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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 10—October 2014

Volume 20, Number 10—October 2014

[PDF - 16.83 MB - 190 pages]

Synopses

Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012 [PDF - 986 KB - 7 pages]
D. Gandacu et al.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci.

EID Gandacu D, Glazer Y, Anis E, Karakis I, Warshavsky B, Slater P, et al. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1605-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140182
AMA Gandacu D, Glazer Y, Anis E, et al. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1605-1611. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140182.
APA Gandacu, D., Glazer, Y., Anis, E., Karakis, I., Warshavsky, B., Slater, P....Grotto, I. (2014). Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1605-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140182.

Medscape CME Activity
Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Associated with Laparoscopic Gastric Banding, Australia, 2005–2011 [PDF - 683 KB - 8 pages]
H. L. Wright et al.

Laparoscopic gastric banding is a common bariatric procedure worldwide. Rapidly growing mycobacteria are environmental organisms increasingly seen as pathogens, often in infected prosthetic material. We report 18 cases of infection associated with laparoscopic gastric banding caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. abscessus in Australia during 2005–2011. We identified cases by reviewing positive cultures at the Queensland state reference laboratory or through correspondence with clinicians, and we obtained clinical and epidemiologic data. Eleven cases of M. fortuitum and 7 cases of M. abscessus infection were identified. The port was thought to be the primary site of infection in 10 of these cases. Complications included peritonitis, band erosion, and chronic ulceration at the port site. Rapidly growing mycobacteria can infect both port and band and can occur as either an early perioperative or late infection. Combination antimicrobial therapy is used on the basis of in vitro susceptibilities. Device removal seems to be vital to successful therapy.

EID Wright HL, Thomson R, Reid AB, Carter R, Bartley PB, Newton P, et al. Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Associated with Laparoscopic Gastric Banding, Australia, 2005–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1612-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140077
AMA Wright HL, Thomson R, Reid AB, et al. Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Associated with Laparoscopic Gastric Banding, Australia, 2005–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1612-1619. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140077.
APA Wright, H. L., Thomson, R., Reid, A. B., Carter, R., Bartley, P. B., Newton, P....Coulter, C. (2014). Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Associated with Laparoscopic Gastric Banding, Australia, 2005–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1612-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140077.
Research

Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso [PDF - 439 KB - 6 pages]
K. H. Toé et al.

Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods.

EID Toé KH, Jones CM, N’Fale S, Ismail HM, Dabiré RK, Ranson H. Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1691-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140619
AMA Toé KH, Jones CM, N’Fale S, et al. Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1691-1696. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140619.
APA Toé, K. H., Jones, C. M., N’Fale, S., Ismail, H. M., Dabiré, R. K., & Ranson, H. (2014). Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1691-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140619.

Person-to-Person Household and Nosocomial Transmission of Andes Hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011 [PDF - 574 KB - 8 pages]
C. Martinez-Valdebenito et al.

Andes hantavirus (ANDV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile and is the only hantavirus for which person-to-person transmission has been proven. We describe an outbreak of 5 human cases of ANDV infection in which symptoms developed in 2 household contacts and 2 health care workers after exposure to the index case-patient. Results of an epidemiologic investigation and sequence analysis of the virus isolates support person-to-person transmission of ANDV for the 4 secondary case-patients, including nosocomial transmission for the 2 health care workers. Health care personnel who have direct contact with ANDV case-patients or their body fluids should take precautions to prevent transmission of the virus. In addition, because the incubation period of ANDV after environmental exposure is longer than that for person-to-person exposure, all persons exposed to a confirmed ANDV case-patient or with possible environmental exposure to the virus should be monitored for 42 days for clinical symptoms.

EID Martinez-Valdebenito C, Calvo M, Vial C, Mansilla R, Marco C, Palma R, et al. Person-to-Person Household and Nosocomial Transmission of Andes Hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1637-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140353
AMA Martinez-Valdebenito C, Calvo M, Vial C, et al. Person-to-Person Household and Nosocomial Transmission of Andes Hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1637-1644. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140353.
APA Martinez-Valdebenito, C., Calvo, M., Vial, C., Mansilla, R., Marco, C., Palma, R....Ferrés, M. (2014). Person-to-Person Household and Nosocomial Transmission of Andes Hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1637-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140353.

Clinical Isolates of Shiga Toxin 1a–Producing Shigella flexneri with an Epidemiological Link to Recent Travel to Hispañiola [PDF - 672 KB - 9 pages]
M. D. Gray et al.

