sampled. All persons living in sampled households were eligible for chest radiography and sputum examination. Of the 3,483 adults who completed a questionnaire, 2,608 underwent chest radiography and sputum examination. We detected 26 bacteriologically confirmed TB cases and a prevalence of 10.0/1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2–13.8 per 1,000). We found 18 patients with smear-positive TB, of whom 8 were new patients (3.1/1,000, 95% CI 0.9–5.1/1,000). More than half of patients with smear-positive TB (10, 56%) had previously been treated. Such patients may contribute to transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the high TB prevalence rate. Successful treatment of TB patients must be a priority.

EID den Boon S, van Lill SW, Borgdorff MW, Enarson DA, Verver S, Bateman ED, et al. High Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Previously Treated Patients, Cape Town, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1189. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.051327
AMA den Boon S, van Lill SW, Borgdorff MW, et al. High Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Previously Treated Patients, Cape Town, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1189. doi:10.3201/eid1308.051327.
APA den Boon, S., van Lill, S. W., Borgdorff, M. W., Enarson, D. A., Verver, S., Bateman, E. D....Beyers, N. (2007). High Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Previously Treated Patients, Cape Town, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1189. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.051327.

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone [PDF - 289 KB - 6 pages]
J. K. Johnson et al.

Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused predominantly healthcare-associated infections. We studied MRSA infections and overall skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in outpatients receiving care at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center Emergency Care Service during 2001–2005. We found an increase in MRSA infections, from 0.2 to 5.9 per 1,000 visits (p<0.01); most were community-associated SSTIs. Molecular typing showed that >80% of MRSA infections were caused by USA300. In addition, SSTI visits increased from 20 to 61 per 1,000 visits (p<0.01). The proportion of SSTI cultures that yielded MRSA increased from 4% to 42% (p<0.01), while the proportion that yielded methicillin-sensitive S. aureus remained the same (10% to 13%, p = 0.5). The increase in community-associated MRSA infections and the overall increase in SSTIs in our population suggest that USA300 is becoming more virulent and has a greater propensity to cause SSTIs.

EID Johnson JK, Khoie T, Shurland S, Kreisel K, Stine O, Roghmann M. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061575
AMA Johnson JK, Khoie T, Shurland S, et al. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1195. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061575.
APA Johnson, J. K., Khoie, T., Shurland, S., Kreisel, K., Stine, O., & Roghmann, M. (2007). Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061575.

Classic Scrapie in Sheep with the ARR/ARR Prion Genotype in Germany and France [PDF - 311 KB - 7 pages]
M. H. Groschup et al.

In the past, natural scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infections have essentially not been diagnosed in sheep homozygous for the A136R154R171 haplotype of the prion protein. This genotype was therefore assumed to confer resistance to BSE and classic scrapie under natural exposure conditions. Hence, to exclude prions from the human food chain, massive breeding efforts have been undertaken in the European Union to amplify this gene. We report the identification of 2 natural scrapie cases in ARR/ARR sheep that have biochemical and transmission characteristics similar to cases of classic scrapie, although the abnormally folded prion protein (PrPSc) was associated with a lower proteinase-K resistance. PrPSc was clearly distinct from BSE prions passaged in sheep and from atypical scrapie prions. These findings strongly support the idea that scrapie prions are a mosaic of agents, which harbor different biologic properties, rather than a unique entity.

EID Groschup MH, Lacroux C, Buschmann A, Lühken G, Mathey J, Eiden M, et al. Classic Scrapie in Sheep with the ARR/ARR Prion Genotype in Germany and France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070077
AMA Groschup MH, Lacroux C, Buschmann A, et al. Classic Scrapie in Sheep with the ARR/ARR Prion Genotype in Germany and France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1201. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070077.
APA Groschup, M. H., Lacroux, C., Buschmann, A., Lühken, G., Mathey, J., Eiden, M....Andreoletti, O. (2007). Classic Scrapie in Sheep with the ARR/ARR Prion Genotype in Germany and France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070077.
Dispatches

Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus [PDF - 305 KB - 3 pages]
S. Bonnet et al.

