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Issue Cover for Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012

Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012

[PDF - 8.32 MB - 187 pages]

Research

Medscape CME Activity
Farm Animal Contact as Risk Factor for Transmission of Bovine-associated Salmonella Subtypes [PDF - 223 KB - 8 pages]
K. J. Cummings et al.

Salmonellosis is usually associated with foodborne transmission. To identify risk from animal contact, we compared animal exposures of case-patients infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes with those of control-patients infected with non-bovine–associated subtypes. We used data collected in New York and Washington, USA, from March 1, 2008, through March 1, 2010. Contact with farm animals during the 5 days before illness onset was significantly associated with being a case-patient (odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.0008), after consumption of undercooked ground beef and unpasteurized milk were controlled for. Contact with cattle specifically was also significantly associated with being a case-patient (odds ratio 7.4, p = 0.0002), after food exposures were controlled for. More cases of bovine-associated salmonellosis in humans might result from direct contact with cattle, as opposed to ingestion of foods of bovine origin, than previously recognized. Efforts to control salmonellosis should include a focus on transmission routes other than foodborne.

EID Cummings KJ, Warnick LD, Davis MA, Eckmann K, Gröhn YT, Hoelzer K, et al. Farm Animal Contact as Risk Factor for Transmission of Bovine-associated Salmonella Subtypes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1929-1936. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.110831
AMA Cummings KJ, Warnick LD, Davis MA, et al. Farm Animal Contact as Risk Factor for Transmission of Bovine-associated Salmonella Subtypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1929-1936. doi:10.3201/eid1812.110831.
APA Cummings, K. J., Warnick, L. D., Davis, M. A., Eckmann, K., Gröhn, Y. T., Hoelzer, K....Besser, T. E. (2012). Farm Animal Contact as Risk Factor for Transmission of Bovine-associated Salmonella Subtypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1929-1936. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.110831.

Outbreak of Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Infection among Attendees of an Agricultural Fair, Pennsylvania, USA, 2011 [PDF - 230 KB - 8 pages]
K. K. Wong et al.

During August 2011, influenza A (H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] virus infection developed in a child who attended an agricultural fair in Pennsylvania, USA; the virus resulted from reassortment of a swine influenza virus with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We interviewed fair attendees and conducted a retrospective cohort study among members of an agricultural club who attended the fair. Probable and confirmed cases of A(H3N2)v virus infection were defined by serology and genomic sequencing results, respectively. We identified 82 suspected, 4 probable, and 3 confirmed case-patients who attended the fair. Among 127 cohort study members, the risk for suspected case status increased as swine exposure increased from none (4%; referent) to visiting swine exhibits (8%; relative risk 2.1; 95% CI 0.2–53.4) to touching swine (16%; relative risk 4.4; 95% CI 0.8–116.3). Fairs may be venues for zoonotic transmission of viruses with epidemic potential; thus, health officials should investigate respiratory illness outbreaks associated with agricultural events.

EID Wong KK, Greenbaum A, Moll ME, Lando J, Moore EL, Ganatra R, et al. Outbreak of Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Infection among Attendees of an Agricultural Fair, Pennsylvania, USA, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1937-1944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121097
AMA Wong KK, Greenbaum A, Moll ME, et al. Outbreak of Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Infection among Attendees of an Agricultural Fair, Pennsylvania, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1937-1944. doi:10.3201/eid1812.121097.
APA Wong, K. K., Greenbaum, A., Moll, M. E., Lando, J., Moore, E. L., Ganatra, R....Jhung, M. A. (2012). Outbreak of Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Infection among Attendees of an Agricultural Fair, Pennsylvania, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1937-1944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121097.

Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009–2011 [PDF - 221 KB - 6 pages]
A. S. Bowman et al.

Agricultural fairs are associated with bidirectional, interspecies transmission of influenza virus A between humans and pigs. We examined pigs exhibited at agricultural fairs in Ohio during 2009–2011 for signs of influenza-like illness and collected nasal swab specimens from a representative subset of these animals. Influenza virus A was recovered from pigs at 12/53 (22.6%) fairs during the 3-year sampling period. Pigs at 10/12 (83.3%) fairs from which influenza virus A was recovered did not show signs of influenza-like illness. Hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix gene combinations of the isolates were consistent with influenza virus A concurrently circulating among swine herds in the United States. Subclinical influenza virus A infections in pigs at agricultural fairs may pose a risk to human health and create challenges for passive surveillance programs for influenza virus A in swine herds.