Shiga toxins (Stx) are cytotoxins involved in severe human intestinal disease. These toxins are commonly found in Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Shiga-toxin–producing Escherichia coli; however, the toxin genes have been found in other Shigella species. We identified 26 Shigella flexneri serotype 2 strains isolated by public health laboratories in the United States during 2001–2013, which encode the Shiga toxin 1a gene (stx1a). These strains produced and released Stx1a as measured by cytotoxicity and neutralization assays using anti-Stx/Stx1a antiserum. The release of Stx1a into culture supernatants increased ≈100-fold after treatment with mitomycin C, suggesting that stx1a is carried by a bacteriophage. Infectious phage were found in culture supernatants and increased ≈1,000-fold with mitomycin C. Whole-genome sequencing of several isolates and PCR analyses of all strains confirmed that stx1a was carried by a lambdoid bacteriophage. Furthermore, all patients who reported foreign travel had recently been to Hispañiola, suggesting that emergence of these novel strains is associated with that region.

EID Gray MD, Lampel KA, Strockbine NA, Fernandez RE, Melton-Celsa AR, Maurelli AT. Clinical Isolates of Shiga Toxin 1a–Producing Shigella flexneri with an Epidemiological Link to Recent Travel to Hispañiola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1669-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140292
AMA Gray MD, Lampel KA, Strockbine NA, et al. Clinical Isolates of Shiga Toxin 1a–Producing Shigella flexneri with an Epidemiological Link to Recent Travel to Hispañiola. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1669-1677. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140292.
APA Gray, M. D., Lampel, K. A., Strockbine, N. A., Fernandez, R. E., Melton-Celsa, A. R., & Maurelli, A. T. (2014). Clinical Isolates of Shiga Toxin 1a–Producing Shigella flexneri with an Epidemiological Link to Recent Travel to Hispañiola. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1669-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140292.

Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease [PDF - 1.07 MB - 8 pages]
A. K. McElroy et al.

Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) occur sporadically in Africa and are associated with high case-fatality rates. Historically, children have been less affected than adults. The 2000–2001 Sudan virus–associated EVD outbreak in the Gulu district of Uganda resulted in 55 pediatric and 161 adult laboratory-confirmed cases. We used a series of multiplex assays to measure the concentrations of 55 serum analytes in specimens from patients from that outbreak to identify biomarkers specific to pediatric disease. Pediatric patients who survived had higher levels of the chemokine regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted marker and lower levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule than did pediatric patients who died. Adult patients had similar levels of these analytes regardless of outcome. Our findings suggest that children with EVD may benefit from different treatment regimens than those for adults.

EID McElroy AK, Erickson BR, Flietstra TD, Rollin PE, Nichol ST, Towner JS, et al. Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1683-1690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140430
AMA McElroy AK, Erickson BR, Flietstra TD, et al. Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1683-1690. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140430.
APA McElroy, A. K., Erickson, B. R., Flietstra, T. D., Rollin, P. E., Nichol, S. T., Towner, J. S....Spiropoulou, C. F. (2014). Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1683-1690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140430.

Medscape CME Activity
Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA [PDF - 521 KB - 7 pages]
D. L. Bonilla et al.

Homeless persons in San Francisco, California, USA, have been shown to have head and body lice infestations and Bartonella quintana infections. We surveyed a self-selected population of homeless persons in San Francisco to assess infestations of head and body lice, risks of having body lice, and presence of B. quintana in lice. A total of 203 persons who reported itching were surveyed during 2008–2010 and 2012: 60 (30%) had body lice, 10 (4.9%) had head lice, and 6 (3.0%) had both. B. quintana was detected in 10 (15.9%) of 63 body lice pools and in 6 (37.5%) of 16 head lice pools. Variables significantly associated (p<0.05) with having body lice in this homeless population included male sex, African–American ethnicity, and sleeping outdoors. Our study findings suggest that specific segments of the homeless population would benefit from information on preventing body lice infestations and louseborne diseases.

EID Bonilla DL, Cole-Porse C, Kjemtrup A, Osikowicz LM, Kosoy MY. Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1645-1651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131655
AMA Bonilla DL, Cole-Porse C, Kjemtrup A, et al. Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1645-1651. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131655.
APA Bonilla, D. L., Cole-Porse, C., Kjemtrup, A., Osikowicz, L. M., & Kosoy, M. Y. (2014). Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1645-1651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131655.

Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations, Singapore, 2004–2008 and 2010–2012 [PDF - 550 KB - 9 pages]
L. Ang et al.

Studies of influenza-associated hospitalizations in tropical settings are lacking. To increase understanding of the effect of influenza in Singapore, we estimated the age-specific influenza-associated hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza during 2004–2008 and 2010–2012. The rate of hospitalization was 28.3/100,000 person-years during 2004–2008 and 29.6/100,000 person-years during 2010–2012. The age-specific influenza-associated hospitalization rates followed a J-shaped pattern: rates in persons >75 years of age and in children <6 months of age were >47 times and >26 times higher, respectively, than those for persons 25–44 years of age. Across all ages during these 2 study periods, ≈12% of the hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza were attributable to influenza. The rates and proportions of hospitalizations attributable to influenza, particularly among the very young and the elderly, are considerable in Singapore and highlight the importance of vaccination in protecting populations at risk.

