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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008

Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008

[PDF - 5.78 MB - 179 pages]

Perspective

Scale-up of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Laboratory Services, Peru [PDF - 119 KB - 8 pages]
S. S. Shin et al.

Over the past 10 years, the Peruvian National Tuberculosis (TB) Program, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), Socios en Salud, and US partners have worked to strengthen the national TB laboratory network to support treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. We review key lessons of this experience. The preparation phase involved establishing criteria for drug susceptibility testing (DST), selecting appropriate DST methods, projecting the quantity of DST and culture to ensure adequate supplies, creating biosafe laboratory facilities for DST, training laboratory personnel on methods, and validating DST methods at the NRL. Implementation involved training providers on DST indications, validating conventional and rapid first-line DST methods at district laboratories, and eliminating additional delays in specimen transport and result reporting. Monitoring included ongoing quality control and quality assurance procedures. Hurdles included logistics, coordinating with policy, competing interests, changing personnel, communications, and evaluation. Operational research guided laboratory scale-up and identified barriers to effective capacity building.

EID Shin SS, Yagui M, Ascencios L, Yale G, Suarez C, Quispe N, et al. Scale-up of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Laboratory Services, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):701-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070721
AMA Shin SS, Yagui M, Ascencios L, et al. Scale-up of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Laboratory Services, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):701-708. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070721.
APA Shin, S. S., Yagui, M., Ascencios, L., Yale, G., Suarez, C., Quispe, N....Cegielski, P. (2008). Scale-up of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Laboratory Services, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 701-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070721.

Pandemic Influenza Planning in the United States from a Health Disparities Perspective [PDF - 190 KB - 7 pages]
P. Blumenshine et al.

We explored how different socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups in the United States might fare in an influenza pandemic on the basis of social factors that shape exposure, vulnerability to influenza virus, and timeliness and adequacy of treatment. We discuss policies that might differentially affect social groups’ risk for illness or death. Our purpose is not to establish the precise magnitude of disparities likely to occur; rather, it is to call attention to avoidable disparities that can be expected in the absence of systematic attention to differential social risks in pandemic preparedness plans. Policy makers at the federal, state, and local levels should consider potential sources of socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities during a pandemic and formulate specific plans to minimize these disparities.

EID Blumenshine P, Reingold AL, Egerter S, Mockenhaupt R, Braveman P, Marks J. Pandemic Influenza Planning in the United States from a Health Disparities Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):709-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071301
AMA Blumenshine P, Reingold AL, Egerter S, et al. Pandemic Influenza Planning in the United States from a Health Disparities Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):709-715. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071301.
APA Blumenshine, P., Reingold, A. L., Egerter, S., Mockenhaupt, R., Braveman, P., & Marks, J. (2008). Pandemic Influenza Planning in the United States from a Health Disparities Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 709-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071301.
Synopses

Declining Artesunate-Mefloquine Efficacy against Falciparum Malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand Border [PDF - 99 KB - 4 pages]
C. Wongsrichanalai and S. Meshnick

Resistance to many antimalaria drugs developed on the Cambodia–Thailand border long before developing elsewhere. Because antimalaria resistance is now a global problem, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line therapies in most malaria-endemic countries. However, recent clinical and molecular studies suggest the emergence of ACT-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Cambodia–Thailand border area, where standard ACT is artesunate and mefloquine. These ACT failures might be caused by high-level mefloquine resistance because mefloquine was used for monotherapy long before the introduction of ACT. This observation raises 2 questions. First, how can existing P. falciparum–resistant strains be controlled? Second, how can the evolution of new ACT- resistant strains be avoided elsewhere, e.g., in Africa? Enforcement of rational drug use and improved diagnostic capacity are among the measures needed to avoid and contain ACT resistance.

EID Wongsrichanalai C, Meshnick S. Declining Artesunate-Mefloquine Efficacy against Falciparum Malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand Border. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):716-719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071601
AMA Wongsrichanalai C, Meshnick S. Declining Artesunate-Mefloquine Efficacy against Falciparum Malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand Border. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):716-719. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071601.
APA Wongsrichanalai, C., & Meshnick, S. (2008). Declining Artesunate-Mefloquine Efficacy against Falciparum Malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand Border. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 716-719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071601.
Research

Increasing Hospitalizations and General Practice Prescriptions for Community-onset Staphylococcal Disease, England [PDF - 268 KB - 7 pages]
A. Hayward et al.