EID Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Slemons RD. Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1945-1950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121116
AMA Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, et al. Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1945-1950. doi:10.3201/eid1812.121116.
APA Bowman, A. S., Nolting, J. M., Nelson, S. W., & Slemons, R. D. (2012). Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1945-1950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121116.

Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti [PDF - 283 KB - 7 pages]
M. H. Hersh et al.

Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and <6% but >0% in all other species, including all 4 bird species. Data on the relative contributions of multiple host species to tick infection with B. microti and level of genetic differentiation between B. microti strains transmitted by different hosts will help advance understanding of the spread of human babesiosis.

EID Hersh MH, Tibbetts M, Strauss M, Ostfeld RS, Keesing F. Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1951-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111392
AMA Hersh MH, Tibbetts M, Strauss M, et al. Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1951-1957. doi:10.3201/eid1812.111392.
APA Hersh, M. H., Tibbetts, M., Strauss, M., Ostfeld, R. S., & Keesing, F. (2012). Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1951-1957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111392.

Diagnostic Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever [PDF - 316 KB - 8 pages]
J. Vanhomwegen et al.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a highly contagious viral tick-borne disease with case-fatality rates as high as 50%. We describe a collaborative evaluation of the characteristics, performance, and on-site applicability of serologic and molecular assays for diagnosis of CCHF. We evaluated ELISA, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and low-density macroarray assays for detection of CCHF virus using precharacterized archived patient serum samples. Compared with results of local, in-house methods, test sensitivities were 87.8%–93.9% for IgM serology, 80.4%–86.1% for IgG serology, and 79.6%–83.3% for genome detection. Specificity was excellent for all assays; molecular test results were influenced by patient country of origin. Our findings demonstrate that well-characterized, reliable tools are available for CCHF diagnosis and surveillance. The on-site use of such assays by health laboratories would greatly diminish the time, costs, and risks posed by the handling, packaging, and shipping of highly infectious biologic material.

EID Vanhomwegen J, Alves M, Županc T, Bino S, Chinikar S, Karlberg H, et al. Diagnostic Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1958-1965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120710
AMA Vanhomwegen J, Alves M, Županc T, et al. Diagnostic Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1958-1965. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120710.
APA Vanhomwegen, J., Alves, M., Županc, T., Bino, S., Chinikar, S., Karlberg, H....Dubois, P. (2012). Diagnostic Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1958-1965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120710.

Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010 [PDF - 551 KB - 10 pages]
C. Socolovschi et al.

Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.

EID Socolovschi C, Kernif T, Raoult D, Parola P. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1966-1975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111237
AMA Socolovschi C, Kernif T, Raoult D, et al. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1966-1975. doi:10.3201/eid1812.111237.
APA Socolovschi, C., Kernif, T., Raoult, D., & Parola, P. (2012). Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1966-1975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111237.

Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom [PDF - 379 KB - 7 pages]
S. Lyons et al.

Although the origin of hepatitis C virus infections in humans remains undetermined, a close homolog of this virus, termed canine hepacivirus (CHV) and found in respiratory secretions of dogs, provides evidence for a wider distribution of hepaciviruses in mammals. We determined frequencies of active infection among dogs and other mammals in the United Kingdom. Samples from dogs (46 respiratory, 99 plasma, 45 autopsy samples) were CHV negative by PCR. Screening of 362 samples from cats, horses, donkeys, rodents, and pigs identified 3 (2%) positive samples from 142 horses. These samples were genetically divergent from CHV and nonprimate hepaciviruses that horses were infected with during 2012 in New York state, USA. Investigation of infected horses demonstrated nonprimate hepacivirus persistence, high viral loads in plasma (105–107 RNA copies/mL), and liver function test results usually within reference ranges, although several values ranged from high normal to mildly elevated. Disease associations and host range of nonprimate hepaciviruses warrant further investigation.

EID Lyons S, Kapoor A, Sharp C, Schneider BS, Wolfe ND, Culshaw G, et al. Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1976-1982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120498
AMA Lyons S, Kapoor A, Sharp C, et al. Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1976-1982. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120498.
APA Lyons, S., Kapoor, A., Sharp, C., Schneider, B. S., Wolfe, N. D., Culshaw, G....Simmonds, P. (2012). Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1976-1982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120498.

Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh [PDF - 643 KB - 11 pages]
B. A. Clayton et al.

Human infections with Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh are associated with markedly different patterns of transmission and pathogenicity. To compare the 2 strains, we conducted an in vivo study in which 2 groups of ferrets were oronasally exposed to either the Malaysia or Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus. Viral shedding and tissue tropism were compared between the 2 groups. Over the course of infection, significantly higher levels of viral RNA were recovered from oral secretions of ferrets infected with the Bangladesh strain. Higher levels of oral shedding of the Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus might be a key factor in onward transmission in outbreaks among humans.

EID Clayton BA, Middleton D, Bergfeld J, Haining J, Arkinstall R, Wang L, et al. Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1983-1993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120875
AMA Clayton BA, Middleton D, Bergfeld J, et al. Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1983-1993. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120875.
APA Clayton, B. A., Middleton, D., Bergfeld, J., Haining, J., Arkinstall, R., Wang, L....Marsh, G. A. (2012). Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1983-1993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120875.

Virulent Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 876 KB - 8 pages]
J. Feng et al.

A virulent avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was isolated from 30-day-old broiler chickens that exhibited respiratory symptoms, nephropathologic lesions, and a high proportion of deaths in the People’s Republic of China during 2005. The strain, designated YN, was genetically and pathologically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that YN and most of the previously characterized IBV isolates found in China were phylogenetically classified into 2 main genetic clusters. The YN isolate caused severe lesions and resulted in deaths of 65% in experimental infections of 30-day-old specific-pathogen–free chickens. Tracheal and severe kidney lesions developed in all infected birds, confirming the ability of YN strain to induce both respiratory and renal disease. IBV antigens were detected by immunohistochemical analysis in the trachea, lung, kidney, and bursa, consistent with histopathologic observations, virus isolation, and reverse transcription PCR detection. We showed that YN IBV exhibits severe pathogenicity in chickens, and that similar viruses are prevalent in China.

EID Feng J, Hu Y, Ma Z, Yu Q, Zhao J, Liu X, et al. Virulent Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1994-2001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120552
AMA Feng J, Hu Y, Ma Z, et al. Virulent Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):1994-2001. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120552.
APA Feng, J., Hu, Y., Ma, Z., Yu, Q., Zhao, J., Liu, X....Zhang, G. (2012). Virulent Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1994-2001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120552.
Dispatches

Medscape CME Activity
Enterovirus 71–associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011 [PDF - 249 KB - 4 pages]
T. Khanh et al.

We prospectively studied 3,791 children hospitalized during 2011 during a large outbreak of enterovirus 71–associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in Vietnam. Formal assessment of public health interventions, use of intravenous immunoglobulin and other therapies, and factors predisposing for progression of disease is needed to improve clinical management.

EID Khanh T, Sabanathan S, Thanh T, Thoa L, Thuong T, Hang V, et al. Enterovirus 71–associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2002-2005. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120929
AMA Khanh T, Sabanathan S, Thanh T, et al. Enterovirus 71–associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2002-2005. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120929.
APA Khanh, T., Sabanathan, S., Thanh, T., Thoa, L., Thuong, T., Hang, V....van Doorn, H. (2012). Enterovirus 71–associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2002-2005. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120929.

Epizootic Spread of Schmallenberg Virus among Wild Cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011 [PDF - 283 KB - 3 pages]
A. Linden et al.

Schmallenberg virus was detected in cattle and sheep in northwestern Europe in 2011. To determine whether wild ruminants are also susceptible, we measured antibody seroprevalence in cervids (roe deer and red deer) in Belgium in 2010 and 2011. Findings indicated rapid spread among these deer since virus emergence ≈250 km away.

EID Linden A, Desmecht D, Volpe R, Wirtgen M, Gregoire F, Pirson J, et al. Epizootic Spread of Schmallenberg Virus among Wild Cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2006-2008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121067
AMA Linden A, Desmecht D, Volpe R, et al. Epizootic Spread of Schmallenberg Virus among Wild Cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2006-2008. doi:10.3201/eid1812.121067.
APA Linden, A., Desmecht, D., Volpe, R., Wirtgen, M., Gregoire, F., Pirson, J....Garigliany, M. (2012). Epizootic Spread of Schmallenberg Virus among Wild Cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2006-2008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121067.

Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain [PDF - 400 KB - 4 pages]
K. P. Dalton et al.

Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

EID Dalton KP, Nicieza I, Balseiro A, Muguerza MA, Rosell JM, Casais R, et al. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2009-2012. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120341
AMA Dalton KP, Nicieza I, Balseiro A, et al. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2009-2012. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120341.
APA Dalton, K. P., Nicieza, I., Balseiro, A., Muguerza, M. A., Rosell, J. M., Casais, R....Parra, F. (2012). Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2009-2012. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120341.

Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum [PDF - 310 KB - 4 pages]
F. Keesing et al.

Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings.

EID Keesing F, Hersh MH, Tibbetts M, McHenry DJ, Duerr S, Brunner J, et al. Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2013-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120919
AMA Keesing F, Hersh MH, Tibbetts M, et al. Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2013-2016. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120919.
APA Keesing, F., Hersh, M. H., Tibbetts, M., McHenry, D. J., Duerr, S., Brunner, J....Ostfeld, R. S. (2012). Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2013-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120919.

MRSA Variant in Companion Animals [PDF - 455 KB - 4 pages]
B. Walther et al.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylocoocus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecALGA251 has been isolated from humans and ruminants. Database screening identified this MRSA variant in cats, dogs, and a guinea pig in Germany during 2008–2011. The novel MRSA variant is not restricted to ruminants or humans, and contact with companion animals might pose a zoonotic risk.

EID Walther B, Wieler LH, Vincze S, Antão E, Brandenburg A, Stamm I, et al. MRSA Variant in Companion Animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2017-2020. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120238
AMA Walther B, Wieler LH, Vincze S, et al. MRSA Variant in Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2017-2020. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120238.
APA Walther, B., Wieler, L. H., Vincze, S., Antão, E., Brandenburg, A., Stamm, I....Lübke-Becker, A. (2012). MRSA Variant in Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2017-2020. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120238.

Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh [PDF - 337 KB - 4 pages]
K. Jamil et al.

Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ≈32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh.

EID Jamil K, Ahmed K, Hossain M, Matsumoto T, Ali M, Hossain S, et al. Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2021-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120061
AMA Jamil K, Ahmed K, Hossain M, et al. Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2021-2024. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120061.
APA Jamil, K., Ahmed, K., Hossain, M., Matsumoto, T., Ali, M., Hossain, S....Nishizono, A. (2012). Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2021-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120061.

No Evidence of Prolonged Hendra Virus Shedding by 2 Patients, Australia [PDF - 270 KB - 3 pages]
C. Taylor et al.

To better understand the natural history of Hendra virus infection and its tendency to relapse, 2 humans infected with this virus were monitored after acute infection. Virus was not detected in blood samples when patients were followed-up at 2 and 6 years. Thus, no evidence was found for prolonged virus shedding.

EID Taylor C, Playford EG, McBride W, McMahon J, Warrilow D. No Evidence of Prolonged Hendra Virus Shedding by 2 Patients, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2025-2027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120722
AMA Taylor C, Playford EG, McBride W, et al. No Evidence of Prolonged Hendra Virus Shedding by 2 Patients, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2025-2027. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120722.
APA Taylor, C., Playford, E. G., McBride, W., McMahon, J., & Warrilow, D. (2012). No Evidence of Prolonged Hendra Virus Shedding by 2 Patients, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2025-2027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120722.

Differentiation of Prions from L-type BSE versus Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [PDF - 1.07 MB - 4 pages]
S. Nicot et al.

We compared transmission characteristics for prions from L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and MM2-cortical sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the Syrian golden hamster and an ovine prion protein–transgenic mouse line and isolated distinct prion strains. Our findings suggest the absence of a causal relationship between these diseases, but further investigation is warranted.

EID Nicot S, Bencsik A, Morignat E, Mestre-Francés N, Perret-Liaudet A, Baron T. Differentiation of Prions from L-type BSE versus Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2028-2031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120342
AMA Nicot S, Bencsik A, Morignat E, et al. Differentiation of Prions from L-type BSE versus Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2028-2031. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120342.
APA Nicot, S., Bencsik, A., Morignat, E., Mestre-Francés, N., Perret-Liaudet, A., & Baron, T. (2012). Differentiation of Prions from L-type BSE versus Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2028-2031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120342.

Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Monkey Facility, Japan [PDF - 249 KB - 3 pages]
H. Yamamoto et al.