EID Ang L, Lim C, Lee V, Ma S, Tiong W, Ooi P, et al. Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations, Singapore, 2004–2008 and 2010–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1652-1660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131768
AMA Ang L, Lim C, Lee V, et al. Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations, Singapore, 2004–2008 and 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1652-1660. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131768.
APA Ang, L., Lim, C., Lee, V., Ma, S., Tiong, W., Ooi, P....Cutter, J. (2014). Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations, Singapore, 2004–2008 and 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1652-1660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131768.

Lyme Disease, Virginia, USA, 2000–2011 [PDF - 515 KB - 8 pages]
R. Brinkerhoff et al.

Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), is increasing in incidence and expanding geographically. Recent environmental modeling based on extensive field collections of host-seeking I. scapularis ticks predicted a coastal distribution of ticks in mid-Atlantic states and an elevational limit of 510 m. However, human Lyme disease cases are increasing most dramatically at higher elevations in Virginia, a state where Lyme disease is rapidly emerging. Our goal was to explore the apparent incongruity, during 2000–2011, between human Lyme disease data and predicted and observed I. scapularis distribution. We found significantly higher densities of infected ticks at our highest elevation site than at lower elevation sites. We also found that I. scapularis ticks in Virginia are more closely related to northern than to southern tick populations. Clinicians and epidemiologists should be vigilant in light of the changing spatial distributions of risk.

EID Brinkerhoff R, Gilliam WF, Gaines D. Lyme Disease, Virginia, USA, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1661-1668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130782
AMA Brinkerhoff R, Gilliam WF, Gaines D. Lyme Disease, Virginia, USA, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1661-1668. doi:10.3201/eid2010.130782.
APA Brinkerhoff, R., Gilliam, W. F., & Gaines, D. (2014). Lyme Disease, Virginia, USA, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1661-1668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130782.

Effects of Mefloquine Use on Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance [PDF - 546 KB - 8 pages]
N. Khim et al.

Numerous studies have indicated a strong association between amplification of the multidrug resistance-1 gene and in vivo and in vitro mefloquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Although falciparum infection usually is not treated with mefloquine, incorrect diagnosis, high frequency of undetected mixed infections, or relapses of P. vivax infection triggered by P. falciparum infections expose non–P. falciparum parasites to mefloquine. To assess the consequences of such unintentional treatments on P. vivax, we studied variations in number of Pvmdr-1 (PlasmoDB accession no. PVX_080100, NCBI reference sequence NC_009915.1) copies worldwide in 607 samples collected in areas with different histories of mefloquine use from residents and from travelers returning to France. Number of Pvmdr-1 copies correlated with drug use history. Treatment against P. falciparum exerts substantial collateral pressure against sympatric P. vivax, jeopardizing future use of mefloquine against P. vivax. A drug policy is needed that takes into consideration all co-endemic species of malaria parasites.

EID Khim N, Andrianaranjaka V, Popovici J, Kim S, Ratsimbasoa A, Benedet C, et al. Effects of Mefloquine Use on Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1629-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140411
AMA Khim N, Andrianaranjaka V, Popovici J, et al. Effects of Mefloquine Use on Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1629-1636. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140411.
APA Khim, N., Andrianaranjaka, V., Popovici, J., Kim, S., Ratsimbasoa, A., Benedet, C....Ménard, D. (2014). Effects of Mefloquine Use on Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1629-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140411.

Distinct Characteristics and Complex Evolution of PEDV Strains, North America, May 2013–February 2014 [PDF - 701 KB - 9 pages]
A. N. Vlasova et al.

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which emerged in the United States in 2013, has spread throughout North America. Limited availability of PEDV complete genomes worldwide has impeded our understanding of PEDV introduction into the United States. To determine the relationship between the North American strains and global emerging and historic PEDV strains, we sequenced and analyzed complete genomes of 74 strains from North America; the strains clustered into 2 distinct clades. Compared with the initially reported virulent US PEDV strains, 7 (9.7%) strains from 4 states contained insertions and deletions in the spike gene (S INDELs). These S INDEL strains share 99.8%–100% nt identity with each other and 96.2%–96.7% nt identity with the initial US strains. Furthermore, the S INDEL strains form a distinct cluster within North American clade II, sharing 98.6%–100% nt identity overall. In the United States, the S INDEL and original PEDV strains are co-circulating and could have been introduced simultaneously.