Rates of hospital-acquired staphylococcal infection increased throughout the 1990s; however, information is limited on trends in community-onset staphylococcal disease in the United Kingdom. We used Hospital Episode Statistics to describe trends in hospital admissions for community-onset staphylococcal disease and national general practice data to describe trends in community prescribing for staphylococcal disease. Hospital admission rates for staphyloccocal septicemia, staphylococcal pneumonia, staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome, and impetigo increased >5-fold. Admission rates increased 3-fold for abscesses and cellulitis and 1.5-fold for bone and joint infections. In primary care settings during 1991–2006, floxacillin prescriptions increased 1.8-fold and fusidic acid prescriptions 2.5-fold. The increases were not matched by increases in admission rates for control conditions. We identified a previously undescribed but major increase in pathogenic community-onset staphylococcal disease over the past 15 years. These trends are of concern given the international emergence of invasive community-onset staphylococcal infections.

EID Hayward A, Knott F, Petersen I, Livermore DM, Duckworth G, Islam A, et al. Increasing Hospitalizations and General Practice Prescriptions for Community-onset Staphylococcal Disease, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):720-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070153
AMA Hayward A, Knott F, Petersen I, et al. Increasing Hospitalizations and General Practice Prescriptions for Community-onset Staphylococcal Disease, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):720-726. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070153.
APA Hayward, A., Knott, F., Petersen, I., Livermore, D. M., Duckworth, G., Islam, A....Johnson, A. M. (2008). Increasing Hospitalizations and General Practice Prescriptions for Community-onset Staphylococcal Disease, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 720-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070153.

Increasing Hospital Admissions for Pneumonia, England [PDF - 286 KB - 7 pages]
C. L. Trotter et al.

Pneumonia is an important cause of illness and death in England. To describe trends in pneumonia hospitalizations, we extracted information on all episodes of pneumonia that occurred from April 1997 through March 2005 recorded in the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database by searching for International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes J12–J18 in any diagnostic field. The age-standardized incidence of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia increased by 34% from 1.48 to 1.98 per 1,000 population between 1997–98 and 2004–05. The increase was more marked in older adults, in whom the mortality rate was also highest. The proportion of patients with recorded coexisting conditions (defined by using the Charlson Comorbidity Index score) increased over the study period. The rise in pneumonia hospital admissions was not fully explained by demographic change or increasing coexisting conditions. It may be attributable to other population factors, changes in HES coding, changes to health service organization, other biologic phenomenon, or a combination of these effects.

EID Trotter CL, Stuart JM, George RC, Miller E. Increasing Hospital Admissions for Pneumonia, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):727-733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071011
AMA Trotter CL, Stuart JM, George RC, et al. Increasing Hospital Admissions for Pneumonia, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):727-733. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071011.
APA Trotter, C. L., Stuart, J. M., George, R. C., & Miller, E. (2008). Increasing Hospital Admissions for Pneumonia, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 727-733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071011.

Increasing Incidence of Listeriosis in France and Other European Countries [PDF - 255 KB - 7 pages]
V. Goulet et al.

From 1999 through 2005, the incidence of listeriosis in France declined from 4.5 to 3.5 cases/million persons. In 2006, it increased to 4.7 cases/million persons. Extensive epidemiologic investigations of clusters in France have ruled out the occurrence of large foodborne disease outbreaks. In addition, no increase has occurred in pregnancy-associated cases or among persons <60 years of age who have no underlying disease. Increases have occurred mainly among persons >60 years of age and appear to be most pronounced for persons >70 years of age. In 8 other European countries, the incidence of listeriosis has increased, or remained relatively high, since 2000. As in France, these increases cannot be attributed to foodborne outbreaks, and no increase has been observed in pregnancy-associated cases. European countries appear to be experiencing an increased incidence of listeriosis among persons >60 years of age. The cause of this selective increased incidence is unknown.

EID Goulet V, Hedberg C, Le Monnier A, de Valk H. Increasing Incidence of Listeriosis in France and Other European Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):734-740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071395
AMA Goulet V, Hedberg C, Le Monnier A, et al. Increasing Incidence of Listeriosis in France and Other European Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):734-740. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071395.
APA Goulet, V., Hedberg, C., Le Monnier, A., & de Valk, H. (2008). Increasing Incidence of Listeriosis in France and Other European Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 734-740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071395.

Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs [PDF - 1.02 MB - 6 pages]
D. Song et al.

In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SAα 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus.

EID Song D, Kang B, Lee C, Saif LJ, Ha G, Kang D, et al. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):741-746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071471
AMA Song D, Kang B, Lee C, et al. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):741-746. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071471.
APA Song, D., Kang, B., Lee, C., Saif, L. J., Ha, G., Kang, D....Oh, J. (2008). Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 741-746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071471.

Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005 [PDF - 300 KB - 8 pages]
R. M. Carney et al.