An outbreak of hepatitis E virus occurred in an outdoor monkey breeding facility in Japan during 2004–2006. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus was genotype 3. This virus was experimentally transmitted to a cynomolgus monkey. Precautions should be taken by facility personnel who work with monkeys to prevent infection.

EID Yamamoto H, Suzuki J, Matsuda A, Ishida T, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Monkey Facility, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2032-2034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120884
AMA Yamamoto H, Suzuki J, Matsuda A, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Monkey Facility, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2032-2034. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120884.
APA Yamamoto, H., Suzuki, J., Matsuda, A., Ishida, T., Ami, Y., Suzaki, Y....Li, T. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Monkey Facility, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2032-2034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120884.

Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil [PDF - 398 KB - 4 pages]
F. Assis et al.

In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil.

EID Assis F, Borges I, Ferreira P, Bonjardim C, Trindade G, Lobato Z, et al. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2035-2038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120145
AMA Assis F, Borges I, Ferreira P, et al. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2035-2038. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120145.
APA Assis, F., Borges, I., Ferreira, P., Bonjardim, C., Trindade, G., Lobato, Z....Abrahão, J. (2012). Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2035-2038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120145.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Thailand, 2010–2011 [PDF - 392 KB - 5 pages]
D. Nilubol et al.

Characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates from pigs in Thailand showed 30-aa discontinuous deletions in nonstructural protein 2, identical to sequences for highly pathogenic PRRSV. The novel virus is genetically related to PRRSV from China and may have spread to Thailand through illegal transport of infectious animals from bordering countries.

EID Nilubol D, Tripipat T, Hoonsuwan T, Kortheerakul K. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Thailand, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2039-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111105
AMA Nilubol D, Tripipat T, Hoonsuwan T, et al. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Thailand, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2039-2043. doi:10.3201/eid1812.111105.
APA Nilubol, D., Tripipat, T., Hoonsuwan, T., & Kortheerakul, K. (2012). Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Thailand, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2039-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111105.

Cygnet River Virus, a Novel Orthomyxovirus from Ducks, Australia [PDF - 257 KB - 3 pages]
A. Kessell et al.

A novel virus, designated Cygnet River virus (CyRV), was isolated in embryonated eggs from Muscovy ducks in South Australia. CyRV morphologically resembles arenaviruses; however, sequencing identified CyRV as an orthomyxovirus. The high mortality rate among ducks co-infected with salmonellae suggests that CyRV may be pathogenic, either alone or in concert with other infections.

EID Kessell A, Hyatt A, Lehmann D, Shan S, Crameri S, Holmes C, et al. Cygnet River Virus, a Novel Orthomyxovirus from Ducks, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2044-2046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120500
AMA Kessell A, Hyatt A, Lehmann D, et al. Cygnet River Virus, a Novel Orthomyxovirus from Ducks, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2044-2046. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120500.
APA Kessell, A., Hyatt, A., Lehmann, D., Shan, S., Crameri, S., Holmes, C....Smith, I. (2012). Cygnet River Virus, a Novel Orthomyxovirus from Ducks, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2044-2046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120500.

High Diversity of RNA Viruses in Rodents, Ethiopia [PDF - 354 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Meheretu et al.

We investigated synanthropic small mammals in the Ethiopian Highlands as potential reservoirs for human pathogens and found that 2 rodent species, the Ethiopian white-footed mouse and Awash multimammate mouse, are carriers of novel Mobala virus strains. The white-footed mouse also carries a novel hantavirus, the second Murinae-associated hantavirus found in Africa.

EID Meheretu Y, Čížková D, Těšíková J, Welegerima K, Tomas Z, Kidane D, et al. High Diversity of RNA Viruses in Rodents, Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2047-2050. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120596
AMA Meheretu Y, Čížková D, Těšíková J, et al. High Diversity of RNA Viruses in Rodents, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2047-2050. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120596.
APA Meheretu, Y., Čížková, D., Těšíková, J., Welegerima, K., Tomas, Z., Kidane, D....Goüy de Bellocq, J. (2012). High Diversity of RNA Viruses in Rodents, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2047-2050. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120596.

West Nile Virus Neurologic Disease in Humans, South Africa, September 2008–May 2009 [PDF - 216 KB - 4 pages]
D. Zaayman and M. Venter

We investigated West Nile virus (WNV) as a possible disease etiology in persons hospitalized in South Africa. Of 206 specimens tested, 36 had WNV neutralizing antibodies, significantly more than in similar earlier serosurveys. Seven probable acute WNV cases were identified, suggesting WNV may be overlooked as an etiology of severe disease in South Africa.