We report in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of roe deer in France. This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1.

EID Bonnet S, Jouglin M, L’Hostis M, Chauvin A. Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061560
AMA Bonnet S, Jouglin M, L’Hostis M, et al. Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1208. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061560.
APA Bonnet, S., Jouglin, M., L’Hostis, M., & Chauvin, A. (2007). Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061560.

Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay [PDF - 193 KB - 4 pages]
P. Padula et al.

We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy.

EID Padula P, Martinez VP, Bellomo C, Maidana S, San Juan J, Tagliaferri P, et al. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1211. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061090
AMA Padula P, Martinez VP, Bellomo C, et al. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1211. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061090.
APA Padula, P., Martinez, V. P., Bellomo, C., Maidana, S., San Juan, J., Tagliaferri, P....Almiron, M. (2007). Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1211. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061090.

Migrating Birds and Tickborne Encephalitis Virus [PDF - 331 KB - 4 pages]
J. Waldenström et al.

During spring and autumn 2001, we screened 13,260 migrating birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden, and found 3.4% were infested with ticks. Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)–infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks.

EID Waldenström J, Lundkvist Å, Falk KI, Garpmo U, Bergström S, Lindegren G, et al. Migrating Birds and Tickborne Encephalitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061416
AMA Waldenström J, Lundkvist Å, Falk KI, et al. Migrating Birds and Tickborne Encephalitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1215. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061416.
APA Waldenström, J., Lundkvist, Å., Falk, K. I., Garpmo, U., Bergström, S., Lindegren, G....Olsen, B. (2007). Migrating Birds and Tickborne Encephalitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061416.

Avian Influenza (H5N1) Susceptibility and Receptors in Dogs [PDF - 359 KB - 3 pages]
R. Maas et al.

Inoculation of influenza (H5N1) into beagles resulted in virus excretion and rapid seroconversion with no disease. Binding studies that used labeled influenza (H5N1) showed virus attachment to higher and lower respiratory tract tissues. Thus, dogs that are subclinically infected with influenza (H5N1) may contribute to virus spread.

EID Maas R, Tacken M, Ruuls L, Koch G, van Rooij E, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Susceptibility and Receptors in Dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070393
AMA Maas R, Tacken M, Ruuls L, et al. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Susceptibility and Receptors in Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1219. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070393.
APA Maas, R., Tacken, M., Ruuls, L., Koch, G., van Rooij, E., & Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. (2007). Avian Influenza (H5N1) Susceptibility and Receptors in Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070393.

Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe [PDF - 290 KB - 3 pages]
N. Decaro et al.

Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries.

EID Decaro N, Desario C, Addie DD, Martella V, Vieira MJ, Elia G, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070505
AMA Decaro N, Desario C, Addie DD, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1222. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070505.
APA Decaro, N., Desario, C., Addie, D. D., Martella, V., Vieira, M. J., Elia, G....Buonavoglia, C. (2007). Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070505.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Utah, 1995–2005 [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
R. B. Boulton et al.

Trends in invasive meningococcal disease in Utah during 1995–2005 have differed substantially from US trends in incidence rate and serogroup and age distributions. Regional surveillance is essential to identify high-risk populations that might benefit from targeted immunization efforts.

EID Boulton RB, Alder SC, Mottice S, Catinella AP, Byington CL. Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Utah, 1995–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061406
AMA Boulton RB, Alder SC, Mottice S, et al. Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Utah, 1995–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1225. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061406.
APA Boulton, R. B., Alder, S. C., Mottice, S., Catinella, A. P., & Byington, C. L. (2007). Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Utah, 1995–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061406.

Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia [PDF - 246 KB - 4 pages]
K. T. Feeney et al.

A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated.

