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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007

Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007

[PDF - 10.66 MB - 179 pages]

Perspective

Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins [PDF - 225 KB - 8 pages]
G. S. Trindade et al.

Although the World Health Organization (WHO) declared global smallpox eradicated in 1980, concerns over emergent poxvirus infections have increased. Most poxvirus infections are zoonotic; exploring their genetic diversity will illuminate the genetic and evolutionary aspects of poxvirus infections, ecology, and epidemiology. In recent decades, several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including many genetically distinct isolates within the same outbreak. To further investigate the diversity and origins of these viruses, we analyzed molecular data from 8 Brazilian VACV isolates and compared several genes involved in virus structure and pathogenicity. Genetic variation among isolates suggests that ancestral Brazilian VACVs existed before the beginning of the WHO smallpox eradication vaccination campaigns and that these viruses continue to circulate.

EID Trindade GS, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, G. E, Damon IK. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061404
AMA Trindade GS, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, et al. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):965. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061404.
APA Trindade, G. S., Emerson, G. L., Carroll, D. S., G., E., & Damon, I. K. (2007). Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061404.
Synopses

Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China [PDF - 559 KB - 7 pages]
Y. Li et al.

Construction of the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River will substantially change the ecology of the Dongting Lake in southern China. In addition, the Central and Hunan Provinces’ governmental authorities have instigated a Return Land to Lake Program that will extend the Dongting Lake surface area from the current 2,681 km2 to 4,350 km2.The previous construction of embankments and the large silt deposits made by the Yangtze River and other connecting rivers have contributed to frequent disastrous flooding. As a consequence of the 2 water projects, >2 million persons and their domestic animals are being resettled. This article provides an overview of the historical background of these 2 large water management projects, the associated population movement, and their impact on future transmission and control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area. The dam will likely substantially extend the range of the snail habitats and increase schistosome transmission and schistosomiasis cases.

EID Li Y, Raso G, Zhao Z, He Y, Ellis MK, McManus DP. Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070848
AMA Li Y, Raso G, Zhao Z, et al. Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):973. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070848.
APA Li, Y., Raso, G., Zhao, Z., He, Y., Ellis, M. K., & McManus, D. P. (2007). Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070848.

Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus [PDF - 861 KB - 6 pages]
J. Song et al.

Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) has been placed in the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae by virtue of its morphologic features and overall genetic similarities to well-characterized rodentborne hantaviruses. This virus has been isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus); however, whether TPMV is naturally harbored by an insectivore host or represents spillover from a rodent reservoir host is unknown. Our analysis of published and unpublished data on the experimental host range, genetics, and molecular phylogeny of TPMV supports coevolution of TPMV with its nonrodent reservoir host. Future studies on the epizootiology of TPMV and investigations of new shrewborne hantaviruses will provide additional insights into the evolutionary origin of hantaviruses in their rodent and insectivore reservoir hosts. Such investigations may also provide clues about determinants of hantavirus pathogenicity and virulence.

EID Song J, Baek LJ, Schmaljohn CS, Yanagihara R. Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070031
AMA Song J, Baek LJ, Schmaljohn CS, et al. Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):980. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070031.
APA Song, J., Baek, L. J., Schmaljohn, C. S., & Yanagihara, R. (2007). Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070031.
Research

Virulence Characteristics of Klebsiella and Clinical Manifestations of K. pneumoniae Bloodstream Infections [PDF - 244 KB - 8 pages]
V. L. Yu et al.

We studied 455 consecutive episodes of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia occurring in 7 countries. Community-acquired pneumonia and an invasive syndrome of liver abscess, meningitis, or endophthalmitis occurred only in Taiwan and South Africa. Infections by K1 and K2 capsular serotype, the mucoid phenotype, and aerobactin production were important determinants of virulence. The mucoid phenotype was seen in 94% of isolates in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and in 100% of isolates that caused the invasive syndrome in Taiwan and South Africa, compared with only 2% of isolates elsewhere. Mortality of mice injected with mucoid strains (69%) was strikingly higher than that occurring in mice injected with nonmucoid strains (3%, p<0.001). Differences in clinical features of bacteremic infection with K. pneumoniae are due to the virulence factors expressed by the organism.