EID Zaayman D, Venter M. West Nile Virus Neurologic Disease in Humans, South Africa, September 2008–May 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2051-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111208
AMA Zaayman D, Venter M. West Nile Virus Neurologic Disease in Humans, South Africa, September 2008–May 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2051-2054. doi:10.3201/eid1812.111208.
APA Zaayman, D., & Venter, M. (2012). West Nile Virus Neurologic Disease in Humans, South Africa, September 2008–May 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2051-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.111208.

Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh [PDF - 295 KB - 4 pages]
B. Hasan et al.

Multidrug resistance was found in 22.7% of Escherichia coli isolates from bird samples in Bangladesh; 30% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases, including clones of CTX-M genes among wild and domestic birds. Unrestricted use of antimicrobial drugs in feed for domestic birds and the spread of resistance genes to the large bird reservoir in Bangladesh are growing problems.

EID Hasan B, Sandegren L, Melhus Å, Drobni M, Hernandez J, Waldenström J, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2055-2058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120513
AMA Hasan B, Sandegren L, Melhus Å, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2055-2058. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120513.
APA Hasan, B., Sandegren, L., Melhus, Å., Drobni, M., Hernandez, J., Waldenström, J....Olsen, B. (2012). Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2055-2058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120513.

Westward Spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Foxes, France, 2005–2010 [PDF - 546 KB - 4 pages]
B. Combes et al.

During 2005–2010, we investigated Echinococcus multilocularis infection within fox populations in a large area in France. The parasite is much more widely distributed than hitherto thought, spreading west, with a much higher prevalence than previously reported. The parasite also is present in the large conurbation of Paris.

EID Combes B, Comte S, Raton V, Raoul F, Boué F, Umhang G, et al. Westward Spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Foxes, France, 2005–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2059-2062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120219
AMA Combes B, Comte S, Raton V, et al. Westward Spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Foxes, France, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2059-2062. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120219.
APA Combes, B., Comte, S., Raton, V., Raoul, F., Boué, F., Umhang, G....Giraudoux, P. (2012). Westward Spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Foxes, France, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2059-2062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120219.

Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Bank Voles, France [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
M. Vayssier-Taussat et al.

To further assess the geographic occurrence, possible vectors, and prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, we analyzed spleen tissues from 276 voles trapped close to human settlements in France; 5 were infected with the organism. Sequencing showed the isolates carried the same genotype as the bacteria that caused disease in humans and animals elsewhere in Europe.

EID Vayssier-Taussat M, Le Rhun D, Buffet J, Maaoui N, Galan M, Guivier E, et al. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Bank Voles, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2063-2065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120846
AMA Vayssier-Taussat M, Le Rhun D, Buffet J, et al. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Bank Voles, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2063-2065. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120846.
APA Vayssier-Taussat, M., Le Rhun, D., Buffet, J., Maaoui, N., Galan, M., Guivier, E....Cosson, J. (2012). Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Bank Voles, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2063-2065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120846.

Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
V. Duong et al.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand.

EID Duong V, Andries A, Ngan C, Sok T, Richner B, Asgari-Jirhandeh N, et al. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2066-2069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120471
AMA Duong V, Andries A, Ngan C, et al. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2066-2069. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120471.
APA Duong, V., Andries, A., Ngan, C., Sok, T., Richner, B., Asgari-Jirhandeh, N....Buchy, P. (2012). Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2066-2069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120471.

Analysis of Complete Puumala Virus Genome, Finland [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
A. Plyusnina et al.

Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant.

EID Plyusnina A, Razzauti M, Sironen T, Niemimaa J, Vapalahti O, Vaheri A, et al. Analysis of Complete Puumala Virus Genome, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2070-2072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120747
AMA Plyusnina A, Razzauti M, Sironen T, et al. Analysis of Complete Puumala Virus Genome, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2070-2072. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120747.
APA Plyusnina, A., Razzauti, M., Sironen, T., Niemimaa, J., Vapalahti, O., Vaheri, A....Plyusnin, A. (2012). Analysis of Complete Puumala Virus Genome, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2070-2072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120747.