EID Feeney KT, Arthur IH, Whittle AJ, Altman SA, Speers DJ. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061462
AMA Feeney KT, Arthur IH, Whittle AJ, et al. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1228. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061462.
APA Feeney, K. T., Arthur, I. H., Whittle, A. J., Altman, S. A., & Speers, D. J. (2007). Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061462.

Rotavirus G5P[6] in Child with Diarrhea, Vietnam [PDF - 234 KB - 4 pages]
K. Ahmed et al.

We detected rotavirus G5P[6] with a long RNA pattern in a Vietnamese child with diarrhea. Viral outer capsid protein VP7 and VP4 genes suggest that it likely originated from porcine rotavirus either by genetic reassortment or as whole virions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human rotavirus G5 in Asia.

EID Ahmed K, Anh DD, Nakagomi O. Rotavirus G5P[6] in Child with Diarrhea, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061038
AMA Ahmed K, Anh DD, Nakagomi O. Rotavirus G5P[6] in Child with Diarrhea, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1232. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061038.
APA Ahmed, K., Anh, D. D., & Nakagomi, O. (2007). Rotavirus G5P[6] in Child with Diarrhea, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061038.

Possible Autochthonous Malaria from Marseille to Minneapolis [PDF - 177 KB - 3 pages]
B. Doudier et al.

We report 2 cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southern France in a French woman and an American man of Togolese origin who reported no recent travel to malaria-endemic countries. Both infections occurred after a stay near Marseille, which raises the possibility of autochthonous transmission. Entomologic and genotypic investigations are described.

EID Doudier B, Bogreau H, DeVries A, Ponçon N, Stauffer W, Fontenille D, et al. Possible Autochthonous Malaria from Marseille to Minneapolis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070143
AMA Doudier B, Bogreau H, DeVries A, et al. Possible Autochthonous Malaria from Marseille to Minneapolis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1236. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070143.
APA Doudier, B., Bogreau, H., DeVries, A., Ponçon, N., Stauffer, W., Fontenille, D....Parola, P. (2007). Possible Autochthonous Malaria from Marseille to Minneapolis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070143.

Waddlia chondrophila, a Potential Agent of Human Fetal Death [PDF - 298 KB - 5 pages]
D. Baud et al.

We investigated the zoonotic potential of Waddlia chondrophila, a new Chlamydia-like abortigenic agent in ruminants. Anti-Waddlia antibody reactivity was tested by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Waddlia seroprevalence was higher in women who had had sporadic and recurrent miscarriages than in control women (p<0.001). Waddlia spp. may represent a cause of human fetal loss.

EID Baud D, Thomas V, Arafa A, Regan L, Greub G. Waddlia chondrophila, a Potential Agent of Human Fetal Death. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1239. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070315
AMA Baud D, Thomas V, Arafa A, et al. Waddlia chondrophila, a Potential Agent of Human Fetal Death. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1239. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070315.
APA Baud, D., Thomas, V., Arafa, A., Regan, L., & Greub, G. (2007). Waddlia chondrophila, a Potential Agent of Human Fetal Death. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1239. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070315.

Norovirus Detection and Genotyping for Children with Gastroenteritis, Brazil [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
C. C. Soares et al.

During 1998–2005, we analyzed stool samples from 289 children in Rio de Janeiro to detect and genotype norovirus strains. Previous tests showed all samples to be negative for rotavirus and adenovirus. Of 42 (14.5%) norovirus-positive specimens, 20 (47.6%) were identified as genogroup GI and 22 (52.3%) as GII.

EID Soares CC, Santos N, Beard RS, Albuquerque MC, Maranhão AG, Rocha LN, et al. Norovirus Detection and Genotyping for Children with Gastroenteritis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1244. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070300
AMA Soares CC, Santos N, Beard RS, et al. Norovirus Detection and Genotyping for Children with Gastroenteritis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1244. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070300.
APA Soares, C. C., Santos, N., Beard, R. S., Albuquerque, M. C., Maranhão, A. G., Rocha, L. N....Gentsch, J. (2007). Norovirus Detection and Genotyping for Children with Gastroenteritis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1244. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070300.