EID Vlasova AN, Marthaler D, Wang Q, Culhane MR, Rossow K, Rovira A, et al. Distinct Characteristics and Complex Evolution of PEDV Strains, North America, May 2013–February 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1620-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140491
AMA Vlasova AN, Marthaler D, Wang Q, et al. Distinct Characteristics and Complex Evolution of PEDV Strains, North America, May 2013–February 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1620-1628. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140491.
APA Vlasova, A. N., Marthaler, D., Wang, Q., Culhane, M. R., Rossow, K., Rovira, A....Jung, K. (2014). Distinct Characteristics and Complex Evolution of PEDV Strains, North America, May 2013–February 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1620-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140491.

Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States [PDF - 389 KB - 5 pages]
C. D. Crowder et al.

Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever-related spirochete transmitted by Ixodes ticks, has been recently shown to be a human pathogen. To characterize the prevalence of this organism in questing Ixodes ticks, we tested 2,754 ticks for a variety of tickborne pathogens by PCR and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from California, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Indiana in the United States and from Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe from 2008 through 2012. In addition, an isolate from Japan was characterized. We found 3 distinct genotypes, 1 for North America, 1 for Europe, and 1 for Japan. We found B. miyamotoi infection in ticks in 16 of the 26 sites surveyed, with infection prevalence as high as 15.4%. These results show the widespread distribution of the pathogen, indicating an exposure risk to humans in areas where Ixodes ticks reside.

EID Crowder CD, Carolan HE, Rounds MA, Honig V, Mothes B, Haag H, et al. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1678-1682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131583
AMA Crowder CD, Carolan HE, Rounds MA, et al. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1678-1682. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131583.
APA Crowder, C. D., Carolan, H. E., Rounds, M. A., Honig, V., Mothes, B., Haag, H....Eshoo, M. W. (2014). Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1678-1682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131583.
Historical Review

Malaria Control and Elimination, Venezuela, 1800s–1970s [PDF - 1.15 MB - 6 pages]
S. M. Griffing et al.

Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

EID Griffing SM, Villegas L, Udhayakumar V. Malaria Control and Elimination, Venezuela, 1800s–1970s. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1691-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130917
AMA Griffing SM, Villegas L, Udhayakumar V. Malaria Control and Elimination, Venezuela, 1800s–1970s. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1691-1696. doi:10.3201/eid2010.130917.
APA Griffing, S. M., Villegas, L., & Udhayakumar, V. (2014). Malaria Control and Elimination, Venezuela, 1800s–1970s. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1691-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130917.
Dispatches

Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia montanensis, Kentucky and Tennessee, USA [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
B. B. Pagac et al.

We found that 14.3% (15/105) of Amblyomma maculatum and 3.3% (10/299) of Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected at 3 high-use military training sites in west-central Kentucky and northern Tennessee, USA, were infected with Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia montanensis, respectively. These findings warrant regional increased public health awareness for rickettsial pathogens and disease.

EID Pagac BB, Miller MK, Mazzei MC, Nielsen DH, Jiang J, Richards AL. Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia montanensis, Kentucky and Tennessee, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1750-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140175
AMA Pagac BB, Miller MK, Mazzei MC, et al. Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia montanensis, Kentucky and Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1750-1752. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140175.
APA Pagac, B. B., Miller, M. K., Mazzei, M. C., Nielsen, D. H., Jiang, J., & Richards, A. L. (2014). Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia montanensis, Kentucky and Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1750-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140175.

Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India [PDF - 439 KB - 4 pages]
P. A. Koul et al.

The seasonality of influenza in the tropics complicates vaccination timing. We investigated influenza seasonality in northern India and found influenza positivity peaked in Srinagar (34.09°N) in January–March but peaked in New Delhi (28.66°N) in July–September. Srinagar should consider influenza vaccination in October–November, but New Delhi should vaccinate in May–June.

EID Koul PA, Broor S, Saha S, Barnes J, Smith C, Shaw M, et al. Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1723-1726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140431
AMA Koul PA, Broor S, Saha S, et al. Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1723-1726. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140431.
APA Koul, P. A., Broor, S., Saha, S., Barnes, J., Smith, C., Shaw, M....Lal, R. B. (2014). Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1723-1726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140431.

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, South Korea, 2013 [PDF - 983 KB - 4 pages]
K. Kim et al.

We report a patient with human granulocytic anaplasmosis in South Korea. The patient had fever and thrombocytopenia. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis was confirmed by seroconversion, PCR, and sequence analysis for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Morulae were observed in the cultured HL-60 cells inoculated with blood from the patient.

EID Kim K, Yi J, Oh W, Kim N, Choi S, Choe P, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1708-1711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131680
AMA Kim K, Yi J, Oh W, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1708-1711. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131680.
APA Kim, K., Yi, J., Oh, W., Kim, N., Choi, S., Choe, P....Kayali, G. (2014). Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1708-1711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131680.

Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA [PDF - 331 KB - 3 pages]
A. Mete et al.

During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted.

EID Mete A, Stephenson N, Rogers K, Hawkins MG, Sadar M, Guzman D, et al. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1716-1718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140504
AMA Mete A, Stephenson N, Rogers K, et al. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1716-1718. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140504.
APA Mete, A., Stephenson, N., Rogers, K., Hawkins, M. G., Sadar, M., Guzman, D....Foley, J. (2014). Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1716-1718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140504.

Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013 [PDF - 554 KB - 5 pages]
S. Puzelli et al.

During an influenza A(H7N7) virus outbreak among poultry in Italy during August–September 2013, infection with a highly pathogenic A(H7N7) avian influenza virus was diagnosed for 3 poultry workers with conjunctivitis. Genetic analyses revealed that the viruses from the humans were closely related to those from chickens on affected farms.

EID Puzelli S, Rossini G, Facchini M, Vaccari G, Di Trani L, Di Martino A, et al. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1741-1745. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140512
AMA Puzelli S, Rossini G, Facchini M, et al. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1741-1745. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140512.
APA Puzelli, S., Rossini, G., Facchini, M., Vaccari, G., Di Trani, L., Di Martino, A....Donatelli, I. (2014). Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1741-1745. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140512.

Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon [PDF - 798 KB - 4 pages]
M. Saroufim et al.

In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

EID Saroufim M, Charafeddine K, Issa G, Khalifeh H, Habib RH, Berry A, et al. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1712-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140288
AMA Saroufim M, Charafeddine K, Issa G, et al. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1712-1715. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140288.
APA Saroufim, M., Charafeddine, K., Issa, G., Khalifeh, H., Habib, R. H., Berry, A....Khalifeh, I. (2014). Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1712-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140288.

Novel Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Chickens, Jilin Province, China, 2014 [PDF - 473 KB - 4 pages]
J. Shi et al.

In February 2014, while investigating the source of a human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in northern China, we isolated subtypes H7N2 and H9N2 viruses from chickens on the patient’s farm. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. Continued surveillance is needed.

EID Shi J, Deng G, Zeng X, Kong H, Wang X, Lu K, et al. Novel Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Chickens, Jilin Province, China, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1719-1722. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140869
AMA Shi J, Deng G, Zeng X, et al. Novel Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Chickens, Jilin Province, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1719-1722. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140869.
APA Shi, J., Deng, G., Zeng, X., Kong, H., Wang, X., Lu, K....Chen, H. (2014). Novel Influenza A(H7N2) Virus in Chickens, Jilin Province, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1719-1722. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140869.

Treatment of Giardiasis after Nonresponse to Nitroimidazole [PDF - 296 KB - 3 pages]
E. Schwartz et al.

During January 2008–October 2013, a total of 12 cases of giardiasis at the Chaim Sheba and Shaare Zedek Medical Centers, Israel, did not respond to nitroimidazole; 83.3% were associated with travel and 33% with immunoglobulin deficiency. Among 110 published cases, the most effective treatment was quinacrine (efficacy 90%–100%), but its availability is limited.

EID Schwartz E, Lachish T, Meltzer E. Treatment of Giardiasis after Nonresponse to Nitroimidazole. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1738-1740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140073
AMA Schwartz E, Lachish T, Meltzer E. Treatment of Giardiasis after Nonresponse to Nitroimidazole. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1738-1740. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140073.
APA Schwartz, E., Lachish, T., & Meltzer, E. (2014). Treatment of Giardiasis after Nonresponse to Nitroimidazole. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1738-1740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140073.

Evidence of Recombinant Strains of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2013 [PDF - 419 KB - 4 pages]
P. Tian et al.

To investigate the evolutionary process by which porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the United States hypothetically descended from strains in China, we analyzed PEDV-positive samples collected in China during January 2012–July 2013. Recombination in 2 strain sublineages was likely associated with identification of PEDV in the United States in 2013.

EID Tian P, Jin Y, Xing G, Qv L, Huang Y, Zhou J. Evidence of Recombinant Strains of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1731-1734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140338
AMA Tian P, Jin Y, Xing G, et al. Evidence of Recombinant Strains of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1731-1734. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140338.
APA Tian, P., Jin, Y., Xing, G., Qv, L., Huang, Y., & Zhou, J. (2014). Evidence of Recombinant Strains of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1731-1734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140338.

Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011 [PDF - 424 KB - 4 pages]
R. Smith et al.

We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening.