Thelaziosis in Humans, a Zoonotic Infection, Spain, 2011 [PDF - 411 KB - 3 pages]
I. Fuentes et al.

After Thelazia callipaeda infection in dogs and cats were reported in Spain, a human case of thelaziosis in this country was reported, suggesting zoonotic transmission. The active reproductive status of this nematode in situ indicates that humans are competent hosts for this parasite.

EID Fuentes I, Montes I, Saugar JM, Latrofa S, Gárate T, Otranto D. Thelaziosis in Humans, a Zoonotic Infection, Spain, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2073-2075. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120472
AMA Fuentes I, Montes I, Saugar JM, et al. Thelaziosis in Humans, a Zoonotic Infection, Spain, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2073-2075. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120472.
APA Fuentes, I., Montes, I., Saugar, J. M., Latrofa, S., Gárate, T., & Otranto, D. (2012). Thelaziosis in Humans, a Zoonotic Infection, Spain, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2073-2075. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120472.

Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt [PDF - 223 KB - 3 pages]
T. Vergne et al.

We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.

EID Vergne T, Grosbois V, Jobre Y, Saad A, El Nabi A, Galal S, et al. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2076-2078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120616
AMA Vergne T, Grosbois V, Jobre Y, et al. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2076-2078. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120616.
APA Vergne, T., Grosbois, V., Jobre, Y., Saad, A., El Nabi, A., Galal, S....Peyre, M. (2012). Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2076-2078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120616.
Letters

Leptospirosis Diagnostic Challenges, American Samoa [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
C. L. Lau and J. M. DePasquale
EID Lau CL, DePasquale JM. Leptospirosis Diagnostic Challenges, American Samoa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2079-2081. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120429
AMA Lau CL, DePasquale JM. Leptospirosis Diagnostic Challenges, American Samoa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2079-2081. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120429.
APA Lau, C. L., & DePasquale, J. M. (2012). Leptospirosis Diagnostic Challenges, American Samoa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2079-2081. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120429.

African Swine Fever Virus, Tanzania, 2010–2012 [PDF - 220 KB - 3 pages]
G. Misinzo et al.
EID Misinzo G, Kasanga CJ, Mpelumbe–Ngeleja C, Masambu J, Kitambi A, Van Doorsselaere J. African Swine Fever Virus, Tanzania, 2010–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2081-2083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121083
AMA Misinzo G, Kasanga CJ, Mpelumbe–Ngeleja C, et al. African Swine Fever Virus, Tanzania, 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2081-2083. doi:10.3201/eid1812.121083.
APA Misinzo, G., Kasanga, C. J., Mpelumbe–Ngeleja, C., Masambu, J., Kitambi, A., & Van Doorsselaere, J. (2012). African Swine Fever Virus, Tanzania, 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2081-2083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.121083.

Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Bangladesh [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
S. P. Mondal et al.
EID Mondal SP, Tardif-Douglin D, Ryan-Silva R, Magnani R. Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2083-2085. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120635
AMA Mondal SP, Tardif-Douglin D, Ryan-Silva R, et al. Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2083-2085. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120635.
APA Mondal, S. P., Tardif-Douglin, D., Ryan-Silva, R., & Magnani, R. (2012). Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2083-2085. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120635.

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Shellfish, United Kingdom [PDF - 148 KB - 3 pages]
C. Crossan et al.
EID Crossan C, Baker PJ, Craft J, Takeuchi Y, Dalton HR, Scobie L. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Shellfish, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2085-2087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120924
AMA Crossan C, Baker PJ, Craft J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Shellfish, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2085-2087. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120924.
APA Crossan, C., Baker, P. J., Craft, J., Takeuchi, Y., Dalton, H. R., & Scobie, L. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Shellfish, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2085-2087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120924.

Autochthonous Gnathostomiasis, Brazil [PDF - 522 KB - 3 pages]
T. Vargas et al.
EID Vargas T, Kahler S, Dib C, Cavaliere M, Jeunon-Sousa M. Autochthonous Gnathostomiasis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2087-2089. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120367
AMA Vargas T, Kahler S, Dib C, et al. Autochthonous Gnathostomiasis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2087-2089. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120367.
APA Vargas, T., Kahler, S., Dib, C., Cavaliere, M., & Jeunon-Sousa, M. (2012). Autochthonous Gnathostomiasis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2087-2089. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120367.