Atypical Q Fever in US Soldiers [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
J. D. Hartzell et al.

Q fever is an emerging infectious disease among US soldiers serving in Iraq. Three patients have had atypical manifestations, including 2 patients with acute cholecystitis and 1 patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Providers must be aware of Q fever’s signs and symptoms to avoid delays in treatment.

EID Hartzell JD, Peng SW, Wood-Morris RN, Sarmiento DM, Collen JF, Robben PM, et al. Atypical Q Fever in US Soldiers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070218
AMA Hartzell JD, Peng SW, Wood-Morris RN, et al. Atypical Q Fever in US Soldiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1247. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070218.
APA Hartzell, J. D., Peng, S. W., Wood-Morris, R. N., Sarmiento, D. M., Collen, J. F., Robben, P. M....Moran, K. A. (2007). Atypical Q Fever in US Soldiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070218.

Streptococcus sinensis Endocarditis outside Hong Kong [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
I. Uçkay et al.

Streptococcus sinensis has been described as a causative organism for infective endocarditis in 3 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. We describe a closely related strain in an Italian patient with chronic rheumatic heart disease. The case illustrates that S. sinensis is a worldwide emerging pathogen.

EID Uçkay I, Rohner P, Bolivar I, Ninet B, Djordjevic M, Nobre V, et al. Streptococcus sinensis Endocarditis outside Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070124
AMA Uçkay I, Rohner P, Bolivar I, et al. Streptococcus sinensis Endocarditis outside Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1250. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070124.
APA Uçkay, I., Rohner, P., Bolivar, I., Ninet, B., Djordjevic, M., Nobre, V....Schrenzel, J. (2007). Streptococcus sinensis Endocarditis outside Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070124.

PCR versus Hybridization for Detecting Virulence Genes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli [PDF - 1.91 MB - 3 pages]
R. S. Gerrish et al.

We compared PCR amplification of 9 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence factors among 40 isolates (21 O/H antigenicity classes) with DNA hybridization. Both methods showed 100% of the chromosomal and phage genes: eae, stx, and stx2. PCR did not detect 4%–20% of hybridizable plasmid genes: hlyA, katP, espP, toxB, open reading frame (ORF) 1, and ORF2.

EID Gerrish RS, Lee JE, Reed J, Williams J, Farrell LD, Spiegel KM, et al. PCR versus Hybridization for Detecting Virulence Genes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060428
AMA Gerrish RS, Lee JE, Reed J, et al. PCR versus Hybridization for Detecting Virulence Genes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1253. doi:10.3201/eid1308.060428.
APA Gerrish, R. S., Lee, J. E., Reed, J., Williams, J., Farrell, L. D., Spiegel, K. M....Shields, M. S. (2007). PCR versus Hybridization for Detecting Virulence Genes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060428.
Letters

Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Southeastern Austria [PDF - 192 KB - 2 pages]
A. Badura et al.
EID Badura A, Feierl G, Kessler HH, Grisold A, Masoud L, Wagner-Eibel U, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Southeastern Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070283
AMA Badura A, Feierl G, Kessler HH, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Southeastern Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1256. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070283.
APA Badura, A., Feierl, G., Kessler, H. H., Grisold, A., Masoud, L., Wagner-Eibel, U....Marth, E. (2007). Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Southeastern Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070283.

Osteomyelitis of Parietal Bone in Melioidosis [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
N. G. Miksić et al.
EID Miksić NG, Alikadić N, Lejko TZ, Andlovic A, Knific J, Tomažič J. Osteomyelitis of Parietal Bone in Melioidosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070479
AMA Miksić NG, Alikadić N, Lejko TZ, et al. Osteomyelitis of Parietal Bone in Melioidosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1257. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070479.
APA Miksić, N. G., Alikadić, N., Lejko, T. Z., Andlovic, A., Knific, J., & Tomažič, J. (2007). Osteomyelitis of Parietal Bone in Melioidosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070479.