Epidemic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in Sacramento County, California, in 2005 prompted aerial application of pyrethrin, a mosquito adulticide, over a large urban area. Statistical analyses of geographic information system datasets indicated that adulticiding reduced the number of human WNV cases within 2 treated areas compared with the untreated area of the county. When we adjusted for maximum incubation period of the virus from infection to onset of symptoms, no new cases were reported in either of the treated areas after adulticiding; 18 new cases were reported in the untreated area of Sacramento County during this time. Results indicated that the odds of infection after spraying were ≈6× higher in the untreated area than in treated areas, and that the treatments successfully disrupted the WNV transmission cycle. Our results provide direct evidence that aerial mosquito adulticiding is effective in reducing human illness and potential death from WNV infection.

EID Carney RM, Husted S, Jean C, Glaser CA, Kramer VL. Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):747-754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071347
AMA Carney RM, Husted S, Jean C, et al. Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):747-754. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071347.
APA Carney, R. M., Husted, S., Jean, C., Glaser, C. A., & Kramer, V. L. (2008). Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 747-754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071347.

Cryptococcus neoformans Strains and Infection in Apparently Immunocompetent Patients, China [PDF - 375 KB - 8 pages]
J. Chen et al.

To determine the population structure of the cryptococcosis agents in China, we analyzed the genotype of 120 Cryptococcus neoformans and 9 Cryptococcus gattii strains isolated from 1980 through 2006 from cryptococcosis patients residing in 16 provinces of mainland China. A total of 71% (91/129) of the clinical strains isolated from 1985 through 2006 were from patients without any apparent risk factors. Only 8.5% (11/129) were from AIDS patients; the remaining 20.5% (27/129) were from patients with underlying diseases other than HIV infection. One hundred twenty of the 129 isolates were C. neoformans serotype A, mating type MATα strains that exhibited an identical M13-based VNI subtype, which was distinguishable from the reference VNI molecular type. The 9 remaining isolates were serotype B, MATα strains of C. gattii and portrayed a typical VGI molecular type. Data analyzed from multilocus sequences showed no variation and that these Chinese C. neoformans isolates belong to a cluster that has phylogenetically diverged from the VNI reference strain. Our finding that most cryptococcosis patients in China had no apparent risk factor is in stark contrast with reports from other countries.

EID Chen J, Varma A, Diaz MR, Litvintseva AP, Wollenberg KK, Kwon-Chung KJ. Cryptococcus neoformans Strains and Infection in Apparently Immunocompetent Patients, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):755-762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071312
AMA Chen J, Varma A, Diaz MR, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans Strains and Infection in Apparently Immunocompetent Patients, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):755-762. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071312.
APA Chen, J., Varma, A., Diaz, M. R., Litvintseva, A. P., Wollenberg, K. K., & Kwon-Chung, K. J. (2008). Cryptococcus neoformans Strains and Infection in Apparently Immunocompetent Patients, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 755-762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071312.

Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina [PDF - 189 KB - 9 pages]
M. Rivas et al.

We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case–control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef.

EID Rivas M, Sosa-Estani S, Rangel J, Caletti MG, Vallés P, Roldán CD, et al. Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):763-771. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071050
AMA Rivas M, Sosa-Estani S, Rangel J, et al. Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):763-771. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071050.
APA Rivas, M., Sosa-Estani, S., Rangel, J., Caletti, M. G., Vallés, P., Roldán, C. D....Griffin, P. M. (2008). Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 763-771. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071050.

Medscape CME Activity
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in Nursing Homes, Minnesota, 1995–2006 [PDF - 219 KB - 6 pages]
J. Rainbow et al.

Nursing home residents are at high risk for invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease, and clusters of cases in nursing homes are common.To characterize the epidemiologic features of invasive GAS disease in nursing homes, we conducted active, statewide, population- and laboratory-based surveillance in Minnesota from April 1995 through 2006. Of 1,858 invasive GAS disease cases, 134 (7%) occurred in nursing home residents; 34 of these cases were identified as part of 13 clusters. Recognizing cases of GAS disease in nursing homes posed challenges. Measures to ensure identification of case-patients as residents of specific nursing homes need to be included in standard guidelines for the prevention and control of invasive GAS disease in this setting.

EID Rainbow J, Jewell B, Danila RN, Boxrud D, Beall B, Van Beneden C, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in Nursing Homes, Minnesota, 1995–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):772-777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.0704072
AMA Rainbow J, Jewell B, Danila RN, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in Nursing Homes, Minnesota, 1995–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):772-777. doi:10.3201/eid1405.0704072.
APA Rainbow, J., Jewell, B., Danila, R. N., Boxrud, D., Beall, B., Van Beneden, C....Lynfield, R. (2008). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in Nursing Homes, Minnesota, 1995–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 772-777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.0704072.
Policy Review

Public Response to Community Mitigation Measures for Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 289 KB - 9 pages]
R. J. Blendon et al.

