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Volume 24, Number 5—May 2018

Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007–2016

Andrew Fox-LewisComments to Author , Junko Takata, Thyl Miliya, Yoel Lubell, Sona Soeng, Poda Sar, Kolthida Rith, Gregor McKellar, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Erin McGonagle, Nicole Stoesser, Catrin E. Moore, Christopher M. Parry, Claudia Turner, Nicholas P.J. Day, Ben S. Cooper, and Paul Turner
Author affiliations: University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (A. Fox-Lewis, J. Takata, Y. Lubell, N. Stoesser, C.E. Moore, C. Turner, N.P.J. Day, B.S. Cooper, P. Turner); Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia (A. Fox-Lewis, T. Miliya, S. Soeng, P. Sar, K. Rith, G. McKellar, C. Turner, P. Turner); Cambodia-Oxford Medical Research Unit, Siem Reap (A. Fox-Lewis, T. Miliya, S. Soeng, P. Sar, K. Rith, C. Turner, P. Turner); Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Bangkok, Thailand (Y. Lubell, V. Wuthiekanun, C.E. Moore, N.P.J. Day, B.S. Cooper); University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA (E. McGonagle); Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK (C.M. Parry); Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (C.M. Parry)

Main Article

Table 5

Logistic regression analysis of resistance trends for the gram-positive Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, 2007–2016*

Pathogen, resistance type, predictor variable Univariable analysis
Multivariable analysis
OR (95% CI) p value OR ratio (95% CI) p value
S. aureus
Year of isolation
2007–2008 Ref Ref Ref Ref
2009–2010 0.90 (0.18–4.93) 0.899 1.26 (0.23–7.59) 0.787
2011–2012 1.80 (0.47–8.90) 0.418 2.64 (0.62–14.48) 0.215
2013–2014 0.59 (0.10–3.42) 0.538 0.66 (0.10–4.19) 0.649
2015–2016 1.48 (0.35–7.61) 0.603 1.84 (0.39–10.47) 0.455
Patient age†
Nonneonate Ref Ref Ref Ref
Neonate 0.18 (0.01–0.88) 0.094 0.14 (0.01–0.75) 0.064
Infection type‡
Community-acquired Ref Ref Ref Ref
6.21 (2.16–17.43)

7.80 (2.51–24.81)
S. pneumoniae§
Years of isolation
2007–2008 Ref Ref Ref Ref
2009–2010 0.60 (0.12–2.90) 0.525 0.70 (0.13–3.66) 0.669
2011–2012 0.52 (0.11–2.28) 0.385 0.42 (0.08–1.95) 0.269
2013–2014 0.72 (0.16–3.12) 0.663 0.77 (0.16–3.57) 0.737
2015–2016 1.87 (0.38–8.77) 0.424 1.89 (0.36–9.59) 0.436
Patient age, y
>5 Ref Ref Ref Ref
<5 3.40 (1.63- 7.39) 0.001 3.87 (1.77–8.83) <0.001

*OR, odds ratio; ref, referent.
†Ages are grouped into neonate (0–28 d) vs. nonneonate (>29 d) or <5 y vs. >5 y, as appropriate for the organism.
‡Isolates were defined as hospital-acquired if taken >48 hours after patient admission.
§Analysis included community-acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates only (n = 160).

Main Article

Page created: April 17, 2018
Page updated: April 17, 2018
Page reviewed: April 17, 2018
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