Chikungunya Fever, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India [PDF - 159 KB - 2 pages]
S. P. Manimunda et al.
EID Manimunda SP, Singh SS, Sugunan AP, Singh O, Roy S, Shriram AN, et al. Chikungunya Fever, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070193
AMA Manimunda SP, Singh SS, Sugunan AP, et al. Chikungunya Fever, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1259. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070193.
APA Manimunda, S. P., Singh, S. S., Sugunan, A. P., Singh, O., Roy, S., Shriram, A. N....Vijayachari, P. (2007). Chikungunya Fever, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070193.

Alistipes finegoldii in Blood Cultures from Colon Cancer Patients [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
L. Fenner et al.
EID Fenner L, Roux V, Ananian P, Raoult D. Alistipes finegoldii in Blood Cultures from Colon Cancer Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060662
AMA Fenner L, Roux V, Ananian P, et al. Alistipes finegoldii in Blood Cultures from Colon Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1260. doi:10.3201/eid1308.060662.
APA Fenner, L., Roux, V., Ananian, P., & Raoult, D. (2007). Alistipes finegoldii in Blood Cultures from Colon Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060662.

Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Idaho [PDF - 186 KB - 3 pages]
V. M. Lockary et al.
EID Lockary VM, Hudson RF, Ball CL. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Idaho. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070189
AMA Lockary VM, Hudson RF, Ball CL. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Idaho. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1262. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070189.
APA Lockary, V. M., Hudson, R. F., & Ball, C. L. (2007). Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Idaho. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070189.

Imported Chikungunya Infection, Italy [PDF - 169 KB - 3 pages]
A. Beltrame et al.
EID Beltrame A, Angheben A, Bisoffi Z, Monteiro G, Marocco S, Calleri G, et al. Imported Chikungunya Infection, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070161
AMA Beltrame A, Angheben A, Bisoffi Z, et al. Imported Chikungunya Infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1264. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070161.
APA Beltrame, A., Angheben, A., Bisoffi, Z., Monteiro, G., Marocco, S., Calleri, G....Viale, P. (2007). Imported Chikungunya Infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070161.

Dyella japonica Bacteremia in Hemodialysis Patient [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
P. Kiratisin et al.
EID Kiratisin P, Kowwigkai P, Pattanachaiwit S, Apisarnthanarak A, Leelaporn A. Dyella japonica Bacteremia in Hemodialysis Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061204
AMA Kiratisin P, Kowwigkai P, Pattanachaiwit S, et al. Dyella japonica Bacteremia in Hemodialysis Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1266. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061204.
APA Kiratisin, P., Kowwigkai, P., Pattanachaiwit, S., Apisarnthanarak, A., & Leelaporn, A. (2007). Dyella japonica Bacteremia in Hemodialysis Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061204.

Mycobacterium cosmeticum, Ohio and Venezuela [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
R. C. Cooksey et al.
EID Cooksey RC, de Waard JH, Yakrus MA, Toney SR, Da Mata O, Nowicki S, et al. Mycobacterium cosmeticum, Ohio and Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061261
AMA Cooksey RC, de Waard JH, Yakrus MA, et al. Mycobacterium cosmeticum, Ohio and Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1267. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061261.
APA Cooksey, R. C., de Waard, J. H., Yakrus, M. A., Toney, S. R., Da Mata, O., Nowicki, S....Srinivasan, A. (2007). Mycobacterium cosmeticum, Ohio and Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061261.

Ecoregional Dominance in Spatial Distribution of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks [PDF - 280 KB - 3 pages]
R. Sengupta et al.
EID Sengupta R, Rosenshein L, Gilbert M, Weiller C. Ecoregional Dominance in Spatial Distribution of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070329
AMA Sengupta R, Rosenshein L, Gilbert M, et al. Ecoregional Dominance in Spatial Distribution of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1269. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070329.
APA Sengupta, R., Rosenshein, L., Gilbert, M., & Weiller, C. (2007). Ecoregional Dominance in Spatial Distribution of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070329.