We report the results of a national survey conducted to help public health officials understand the public’s response to community mitigation interventions for a severe outbreak of pandemic influenza. Survey results suggest that if community mitigation measures are instituted, most respondents would comply with recommendations but would be challenged to do so if their income or job were severely compromised. The results also indicate that community mitigation measures could cause problems for persons with lower incomes and for racial and ethnic minorities. Twenty-four percent of respondents said that they would not have anyone available to take care of them if they became sick with pandemic influenza. Given these results, planning and public engagement will be needed to encourage the public to be prepared.

EID Blendon RJ, Koonin LM, Benson JM, Cetron MS, Pollard WE, Mitchell EW, et al. Public Response to Community Mitigation Measures for Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):778-786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071437
AMA Blendon RJ, Koonin LM, Benson JM, et al. Public Response to Community Mitigation Measures for Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):778-786. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071437.
APA Blendon, R. J., Koonin, L. M., Benson, J. M., Cetron, M. S., Pollard, W. E., Mitchell, E. W....Herrmann, M. J. (2008). Public Response to Community Mitigation Measures for Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 778-786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071437.
Dispatches

Spread of Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7, China [PDF - 431 KB - 5 pages]
C. Ye et al.

Streptococcus suis sequence type (ST) 7 has been spreading throughout China. To determine events associated with its emergence, we tested 114 isolates. In all 106 ST7 strains responsible for human outbreaks and sporadic infections, the tetracycline-resistance gene, tetM, was detected on the conjugative transposon Tn916. Horizontal transmission of tetM is suspected.

EID Ye C, Bai X, Zhang J, Jing H, Zheng H, Du H, et al. Spread of Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):787-791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070437
AMA Ye C, Bai X, Zhang J, et al. Spread of Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):787-791. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070437.
APA Ye, C., Bai, X., Zhang, J., Jing, H., Zheng, H., Du, H....Xu, Y. (2008). Spread of Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 787-791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070437.

Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
A. Fernández et al.

An outbreak of a lethal morbillivirus infection of long-finned pilot whales occurred in the Mediterranean Sea from the end of October 2006 through April 2007. Sequence analysis of a 426-bp conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicates that the virus is more closely related to dolphin morbillivirus than to pilot whale morbillivirus.

EID Fernández A, Esperón F, Herraéz P, de los Monteros AE, Clavel C, Bernabé A, et al. Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):792-794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070948
AMA Fernández A, Esperón F, Herraéz P, et al. Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):792-794. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070948.
APA Fernández, A., Esperón, F., Herraéz, P., de los Monteros, A. E., Clavel, C., Bernabé, A....Bayón, A. (2008). Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 792-794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070948.

Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
A. Izri et al.

To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria.

EID Izri A, Temmam S, Moureau G, Hamrioui B, de Lamballerie X, Charrel RN. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):795-797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071487
AMA Izri A, Temmam S, Moureau G, et al. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):795-797. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071487.
APA Izri, A., Temmam, S., Moureau, G., Hamrioui, B., de Lamballerie, X., & Charrel, R. N. (2008). Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 795-797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071487.

Lakes as Source of Cholera Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of Congo [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
D. Bompangue et al.

We studied the epidemiology of cholera in Katanga and Eastern Kasai, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, by compiling a database including all cases recorded from 2000 through 2005. Results show that lakes were the sources of outbreaks and demonstrate the inadequacy of the strategy used to combat cholera.

EID Bompangue D, Giraudoux P, Handschumacher P, Piarroux R, Sudre B, Ekwanzala M, et al. Lakes as Source of Cholera Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):798-800. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071260
AMA Bompangue D, Giraudoux P, Handschumacher P, et al. Lakes as Source of Cholera Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):798-800. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071260.
APA Bompangue, D., Giraudoux, P., Handschumacher, P., Piarroux, R., Sudre, B., Ekwanzala, M....Piarroux, M. (2008). Lakes as Source of Cholera Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 798-800. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071260.

Serologic Evidence for Novel Poxvirus in Endangered Red Colobus Monkeys, Western Uganda [PDF - 208 KB - 3 pages]
T. L. Goldberg et al.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and virus neutralization assays indicated that red colobus monkeys in Kibale National Park, western Uganda, had antibodies to a virus that was similar, but not identical, to known orthopoxviruses. The presence of a novel poxvirus in this endangered primate raises public health and conservation concerns.

EID Goldberg TL, Chapman CA, Cameron K, Saj T, Karesh WB, Wolfe ND, et al. Serologic Evidence for Novel Poxvirus in Endangered Red Colobus Monkeys, Western Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):801-803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071686
AMA Goldberg TL, Chapman CA, Cameron K, et al. Serologic Evidence for Novel Poxvirus in Endangered Red Colobus Monkeys, Western Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):801-803. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071686.
APA Goldberg, T. L., Chapman, C. A., Cameron, K., Saj, T., Karesh, W. B., Wolfe, N. D....Slifka, M. K. (2008). Serologic Evidence for Novel Poxvirus in Endangered Red Colobus Monkeys, Western Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 801-803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071686.

Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina [PDF - 393 KB - 4 pages]
K. A. Caillouët et al.

After Hurricane Katrina, the number of reported cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) sharply increased in the hurricane-affected regions of Louisiana and Mississippi. In 2006, a >2-fold increase in WNND incidence was observed in the hurricane-affected areas than in previous years.

EID Caillouët KA, Michaels SR, Xiong X, Foppa I, Wesson DM. Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):804-807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071066
AMA Caillouët KA, Michaels SR, Xiong X, et al. Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):804-807. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071066.
APA Caillouët, K. A., Michaels, S. R., Xiong, X., Foppa, I., & Wesson, D. M. (2008). Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 804-807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071066.

Outbreak of Puumala Virus Infection, Sweden [PDF - 275 KB - 3 pages]
L. Pettersson et al.

An unexpected and large outbreak of Puumala virus infection in Sweden resulted in 313 nephropathia epidemica patients/100,000 persons in Västerbotten County during 2007. An increase in the rodent population, milder weather, and less snow cover probably contributed to the outbreak.

EID Pettersson L, Boman J, Juto P, Evander M, Ahlm C. Outbreak of Puumala Virus Infection, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):808-810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071124
AMA Pettersson L, Boman J, Juto P, et al. Outbreak of Puumala Virus Infection, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):808-810. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071124.
APA Pettersson, L., Boman, J., Juto, P., Evander, M., & Ahlm, C. (2008). Outbreak of Puumala Virus Infection, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 808-810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071124.

Human Infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines [PDF - 285 KB - 3 pages]
J. Luchavez et al.

Five human cases of infection with the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi from Palawan, the Philippines, were confirmed by nested PCR. This study suggests that this zoonotic infection is found across a relatively wide area in Palawan and documents autochthonous cases in the country.

EID Luchavez J, Espino F, Curameng P, Espina R, Bell D, Chiodini PL, et al. Human Infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):811-813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071407
AMA Luchavez J, Espino F, Curameng P, et al. Human Infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):811-813. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071407.
APA Luchavez, J., Espino, F., Curameng, P., Espina, R., Bell, D., Chiodini, P. L....Singh, B. (2008). Human Infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 811-813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071407.

Naturally Acquired Human Plasmodium knowlesi Infection, Singapore [PDF - 175 KB - 3 pages]
L. C. Ng et al.

We report a case of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi in Singapore, a malaria-free country. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with validated species-specific primers. In industrialized countries, free-ranging primates are a potential source of P. knowlesi human infection. P. knowlesi infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile illness acquired in Singapore.

EID Ng LC, Ooi EE, Lee CC, Lee PJ, Tan N, Pei SW, et al. Naturally Acquired Human Plasmodium knowlesi Infection, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):814-816. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070863
AMA Ng LC, Ooi EE, Lee CC, et al. Naturally Acquired Human Plasmodium knowlesi Infection, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):814-816. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070863.
APA Ng, L. C., Ooi, E. E., Lee, C. C., Lee, P. J., Tan, N., Pei, S. W....Leo, Y. (2008). Naturally Acquired Human Plasmodium knowlesi Infection, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 814-816. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070863.

Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and Tick-borne Lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy [PDF - 267 KB - 4 pages]
M. Selmi et al.

Of 263 patients in Tuscany, Italy, from whom ticks were removed during July 2005–May 2007, five showed signs of tick-borne encephalopathy. Of the ticks, 17 were Dermacentor marginatus; 6 (35.3%) of these were identified by sequence analysis as containing Rickettsia slovaca. Tick-borne lympadenopathy occurs in this area.

EID Selmi M, Bertolotti L, Tomassone L, Mannelli A. Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and Tick-borne Lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):817-820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070976
AMA Selmi M, Bertolotti L, Tomassone L, et al. Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and Tick-borne Lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):817-820. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070976.
APA Selmi, M., Bertolotti, L., Tomassone, L., & Mannelli, A. (2008). Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and Tick-borne Lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 817-820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070976.

Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel [PDF - 290 KB - 4 pages]
M. Weinberger et al.

Underdiagnosis of fatal spotted fever may be attributed to nonspecific clinical features and insensitive acute-phase serologic studies. We describe the importance of molecular and immunohistochemical methods in establishing the postmortem diagnosis of locally acquired Israeli spotted fever due to Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis in a traveler returning to Israel from India.