EID Smith R, Elias SP, Borelli TJ, Missaghi B, York BJ, Kessler RA, et al. Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1727-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130938
AMA Smith R, Elias SP, Borelli TJ, et al. Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1727-1730. doi:10.3201/eid2010.130938.
APA Smith, R., Elias, S. P., Borelli, T. J., Missaghi, B., York, B. J., Kessler, R. A....Rand, P. W. (2014). Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1727-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130938.

Autochthonous Melioidosis in Humans, Madagascar, 2012 and 2013 [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
B. Garin et al.

Melioidosis is an often fatal infectious disease affecting humans and animals in the tropics. Only sporadic cases have been reported from Africa and the Indian Ocean region. We describe 2 confirmed autochthonous cases of human melioidosis in Madagascar, both from novel genotypes of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

EID Garin B, Djaomazala I, Dubois-Cauwelaert N, Raharimanga V, Ralison F, Herindrainy P, et al. Autochthonous Melioidosis in Humans, Madagascar, 2012 and 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1735-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131524
AMA Garin B, Djaomazala I, Dubois-Cauwelaert N, et al. Autochthonous Melioidosis in Humans, Madagascar, 2012 and 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1735-1737. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131524.
APA Garin, B., Djaomazala, I., Dubois-Cauwelaert, N., Raharimanga, V., Ralison, F., Herindrainy, P....Currie, B. J. (2014). Autochthonous Melioidosis in Humans, Madagascar, 2012 and 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1735-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131524.

Prevalence of Arcobacter Species among Humans, Belgium, 2008–2013 [PDF - 815 KB - 4 pages]
A. Van den Abeele et al.

We examined fecal samples from 6,774 patients with enteritis in Belgium, 2008–2013. Members of the genus Arcobacter were the fourth most common pathogen group isolated, and the isolation rate was higher than previously reported. Culturing Arcobacter in a microbiology laboratory is feasible and should thus be tested for in cases of diarrheal disease.

EID Van den Abeele A, Vogelaers D, Van Hende J, Houf K. Prevalence of Arcobacter Species among Humans, Belgium, 2008–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1746-1749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140433
AMA Van den Abeele A, Vogelaers D, Van Hende J, et al. Prevalence of Arcobacter Species among Humans, Belgium, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1746-1749. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140433.
APA Van den Abeele, A., Vogelaers, D., Van Hende, J., & Houf, K. (2014). Prevalence of Arcobacter Species among Humans, Belgium, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1746-1749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140433.

Haemophilus ducreyi Associated with Skin Ulcers among Children, Solomon Islands [PDF - 312 KB - 3 pages]
M. Marks et al.

During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Emergence of H. ducreyi as a cause of nongenital ulcers may affect the World Health Organization’s yaws eradication program.

EID Marks M, Chi K, Vahi V, Pillay A, Sokana O, Pavluck A, et al. Haemophilus ducreyi Associated with Skin Ulcers among Children, Solomon Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1705-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140573
AMA Marks M, Chi K, Vahi V, et al. Haemophilus ducreyi Associated with Skin Ulcers among Children, Solomon Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1705-1707. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140573.
APA Marks, M., Chi, K., Vahi, V., Pillay, A., Sokana, O., Pavluck, A....Solomon, A. W. (2014). Haemophilus ducreyi Associated with Skin Ulcers among Children, Solomon Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1705-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140573.
Letters

Imported Malaria in China, 2012 [PDF - 286 KB - 3 pages]
J. Feng et al.
EID Feng J, Yan H, Feng X, Zhang L, Li M, Xia Z, et al. Imported Malaria in China, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1778-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140595
AMA Feng J, Yan H, Feng X, et al. Imported Malaria in China, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1778-1780. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140595.
APA Feng, J., Yan, H., Feng, X., Zhang, L., Li, M., Xia, Z....Xiao, N. (2014). Imported Malaria in China, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1778-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140595.

Probable Importation of Dengue Virus Type 4 to Angola from Brazil [PDF - 319 KB - 2 pages]
E. Meltzer et al.
EID Meltzer E, Lustig Y, Glichinsky O, Steiner F, Schwartz E. Probable Importation of Dengue Virus Type 4 to Angola from Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1775-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140609
AMA Meltzer E, Lustig Y, Glichinsky O, et al. Probable Importation of Dengue Virus Type 4 to Angola from Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1775-1776. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140609.
APA Meltzer, E., Lustig, Y., Glichinsky, O., Steiner, F., & Schwartz, E. (2014). Probable Importation of Dengue Virus Type 4 to Angola from Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1775-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140609.