EID Yu VL, Hansen DS, Ko WC, Sagnimeni A, Klugman KP, Goossens H, et al. Virulence Characteristics of Klebsiella and Clinical Manifestations of K. pneumoniae Bloodstream Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070187
AMA Yu VL, Hansen DS, Ko WC, et al. Virulence Characteristics of Klebsiella and Clinical Manifestations of K. pneumoniae Bloodstream Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):986. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070187.
APA Yu, V. L., Hansen, D. S., Ko, W. C., Sagnimeni, A., Klugman, K. P., Goossens, H....Africa, M. D. (2007). Virulence Characteristics of Klebsiella and Clinical Manifestations of K. pneumoniae Bloodstream Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070187.

Antimicrobial Drugs and Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United Kingdom [PDF - 276 KB - 8 pages]
V. Schneider-Lindner et al.

We report results of a case–control study of the association between receipt of antimicrobial agents and diagnosis of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the United Kingdom. Eligible adults, selected from the General Practice Research Database, had no previous diagnosis of MRSA, no hospitalization in the past 2 years, and >2 years of follow-up recorded in the database. For 2000–2004, we identified 1,981 MRSA case-patients and 19,779 matched control-patients. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MRSA diagnosis for patients who were prescribed 1, 2–3, or >4 antimicrobial drugs were 1.57 (CI 1.36–1.80), 2.46 (CI 2.15–2.83), and 6.24 (CI 5.43–7.17), respectively. Risk for community-acquired MRSA increased with number of antimicrobial drug prescriptions, appeared to vary according to antimicrobial drug classes prescribed the previous year, and was highest for quinolones (OR 3.37, CI 2.80–4.09) and macrolides (OR 2.50, CI 2.14–2.91).

EID Schneider-Lindner V, Delaney JA, Dial S, Dascal A, Suissa S. Antimicrobial Drugs and Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061561
AMA Schneider-Lindner V, Delaney JA, Dial S, et al. Antimicrobial Drugs and Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):994. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061561.
APA Schneider-Lindner, V., Delaney, J. A., Dial, S., Dascal, A., & Suissa, S. (2007). Antimicrobial Drugs and Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061561.

Antiretroviral Therapy during Tuberculosis Treatment and Marked Reduction in Death Rate of HIV-Infected Patients, Thailand [PDF - 103 KB - 7 pages]
S. Akksilp et al.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is lifesaving in patients with advanced HIV infection, but the magnitude of benefit in HIV-infected patients receiving tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains uncertain, and population-based data from developing countries are limited. We prospectively collected data about HIV-infected TB patients from February 2003 through January 2004 in Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand. During 12 months, HIV was diagnosed in 329 (14%) of 2,342 patients registered for TB treatment. Of patients with known outcomes, death during TB treatment occurred in 5 (7%) of 71 who received ART and 94 (43%) of 219 who did not. Using multivariate analysis, we found a large reduction in the odds of death for patients receiving ART before or during TB treatment (odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1–0.5), adjusting for CD4 count, smear status, co-trimoxazole use, and treatment facility. ART is associated with a substantial reduction in deaths during TB treatment for HIV-infected TB patients in Thailand.

EID Akksilp S, Karnkawinpong O, Wattanaamornkiat W, Viriyakitja D, Monkongdee P, Sitti W, et al. Antiretroviral Therapy during Tuberculosis Treatment and Marked Reduction in Death Rate of HIV-Infected Patients, Thailand1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061506
AMA Akksilp S, Karnkawinpong O, Wattanaamornkiat W, et al. Antiretroviral Therapy during Tuberculosis Treatment and Marked Reduction in Death Rate of HIV-Infected Patients, Thailand1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1001. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061506.
APA Akksilp, S., Karnkawinpong, O., Wattanaamornkiat, W., Viriyakitja, D., Monkongdee, P., Sitti, W....Varma, J. K. (2007). Antiretroviral Therapy during Tuberculosis Treatment and Marked Reduction in Death Rate of HIV-Infected Patients, Thailand1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061506.

Ongoing Genome Reduction in Mycobacterium ulcerans [PDF - 338 KB - 8 pages]
S. Rondini et al.