EID Weinberger M, Keysary A, Sandbank J, Zaidenstein R, Itzhaki A, Strenger C, et al. Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):821-824. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071278
AMA Weinberger M, Keysary A, Sandbank J, et al. Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):821-824. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071278.
APA Weinberger, M., Keysary, A., Sandbank, J., Zaidenstein, R., Itzhaki, A., Strenger, C....Eremeeva, M. E. (2008). Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 821-824. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071278.

Social Support and Response to AIDS and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome [PDF - 109 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nandi et al.

Negative public reactions to emerging infectious diseases can adversely affect population health. We assessed whether social support was associated with knowledge of, worry about, and attitudes towards AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Our findings suggest that social support may be central to our understanding of public responses to emerging infectious diseases.

EID Nandi A, Tracy M, Aiello A, Des Jarlais DC, Galea S. Social Support and Response to AIDS and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):825-827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071070
AMA Nandi A, Tracy M, Aiello A, et al. Social Support and Response to AIDS and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):825-827. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071070.
APA Nandi, A., Tracy, M., Aiello, A., Des Jarlais, D. C., & Galea, S. (2008). Social Support and Response to AIDS and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 825-827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071070.

Acute Encephalitis Caused by Intrafamilial Transmission of Enterovirus 71 in Adult [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
T. Hamaguchi et al.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and sometimes causes severe neurologic complications, mainly in children. We report a case of adult-onset encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of a subgenogroup C4 strain of EV71. This case elucidates the risk for EV71 encephalitis even in adults.

EID Hamaguchi T, Fujisawa H, Sakai K, Okino S, Kurosaki N, Nishimura Y, et al. Acute Encephalitis Caused by Intrafamilial Transmission of Enterovirus 71 in Adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):828-830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071121
AMA Hamaguchi T, Fujisawa H, Sakai K, et al. Acute Encephalitis Caused by Intrafamilial Transmission of Enterovirus 71 in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):828-830. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071121.
APA Hamaguchi, T., Fujisawa, H., Sakai, K., Okino, S., Kurosaki, N., Nishimura, Y....Yamada, M. (2008). Acute Encephalitis Caused by Intrafamilial Transmission of Enterovirus 71 in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 828-830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071121.

Seasonal Cholera from Multiple Small Outbreaks, Rural Bangladesh [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
O. Stine et al.

Clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae organisms collected from February 2004 through April 2005 were systematically isolated from 2 rural Bangladeshi locales. Their genetic relatedness was evaluated at 5 loci that contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). The observed minimal overlap in VNTR patterns between the 2 communities was consistent with sequential, small outbreaks from local sources.

EID Stine O, Alam M, Tang L, Nair GB, Siddique AK, Faruque SM, et al. Seasonal Cholera from Multiple Small Outbreaks, Rural Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):831-833. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071116
AMA Stine O, Alam M, Tang L, et al. Seasonal Cholera from Multiple Small Outbreaks, Rural Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):831-833. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071116.
APA Stine, O., Alam, M., Tang, L., Nair, G. B., Siddique, A. K., Faruque, S. M....Morris, J. (2008). Seasonal Cholera from Multiple Small Outbreaks, Rural Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 831-833. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071116.

New Saffold Cardioviruses in 3 Children, Canada [PDF - 218 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed and G. Boivin

In Canada, cardiovirus isolates related to Saffold virus were detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 3 children with respiratory symptoms. Polyprotein sequence of the Can112051-06 isolate had 91.2% aa identity with Saffold virus; however, EF and CD loops of the viral surface varied substantially.

EID Abed Y, Boivin G. New Saffold Cardioviruses in 3 Children, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):834-836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071675
AMA Abed Y, Boivin G. New Saffold Cardioviruses in 3 Children, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):834-836. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071675.
APA Abed, Y., & Boivin, G. (2008). New Saffold Cardioviruses in 3 Children, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 834-836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071675.

Bacteremia Caused by Group G Streptococci, Taiwan [PDF - 232 KB - 4 pages]
C. Liao et al.

A retrospective observational study in Taiwan, 1998–2004, identified 92 patients with group G streptococcal bacteremia; 86 had Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. The most common diagnosis was cellulitis (48 cases), followed by primary bacteremia (34 cases). Infection recurred in 9 patients. Mortality rate was low (3.3%); resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin was high.

EID Liao C, Liu L, Huang Y, Teng L, Hsueh P. Bacteremia Caused by Group G Streptococci, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):837-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070130
AMA Liao C, Liu L, Huang Y, et al. Bacteremia Caused by Group G Streptococci, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):837-840. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070130.
APA Liao, C., Liu, L., Huang, Y., Teng, L., & Hsueh, P. (2008). Bacteremia Caused by Group G Streptococci, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 837-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070130.

Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica [PDF - 113 KB - 3 pages]
W. Gatei et al.