Marburgvirus Resurgence in Kitaka Mine Bat Population after Extermination Attempts, Uganda [PDF - 366 KB - 4 pages]
B. Amman et al.
EID Amman B, Nyakarahuka L, McElroy AK, Dodd KA, Sealy T, Schuh AJ, et al. Marburgvirus Resurgence in Kitaka Mine Bat Population after Extermination Attempts, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1761-1764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140696
AMA Amman B, Nyakarahuka L, McElroy AK, et al. Marburgvirus Resurgence in Kitaka Mine Bat Population after Extermination Attempts, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1761-1764. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140696.
APA Amman, B., Nyakarahuka, L., McElroy, A. K., Dodd, K. A., Sealy, T., Schuh, A. J....Towner, J. S. (2014). Marburgvirus Resurgence in Kitaka Mine Bat Population after Extermination Attempts, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1761-1764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140696.

Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Algeria [PDF - 295 KB - 2 pages]
W. Benredjem et al.
EID Benredjem W, Leulmi H, Bitam I, Raoult D, Parola P. Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1776-1777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140265
AMA Benredjem W, Leulmi H, Bitam I, et al. Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1776-1777. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140265.
APA Benredjem, W., Leulmi, H., Bitam, I., Raoult, D., & Parola, P. (2014). Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1776-1777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140265.

Pulmonary Disease Caused by Mycobacterium marseillense, Italy [PDF - 308 KB - 2 pages]
A. Grottola et al.
EID Grottola A, Roversi P, Fabio A, Antenora F, Apice M, Tagliazucchi S, et al. Pulmonary Disease Caused by Mycobacterium marseillense, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1769-1770. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140309
AMA Grottola A, Roversi P, Fabio A, et al. Pulmonary Disease Caused by Mycobacterium marseillense, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1769-1770. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140309.
APA Grottola, A., Roversi, P., Fabio, A., Antenora, F., Apice, M., Tagliazucchi, S....Pecorari, M. (2014). Pulmonary Disease Caused by Mycobacterium marseillense, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1769-1770. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140309.

Usutu Virus in Bats, Germany, 2013 [PDF - 337 KB - 3 pages]
D. Cadar et al.
EID Cadar D, Becker N, Campos R, Börstler J, Jöst H, Schmidt-Chanasit J. Usutu Virus in Bats, Germany, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1771-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140909
AMA Cadar D, Becker N, Campos R, et al. Usutu Virus in Bats, Germany, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1771-1773. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140909.
APA Cadar, D., Becker, N., Campos, R., Börstler, J., Jöst, H., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2014). Usutu Virus in Bats, Germany, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1771-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140909.

Chikungunya Virus Imported into French Polynesia, 2014 [PDF - 686 KB - 2 pages]
T. Nhan et al.
EID Nhan T, Claverie A, Roche C, Teissier A, Colleuil M, Baudet J, et al. Chikungunya Virus Imported into French Polynesia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1773-1774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.141060
AMA Nhan T, Claverie A, Roche C, et al. Chikungunya Virus Imported into French Polynesia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1773-1774. doi:10.3201/eid2010.141060.
APA Nhan, T., Claverie, A., Roche, C., Teissier, A., Colleuil, M., Baudet, J....Musso, D. (2014). Chikungunya Virus Imported into French Polynesia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1773-1774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.141060.

Two Human Cases of Rickettsia felis Infection, Thailand [PDF - 291 KB - 2 pages]
S. Edouard et al.
EID Edouard S, Bhengsri S, Dowell SF, Watt G, Parola P, Raoult D. Two Human Cases of Rickettsia felis Infection, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1780-1781. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140905
AMA Edouard S, Bhengsri S, Dowell SF, et al. Two Human Cases of Rickettsia felis Infection, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1780-1781. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140905.
APA Edouard, S., Bhengsri, S., Dowell, S. F., Watt, G., Parola, P., & Raoult, D. (2014). Two Human Cases of Rickettsia felis Infection, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1780-1781. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140905.

Identification of New Provisional Simian Adenovirus Species from Captive Monkeys, China [PDF - 309 KB - 2 pages]
K. R. Foytich et al.
EID Foytich KR, Deshazer G, Esona MD, Liu A, Wang Y, Tu X, et al. Identification of New Provisional Simian Adenovirus Species from Captive Monkeys, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1758-1759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131255
AMA Foytich KR, Deshazer G, Esona MD, et al. Identification of New Provisional Simian Adenovirus Species from Captive Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1758-1759. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131255.
APA Foytich, K. R., Deshazer, G., Esona, M. D., Liu, A., Wang, Y., Tu, X....Jiang, B. (2014). Identification of New Provisional Simian Adenovirus Species from Captive Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1758-1759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131255.

Three-Toed Sloth as Putative Reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, Cayenne, French Guiana [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
B. Davoust et al.
EID Davoust B, Marié J, Pommier de Santi V, Berenger J, Edouard S, Raoult D. Three-Toed Sloth as Putative Reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, Cayenne, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1760-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140694
AMA Davoust B, Marié J, Pommier de Santi V, et al. Three-Toed Sloth as Putative Reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, Cayenne, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1760-1761. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140694.
APA Davoust, B., Marié, J., Pommier de Santi, V., Berenger, J., Edouard, S., & Raoult, D. (2014). Three-Toed Sloth as Putative Reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, Cayenne, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1760-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140694.