Elucidation of the transmission, epidemiology, and evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is hampered by the striking lack of genetic diversity of this emerging pathogen. However, by using a prototype plasmid-based microarray that covered 10% of the genome, we found multiple genomic DNA deletions among 30 M. ulcerans clinical isolates of diverse geographic origins. Many of the changes appear to have been mediated by insertion sequence (IS) elements IS2404 and IS2606, which have high copy numbers. Classification of the deleted genes according to their biological functions supports the hypothesis that M. ulcerans has recently evolved from the generalist environmental M. marinum to become a niche-adapted specialist. The substantial genomic diversity, along with a prototype microarray that covered a small portion of the genome, suggests that a genome-wide microarray will make available a genetic fingerprinting method with the high resolution required for microepidemiologic studies.

EID Rondini S, Käser M, Stinear TP, Tessier M, Mangold C, Dernick G, et al. Ongoing Genome Reduction in Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060205
AMA Rondini S, Käser M, Stinear TP, et al. Ongoing Genome Reduction in Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1008. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060205.
APA Rondini, S., Käser, M., Stinear, T. P., Tessier, M., Mangold, C., Dernick, G....Pluschke, G. (2007). Ongoing Genome Reduction in Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060205.

Rift Valley Fever Outbreak with East-Central African Virus Lineage in Mauritania, 2003 [PDF - 341 KB - 8 pages]
O. Faye et al.

In October 2003, 9 human cases of hemorrhagic fever were reported in 3 provinces of Mauritania, West Africa. Test results showed acute Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection, and a field investigation found recent circulation of RVFV with a prevalence rate of 25.5% (25/98) and 4 deaths among the 25 laboratory-confirmed case-patients. Immunoglobulin M against RVFV was found in 46% (25/54) of domestic animals. RVFV was also isolated from the mosquito species Culex poicilipes. Genetic comparison of virion segments indicated little variation among the strains isolated. However, phylogenetic studies clearly demonstrated that these strains belonged to the East-Central African lineage for all segments. To our knowledge, this is the first time viruses of this lineage have been observed in an outbreak in West Africa. Whether these strains were introduced or are endemic in West Africa remains to be determined.

EID Faye O, Diallo M, Diop D, Bezeid OE, Bâ H, Niang M, et al. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak with East-Central African Virus Lineage in Mauritania, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061487
AMA Faye O, Diallo M, Diop D, et al. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak with East-Central African Virus Lineage in Mauritania, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1016. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061487.
APA Faye, O., Diallo, M., Diop, D., Bezeid, O. E., Bâ, H., Niang, M....Diop, O. M. (2007). Rift Valley Fever Outbreak with East-Central African Virus Lineage in Mauritania, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061487.

Response to Emerging Infection Leading to Outbreak of Linezolid-Resistant Enterococci [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]
M. A. Kainer et al.

Linezolid was approved in 2000 for treatment of gram-positive coccal infections. We performed a case-control study during a hospital outbreak of linezolid-resistant enterococci (LRE) infections, comparing cases of LRE infection (cases) with linezolid-sensitive enterococci infections (controls). Nasal and perirectal swab samples were obtained from all patients in a 1-day point-prevalence survey. We examined antimicrobial drug use and calculated the defined daily dose of linezolid per 1,000 patient-days. Fifteen LRE cases were identified (13 Enterococcus faecalis and 2 E. faecium); 7 were vancomycin-resistant. Compared with controls, case-patients had increased in-hospital mortality rates and lengths of stay. Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of LRE infection: prior cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 27), hospitalization duration before index culture (AOR 1.1 per day), and duration of preceding linezolid therapy (AOR 1.1 per day). Linezolid exposure and patient-to-patient transmission appear to be responsible for LRE infections, an important emerging hospital problem.

EID Kainer MA, Devasia RA, Jones TF, Simmons BP, Melton K, Chow S, et al. Response to Emerging Infection Leading to Outbreak of Linezolid-Resistant Enterococci. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070019
AMA Kainer MA, Devasia RA, Jones TF, et al. Response to Emerging Infection Leading to Outbreak of Linezolid-Resistant Enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1024. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070019.
APA Kainer, M. A., Devasia, R. A., Jones, T. F., Simmons, B. P., Melton, K., Chow, S....Schaffner, W. (2007). Response to Emerging Infection Leading to Outbreak of Linezolid-Resistant Enterococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070019.

Person-to-Person Transmission of Nipah Virus in a Bangladeshi Community [PDF - 239 KB - 7 pages]
E. S. Gurley et al.