A cryptosporidiosis survey showed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum, C. canis, and C. felis in 25, 7, 1, and 1 HIV-positive persons from Jamaica, respectively; 1 person had both C. hominis and C. felis. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the presence of a homogeneous but geographically distinct C. hominis population in Jamaica.

EID Gatei W, Barrett D, Lindo JF, Eldemire-Shearer D, Cama V, Xiao L. Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):841-843. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071277
AMA Gatei W, Barrett D, Lindo JF, et al. Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):841-843. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071277.
APA Gatei, W., Barrett, D., Lindo, J. F., Eldemire-Shearer, D., Cama, V., & Xiao, L. (2008). Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 841-843. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071277.

Human Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children, Madagascar, 2004–2005 [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
D. C. Papaventsis et al.

We report data regarding the molecular epidemiology of human astrovirus (HAstV) infections among children in Madagascar. In a 13-month study, 5 HAstV isolates were detected in fecal samples from 237 children (2.1%) by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of usual and unusual HAstVs.

EID Papaventsis DC, Dove W, Cunliffe NA, Nakagomi O, Combe P, Grosjean P, et al. Human Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children, Madagascar, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):844-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070563
AMA Papaventsis DC, Dove W, Cunliffe NA, et al. Human Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children, Madagascar, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):844-846. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070563.
APA Papaventsis, D. C., Dove, W., Cunliffe, N. A., Nakagomi, O., Combe, P., Grosjean, P....Hart, C. A. (2008). Human Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children, Madagascar, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 844-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070563.
Commentaries

The Mystery of Increased Hospitalizations of Elderly Patients [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
M. I. Meltzer
EID Meltzer MI. The Mystery of Increased Hospitalizations of Elderly Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):847-848. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080217
AMA Meltzer MI. The Mystery of Increased Hospitalizations of Elderly Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):847-848. doi:10.3201/eid1405.080217.
APA Meltzer, M. I. (2008). The Mystery of Increased Hospitalizations of Elderly Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 847-848. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080217.
Letters

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis,Taiwan [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
M. Yu et al.
EID Yu M, Wu M, Jou R. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis,Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):849-850. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071398
AMA Yu M, Wu M, Jou R. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis,Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):849-850. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071398.
APA Yu, M., Wu, M., & Jou, R. (2008). Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis,Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 849-850. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071398.

Hantavirus Outbreak, Germany, 2007 [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
J. Hofmann et al.
EID Hofmann J, Meisel H, Klempa B, Vesenbeckh SM, Beck R, Michel D, et al. Hantavirus Outbreak, Germany, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):850-852. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071533
AMA Hofmann J, Meisel H, Klempa B, et al. Hantavirus Outbreak, Germany, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):850-852. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071533.
APA Hofmann, J., Meisel, H., Klempa, B., Vesenbeckh, S. M., Beck, R., Michel, D....Kruger, D. H. (2008). Hantavirus Outbreak, Germany, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 850-852. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071533.

Chikungunya Virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy [PDF - 92 KB - 3 pages]
P. Bonilauri et al.
EID Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Calzolari M, Angelini R, Venturi L, Fallacara F, et al. Chikungunya Virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):852-854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071144
AMA Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Calzolari M, et al. Chikungunya Virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):852-854. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071144.
APA Bonilauri, P., Bellini, R., Calzolari, M., Angelini, R., Venturi, L., Fallacara, F....Dottori, M. (2008). Chikungunya Virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 852-854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071144.

Persistent Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Child [PDF - 169 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed and G. Boivin
EID Abed Y, Boivin G. Persistent Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):854-856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071459
AMA Abed Y, Boivin G. Persistent Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):854-856. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071459.
APA Abed, Y., & Boivin, G. (2008). Persistent Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 854-856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071459.

Leptospirosis in Taiwan, 2001–2006 [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Chou et al.
EID Chou Y, Chen C, Liu C. Leptospirosis in Taiwan, 2001–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):856-857. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070940
AMA Chou Y, Chen C, Liu C. Leptospirosis in Taiwan, 2001–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):856-857. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070940.
APA Chou, Y., Chen, C., & Liu, C. (2008). Leptospirosis in Taiwan, 2001–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 856-857. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070940.

Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonenis Infection, Suriname [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
W. van der Meide et al.
EID van der Meide W, de Vries H, Pratlong F, van der Wal A, Sabajo L. Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonenis Infection, Suriname. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):857-859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070433
AMA van der Meide W, de Vries H, Pratlong F, et al. Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonenis Infection, Suriname. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):857-859. doi:10.3201/eid1405.070433.
APA van der Meide, W., de Vries, H., Pratlong, F., van der Wal, A., & Sabajo, L. (2008). Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonenis Infection, Suriname. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 857-859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.070433.