Nephropathia Epidemica in Metropolitan Area, Germany [PDF - 192 KB - 3 pages]
S. S. Essbauer et al.
EID Essbauer SS, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Madeja EL, Wegener W, Friedrich R, Petraityte R, et al. Nephropathia Epidemica in Metropolitan Area, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1271. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061425
AMA Essbauer SS, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Madeja EL, et al. Nephropathia Epidemica in Metropolitan Area, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1271. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061425.
APA Essbauer, S. S., Schmidt-Chanasit, J., Madeja, E. L., Wegener, W., Friedrich, R., Petraityte, R....Ulrich, R. G. (2007). Nephropathia Epidemica in Metropolitan Area, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1271. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061425.

Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Arboviral Disease Transmission [PDF - 316 KB - 3 pages]
J. A. Lehman et al.
EID Lehman JA, Hinckley AF, Kniss KL, Nasci RS, Smith TL, Campbell GL, et al. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Arboviral Disease Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061570
AMA Lehman JA, Hinckley AF, Kniss KL, et al. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Arboviral Disease Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1273. doi:10.3201/eid1308.061570.
APA Lehman, J. A., Hinckley, A. F., Kniss, K. L., Nasci, R. S., Smith, T. L., Campbell, G. L....Hayes, E. B. (2007). Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Arboviral Disease Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.061570.

Threat to Cefixime Treatment for Gonorrhea [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
S. Yokoi et al.
EID Yokoi S, Deguchi T, Ozawa T, Yasuda M, Ito S, Kubota Y, et al. Threat to Cefixime Treatment for Gonorrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1275. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060948
AMA Yokoi S, Deguchi T, Ozawa T, et al. Threat to Cefixime Treatment for Gonorrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1275. doi:10.3201/eid1308.060948.
APA Yokoi, S., Deguchi, T., Ozawa, T., Yasuda, M., Ito, S., Kubota, Y....Maeda, S. (2007). Threat to Cefixime Treatment for Gonorrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1275. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.060948.
Another Dimension

"The Calf-Path" [PDF - 107 KB - 1 page]
EID "The Calf-Path". Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.ad1308
AMA "The Calf-Path". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1207. doi:10.3201/eid1308.ad1308.
APA (2007). "The Calf-Path". Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.ad1308.
Books and Media

Vector- and Rodent-borne Diseases in Europe and North America: Distribution, Public Health Burden and Control [PDF - 204 KB - 1 page]
A. Barrett
EID Barrett A. Vector- and Rodent-borne Diseases in Europe and North America: Distribution, Public Health Burden and Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070626
AMA Barrett A. Vector- and Rodent-borne Diseases in Europe and North America: Distribution, Public Health Burden and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1278. doi:10.3201/eid1308.070626.
APA Barrett, A. (2007). Vector- and Rodent-borne Diseases in Europe and North America: Distribution, Public Health Burden and Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.070626.
About the Cover

‘To Market to Market…’ and Risk for Global Disease [PDF - 172 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. ‘To Market to Market…’ and Risk for Global Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1279-1280. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.ac1308
AMA Potter P. ‘To Market to Market…’ and Risk for Global Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(8):1279-1280. doi:10.3201/eid1308.ac1308.
APA Potter, P. (2007). ‘To Market to Market…’ and Risk for Global Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(8), 1279-1280. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1308.ac1308.
Conference Summaries

Developing a Research Agenda and a Comprehensive National Prevention and Response Plan for Rift Valley Fever in the United States [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
S. C. Britch and K. J. Linthicum
Page created: June 07, 2012
Page updated: June 07, 2012
Page reviewed: June 07, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
edit_01 Submit ManuscriptExternal Link
Issue Select
GO
GO

Notice to Readers

Emerging Infectious Diseases will no longer print copies of the journal after Volume 25. Printable PDF versions of issues, and articles, will still be available online. Visit EID Subscriptions to sign up for monthly email notifications for the table of contents, and for specific article types and disease topics.

Get Email Updates

To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:

file_external