An encephalitis outbreak was investigated in Faridpur District, Bangladesh, in April–May 2004 to determine the cause of the outbreak and risk factors for disease. Biologic specimens were tested for Nipah virus. Surfaces were evaluated for Nipah virus contamination by using reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty-six cases of Nipah virus illness were identified; 75% of case-patients died. Multiple peaks of illness occurred, and 33 case-patients had close contact with another Nipah virus patient before their illness. Results from a case-control study showed that contact with 1 patient carried the highest risk for infection (odds ratio 6.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9–16.8, p<0.001). RT-PCR testing of environmental samples confirmed Nipah virus contamination of hospital surfaces. This investigation provides evidence for person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus. Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and highlights the need for infection control strategies for resource-poor settings.

EID Gurley ES, Montgomery JM, Hossain M, Bell M, Azad AK, Islam MR, et al. Person-to-Person Transmission of Nipah Virus in a Bangladeshi Community. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061128
AMA Gurley ES, Montgomery JM, Hossain M, et al. Person-to-Person Transmission of Nipah Virus in a Bangladeshi Community. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1031. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061128.
APA Gurley, E. S., Montgomery, J. M., Hossain, M., Bell, M., Azad, A. K., Islam, M. R....Breiman, R. F. (2007). Person-to-Person Transmission of Nipah Virus in a Bangladeshi Community. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061128.

Effects of Internal Border Control on Spread of Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 525 KB - 8 pages]
J. G. Wood et al.

We investigated the capacity of internal border control to limit influenza spread in an emergent pandemic in the context of Australia, a country with a low-population density and geopolitical boundaries that may facilitate restrictions. Mathematical models were used to study the time delay between epidemics in 2 population centers when travel restrictions were imposed. The models demonstrated that population size, travel rates, and places where travelers reside can strongly influence delay. The model simulations suggested that moderate delays in geographic spread may be possible with stringent restrictions and a low reproduction number, but results will be sensitive to the reproduction number and timing of restrictions. Model limitations include the absence of further importations and additional control measures. Internal border control may have a role in protecting domestic centers early in a pandemic, when importations are sparse. Our results may be useful for policymakers.

EID Wood JG, Zamani N, MacIntyre C, Becker NG. Effects of Internal Border Control on Spread of Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060740
AMA Wood JG, Zamani N, MacIntyre C, et al. Effects of Internal Border Control on Spread of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1038. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060740.
APA Wood, J. G., Zamani, N., MacIntyre, C., & Becker, N. G. (2007). Effects of Internal Border Control on Spread of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060740.
Historical Review

Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City [PDF - 1.86 MB - 6 pages]
V. J. Lee et al.

Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world.

EID Lee VJ, Chen MI, Chan SP, Wong CS, Cutter J, Goh K, et al. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061313
AMA Lee VJ, Chen MI, Chan SP, et al. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1052. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061313.
APA Lee, V. J., Chen, M. I., Chan, S. P., Wong, C. S., Cutter, J., Goh, K....Tambyah, P. A. (2007). Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061313.
Policy Review

Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Enable Use of Needed Products in Civilian and Military Emergencies, United States [PDF - 278 KB - 6 pages]
S. L. Nightingale et al.

The US Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) is a critical new tool for medical and public health communities and is applicable for both civilian and military use. It fills the need for timely and practical medical treatment under emergency conditions and authorizes use of the best product available for treatment or prevention when the relevant product has not already been approved or approved for this specific use by the US Food and Drug Administration. The need for and genesis of the EUA, its requirements, its broad application to civilian and military populations, and its features of particular importance to physicians and public health officials are detailed.

EID Nightingale SL, Prasher JM, Simonson S. Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Enable Use of Needed Products in Civilian and Military Emergencies, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061188
AMA Nightingale SL, Prasher JM, Simonson S. Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Enable Use of Needed Products in Civilian and Military Emergencies, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1046. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061188.
APA Nightingale, S. L., Prasher, J. M., & Simonson, S. (2007). Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Enable Use of Needed Products in Civilian and Military Emergencies, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061188.
Dispatches

Live Poultry Exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006 [PDF - 197 KB - 3 pages]
R. Fielding et al.

Since 1997, the largest epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) ever recorded has caused 172 human and several billion bird deaths. Recently administered questionnaires determined that live poultry exposures have declined by ≈63% in Hong Kong since 2004 and that, in Vietnam, domestic backyard exposures to poultry are likely more important than retail exposures.