Household Transmission of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
T. Gottesman et al.
EID Gottesman T, Agmon O, Shwartz O, Dan M. Household Transmission of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):859-860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071340
AMA Gottesman T, Agmon O, Shwartz O, et al. Household Transmission of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):859-860. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071340.
APA Gottesman, T., Agmon, O., Shwartz, O., & Dan, M. (2008). Household Transmission of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 859-860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071340.

Alternatives to Ciprofloxacin Use for Enteric Fever, United Kingdom [PDF - 96 KB - 2 pages]
E. J. Threlfall et al.
EID Threlfall EJ, de Pinna E, Day M, Lawrence J, Jones J. Alternatives to Ciprofloxacin Use for Enteric Fever, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):860-861. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071184
AMA Threlfall EJ, de Pinna E, Day M, et al. Alternatives to Ciprofloxacin Use for Enteric Fever, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):860-861. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071184.
APA Threlfall, E. J., de Pinna, E., Day, M., Lawrence, J., & Jones, J. (2008). Alternatives to Ciprofloxacin Use for Enteric Fever, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 860-861. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071184.

Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain [PDF - 112 KB - 3 pages]
N. Busquets et al.
EID Busquets N, Alba A, Allepuz A, Aranda C, Nuñez JI. Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):861-863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071577
AMA Busquets N, Alba A, Allepuz A, et al. Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):861-863. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071577.
APA Busquets, N., Alba, A., Allepuz, A., Aranda, C., & Nuñez, J. I. (2008). Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 861-863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071577.

Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil [PDF - 1.03 MB - 1 page]
R. Gurgel et al.
EID Gurgel R, Vieira S, Barros V, Fontes P, Salustino EF, Nakagomi O, et al. Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071440
AMA Gurgel R, Vieira S, Barros V, et al. Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):863. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071440.
APA Gurgel, R., Vieira, S., Barros, V., Fontes, P., Salustino, E. F., Nakagomi, O....Parashar, U. D. (2008). Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.071440.
Another Dimension

Bedtime at Nana and Pop’s House [PDF - 14 KB - 1 page]
S. Shuman
EID Shuman S. Bedtime at Nana and Pop’s House. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):868. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.ad1405
AMA Shuman S. Bedtime at Nana and Pop’s House. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):868. doi:10.3201/eid1405.ad1405.
APA Shuman, S. (2008). Bedtime at Nana and Pop’s House. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 868. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.ad1405.
Books and Media

Twelve Diseases That Changed Our World [PDF - 82 KB - 1 page]
J. W. Ward
EID Ward JW. Twelve Diseases That Changed Our World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):866. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080072
AMA Ward JW. Twelve Diseases That Changed Our World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):866. doi:10.3201/eid1405.080072.
APA Ward, J. W. (2008). Twelve Diseases That Changed Our World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 866. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080072.

Superantigens: Molecular Basis for Their Role in Human Diseases [PDF - 92 KB - 1 page]
D. S. Schmid
EID Schmid DS. Superantigens: Molecular Basis for Their Role in Human Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):866-867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080089
AMA Schmid DS. Superantigens: Molecular Basis for Their Role in Human Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):866-867. doi:10.3201/eid1405.080089.
APA Schmid, D. S. (2008). Superantigens: Molecular Basis for Their Role in Human Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 866-867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080089.

Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology [PDF - 77 KB - 1 page]
B. W. Mahy
EID Mahy BW. Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080077
AMA Mahy BW. Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):867. doi:10.3201/eid1405.080077.
APA Mahy, B. W. (2008). Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080077.

AIDS Therapy, 3rd Edition [PDF - 80 KB - 2 pages]
D. Rimland
EID Rimland D. AIDS Therapy, 3rd Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):867-868. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080116
AMA Rimland D. AIDS Therapy, 3rd Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):867-868. doi:10.3201/eid1405.080116.
APA Rimland, D. (2008). AIDS Therapy, 3rd Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 867-868. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.080116.
About the Cover

“His Lyre Is Now Attuned Only to Woe” [PDF - 155 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. “His Lyre Is Now Attuned Only to Woe”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):869-870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.ac1405
AMA Potter P. “His Lyre Is Now Attuned Only to Woe”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):869-870. doi:10.3201/eid1405.ac1405.
APA Potter, P. (2008). “His Lyre Is Now Attuned Only to Woe”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 869-870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.ac1405.
Etymologia

Cryptococcus neoformans [PDF - 506 KB - 1 page]
EID Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405
AMA Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):762. doi:10.3201/eid1405.e11405.
APA (2008). Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405.
Corrections

Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 4 [PDF - 101 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 4. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.074697
AMA Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):865. doi:10.3201/eid1405.074697.
APA (2008). Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.074697.
Page created: October 19, 2012
Page updated: October 19, 2012
Page reviewed: October 19, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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