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Volume 22, Number 1—January 2016

Research

Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Herd Immunity after Introduction of Vaccination Program, Scotland, 2009–2013

Ross L. CameronComments to Author , Kimberley Kavanagh, Jiafeng Pan, John Love, Kate Cuschieri, Chris Robertson, Syed Ahmed, Timothy Palmer, and Kevin G.J. Pollock
Author affiliations: Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (R.L. Cameron, J. Love, S. Ahmed, K.G.J. Pollock); University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (K. Kavanagh, J. Pan, C. Robertson); Scottish Human Papillomavirus Reference Laboratory, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (K. Cuschieri); University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (T. Palmer)

Main Article

Table 5

Adjusted odds of positivity for high-risk HPV excluding vaccine and cross-protective types and any HPV type by birth year, number of doses received, SIMD score, and age at vaccination, Scotland, 2009–2013*

Variable High-risk HPV types, excluding vaccine and cross-protective types†
Any HPV
Adjusted OR (95% CI)‡ Linear trend p value Adjusted OR (95% CI)‡ Linear trend p value
Birth year 0.0147 0.1158
1988 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
1989 1.18 (0.97–1.44) 1.08 (0.91–1.29)
1990 1.41 (1.16–1.72) 1.10 (0.92–1.32)
1991 1.32 (1.04–1.69) 1.36 (1.08–1.71)
1992 1.49 (1.16–1.91) 1.39 (1.10–1.77)
1993
1.46 (1.06–2.00)


1.13 (0.84–1.53)

No. doses vaccine received 0.2953 0.004
0 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
1 0.89 (0.53–1.48) 0.78 (0.48–1.30)
2 0.84 (0.56–1.27) 0.72 (0.48–1.07)
3
0.80 (0.63–1.02)


0.60 (0.48–0.76)

SIMD quintile 0.1378 0.0002
1 (most deprived) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
2 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.93 (0.80–1.10)
3 0.99 (0.84–1.18) 0.83 (0.70–0.97)
4 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 0.87 (0.74–1.03)
5 (least deprived)
0.87 (0.73–1.03)


0.73 (0.62–0.86)

Age at vaccination, y§ 0.4541 0.331
15–16 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
17 1.40 (1.10–1.77) 1.2 (0.95–1.51)
18 0.98 (0.71–1.35) 1.24 (0.92–1.68)
>18 0.98 (0.60–1.57) 1.25 (0.80–1.96)

*HPV, human papillomavirus; OR, odds ratio; SIMD, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation.
†HPV 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, or 68.
‡Adjusted for birth cohort year, SIMD score, and age at vaccination.
§For those vaccinated.

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