Zoonotic Transmission of Pathogens by Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania [PDF - 146 KB - 2 pages]
O. Paduraru et al.
EID Paduraru O, Buffet J, Cote M, Bonnet S, Moutailler S, Paduraru V, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Pathogens by Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2089-2090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120711
AMA Paduraru O, Buffet J, Cote M, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Pathogens by Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2089-2090. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120711.
APA Paduraru, O., Buffet, J., Cote, M., Bonnet, S., Moutailler, S., Paduraru, V....Vayssier-Taussat, M. (2012). Zoonotic Transmission of Pathogens by Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2089-2090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120711.

Prion in Saliva of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy–Infected Cattle [PDF - 238 KB - 2 pages]
H. Okada et al.
EID Okada H, Murayama Y, Shimozaki N, Yoshioka M, Masujin K, Imamura M, et al. Prion in Saliva of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy–Infected Cattle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2091-2092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120528
AMA Okada H, Murayama Y, Shimozaki N, et al. Prion in Saliva of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy–Infected Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2091-2092. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120528.
APA Okada, H., Murayama, Y., Shimozaki, N., Yoshioka, M., Masujin, K., Imamura, M....Mohri, S. (2012). Prion in Saliva of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy–Infected Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2091-2092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120528.

Reptile- and Amphibian-associated Salmonellosis in Childcare Centers, United States [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
N. M. Vora et al.
EID Vora NM, Smith KM, Machalaba CC, Karesh WB. Reptile- and Amphibian-associated Salmonellosis in Childcare Centers, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2092-2094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120784
AMA Vora NM, Smith KM, Machalaba CC, et al. Reptile- and Amphibian-associated Salmonellosis in Childcare Centers, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2092-2094. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120784.
APA Vora, N. M., Smith, K. M., Machalaba, C. C., & Karesh, W. B. (2012). Reptile- and Amphibian-associated Salmonellosis in Childcare Centers, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2092-2094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120784.

Migratory Birds, Ticks, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus [PDF - 282 KB - 3 pages]
M. Lindeborg et al.
EID Lindeborg M, Barboutis C, Ehrenborg C, Fransson T, Jaenson T, Lindgren P, et al. Migratory Birds, Ticks, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2095-2097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120718
AMA Lindeborg M, Barboutis C, Ehrenborg C, et al. Migratory Birds, Ticks, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2095-2097. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120718.
APA Lindeborg, M., Barboutis, C., Ehrenborg, C., Fransson, T., Jaenson, T., Lindgren, P....Olsen, B. (2012). Migratory Birds, Ticks, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2095-2097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120718.

Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
J. de la Fuente and C. Gortazar
EID de la Fuente J, Gortazar C. Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2094-2095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120778
AMA de la Fuente J, Gortazar C. Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2094-2095. doi:10.3201/eid1812.120778.
APA de la Fuente, J., & Gortazar, C. (2012). Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2094-2095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.120778.
About the Cover

Why Are We by All Creatures Waited on? [PDF - 157 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Why Are We by All Creatures Waited on?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2098-2099. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.ac1812
AMA Potter P. Why Are We by All Creatures Waited on?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2098-2099. doi:10.3201/eid1812.ac1812.
APA Potter, P. (2012). Why Are We by All Creatures Waited on?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2098-2099. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.ac1812.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Ehrlichia [PDF - 167 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Ehrlichia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.et1812
AMA Etymologia: Ehrlichia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(12):2054. doi:10.3201/eid1812.et1812.
APA (2012). Etymologia: Ehrlichia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1812.et1812.
Online Reports

Surveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion Animals
M. J. Day et al.

The One Health paradigm for global health recognizes that most new human infectious diseases will emerge from animal reservoirs. Little consideration has been given to the known and potential zoonotic infectious diseases of small companion animals. Cats and dogs closely share the domestic environment with humans and have the potential to act as sources and sentinels of a wide spectrum of zoonotic infections. This report highlights the lack of a coordinated global surveillance scheme that monitors disease in these species and makes a case for the necessity of developing a strategy to implement such surveillance.


Workshop on Treatment of and Postexposure Prophylaxis for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei Infection, 2010
R. Lipsitz et al.

The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options.

Conference Summaries

Workshop on Research Priorities for Management and Treatment of Angiostrongyliasis
R. H. Cowie et al.
Page created: December 21, 2012
Page updated: December 21, 2012
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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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