Rickettsia felis and Changing Paradigms about Pathogenic Rickettsiae [PDF - 256 KB - 2 pages]
M. B. Labruna and D. Walker
EID Labruna MB, Walker D. Rickettsia felis and Changing Paradigms about Pathogenic Rickettsiae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1768-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131797
AMA Labruna MB, Walker D. Rickettsia felis and Changing Paradigms about Pathogenic Rickettsiae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1768-1769. doi:10.3201/eid2010.131797.
APA Labruna, M. B., & Walker, D. (2014). Rickettsia felis and Changing Paradigms about Pathogenic Rickettsiae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1768-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131797.

Detection of Measles Virus Genotype B3, India [PDF - 271 KB - 3 pages]
V. S. Kuttiatt et al.
EID Kuttiatt VS, Kalpathodi S, Gangadharan ST, Kailas L, Sreekumar E, Sukumaran SM, et al. Detection of Measles Virus Genotype B3, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1764-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130742
AMA Kuttiatt VS, Kalpathodi S, Gangadharan ST, et al. Detection of Measles Virus Genotype B3, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1764-1766. doi:10.3201/eid2010.130742.
APA Kuttiatt, V. S., Kalpathodi, S., Gangadharan, S. T., Kailas, L., Sreekumar, E., Sukumaran, S. M....Nair, R. R. (2014). Detection of Measles Virus Genotype B3, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1764-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130742.

O’nyong-nyong Virus Infection Imported to Europe from Kenya by a Traveler [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
D. Tappe et al.
EID Tappe D, Kapaun A, Emmerich P, Campos R, Cadar D, Günther S, et al. O’nyong-nyong Virus Infection Imported to Europe from Kenya by a Traveler. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1766-1767. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140823
AMA Tappe D, Kapaun A, Emmerich P, et al. O’nyong-nyong Virus Infection Imported to Europe from Kenya by a Traveler. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1766-1767. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140823.
APA Tappe, D., Kapaun, A., Emmerich, P., Campos, R., Cadar, D., Günther, S....Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2014). O’nyong-nyong Virus Infection Imported to Europe from Kenya by a Traveler. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1766-1767. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140823.
Another Dimension

Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague [PDF - 859 KB - 5 pages]
M. Riva et al.
EID Riva M, Benedetti M, Cesana G. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1753-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130278
AMA Riva M, Benedetti M, Cesana G. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1753-1757. doi:10.3201/eid2010.130278.
APA Riva, M., Benedetti, M., & Cesana, G. (2014). Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1753-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130278.
Books and Media

Emerging Infections: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance [PDF - 243 KB - 1 page]
F. J. Sorvillo
EID Sorvillo FJ. Emerging Infections: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.141110
AMA Sorvillo FJ. Emerging Infections: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1782. doi:10.3201/eid2010.141110.
APA Sorvillo, F. J. (2014). Emerging Infections: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.141110.
About the Cover

A Fragile Dignity Despite Their Rags and Tatters [PDF - 2.06 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. A Fragile Dignity Despite Their Rags and Tatters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1784-1785. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.ac2010
AMA Breedlove B. A Fragile Dignity Despite Their Rags and Tatters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1784-1785. doi:10.3201/eid2010.ac2010.
APA Breedlove, B. (2014). A Fragile Dignity Despite Their Rags and Tatters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1784-1785. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.ac2010.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Knemidocoptic Mange
B. Somda
EID Somda B. Etymologia: Knemidocoptic Mange. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(10):1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.et2010
AMA Somda B. Etymologia: Knemidocoptic Mange. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(10):1715. doi:10.3201/eid2010.et2010.
APA Somda, B. (2014). Etymologia: Knemidocoptic Mange. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.et2010.
Online Reports

Dengue Expansion in Africa—Not Recognized or Not Happening?
T. Jaenisch et al.

An expert conference on Dengue in Africa was held in Accra, Ghana, in February 2013 to consider key questions regarding the possible expansion of dengue in Africa. Four key action points were highlighted to advance our understanding of the epidemiology of dengue in Africa. First, dengue diagnostic tools must be made more widely available in the healthcare setting in Africa. Second, representative data need to be collected across Africa to uncover the true burden of dengue. Third, established networks should collaborate to produce these types of data. Fourth, policy needs to be informed so the necessary steps can be taken to provide dengue vector control and health services.

Page created: May 05, 2015
Page updated: May 05, 2015
Page reviewed: May 05, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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