EID Fielding R, Bich TH, Quang LN, Lam WW, Leung GM, Tien TQ, et al. Live Poultry Exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061031
AMA Fielding R, Bich TH, Quang LN, et al. Live Poultry Exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1065. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061031.
APA Fielding, R., Bich, T. H., Quang, L. N., Lam, W. W., Leung, G. M., Tien, T. Q....Anh, L. V. (2007). Live Poultry Exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061031.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
M. Hidalgo et al.

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae.

EID Hidalgo M, Orejuela L, Fuya P, Carrillo P, Hernandez J, Parra E, et al. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060537
AMA Hidalgo M, Orejuela L, Fuya P, et al. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1058. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060537.
APA Hidalgo, M., Orejuela, L., Fuya, P., Carrillo, P., Hernandez, J., Parra, E....Valbuena, G. (2007). Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060537.

Human Influenza A (H5N1) Cases, Urban Areas of People’s Republic of China, 2005–2006
W. Yang et al.

We investigated potential sources of infection for 6 confirmed influenza A (H5N1) patients who resided in urban areas of People’s Republic of China. None had known exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from illness, but all had visited wet poultry markets before illness.

EID Yang W, Feng Z, Zhang X, Xiang N, Huai Y, Zhou L, et al. Human Influenza A (H5N1) Cases, Urban Areas of People’s Republic of China, 2005–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061557
AMA Yang W, Feng Z, Zhang X, et al. Human Influenza A (H5N1) Cases, Urban Areas of People’s Republic of China, 2005–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1061. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061557.
APA Yang, W., Feng, Z., Zhang, X., Xiang, N., Huai, Y., Zhou, L....Wei, S. (2007). Human Influenza A (H5N1) Cases, Urban Areas of People’s Republic of China, 2005–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061557.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
S. S. Nawaratna et al.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka.

EID Nawaratna SS, Weilgama DJ, Wijekoon CJ, Dissanayake M, Rajapaksha K. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1068. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060773
AMA Nawaratna SS, Weilgama DJ, Wijekoon CJ, et al. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1068. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060773.
APA Nawaratna, S. S., Weilgama, D. J., Wijekoon, C. J., Dissanayake, M., & Rajapaksha, K. (2007). Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1068. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060773.

Norovirus in Captive Lion Cub (Panthera leo) [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
V. Martella et al.

African lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to viral diseases of domestic carnivores, including feline calicivirus infection. We report the identification of a novel enteric calicivirus, genetically related to human noroviruses of genogroup IV, in a lion cub that died of severe hemorrhagic enteritis.

EID Martella V, Campolo M, Lorusso E, Cavicchio P, Camero M, Bellacicco AL, et al. Norovirus in Captive Lion Cub (Panthera leo). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070268
AMA Martella V, Campolo M, Lorusso E, et al. Norovirus in Captive Lion Cub (Panthera leo). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1071. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070268.
APA Martella, V., Campolo, M., Lorusso, E., Cavicchio, P., Camero, M., Bellacicco, A. L....Buonavoglia, C. (2007). Norovirus in Captive Lion Cub (Panthera leo). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070268.

Little Evidence for Genetic Susceptibility to Influenza A (H5N1) from Family Clustering Data [PDF - 433 KB - 3 pages]
V. E. Pitzer et al.

The apparent clustering of human cases of influenza A (H5N1) among blood relatives has been considered as evidence of genetic variation in susceptibility. We show that, by chance alone, a high proportion of clusters are expected to be limited to blood relatives when infection is a rare event.

EID Pitzer VE, Olsen SJ, Bergstrom CT, Dowell SF, Lipsitch M. Little Evidence for Genetic Susceptibility to Influenza A (H5N1) from Family Clustering Data. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061538
AMA Pitzer VE, Olsen SJ, Bergstrom CT, et al. Little Evidence for Genetic Susceptibility to Influenza A (H5N1) from Family Clustering Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1074. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061538.
APA Pitzer, V. E., Olsen, S. J., Bergstrom, C. T., Dowell, S. F., & Lipsitch, M. (2007). Little Evidence for Genetic Susceptibility to Influenza A (H5N1) from Family Clustering Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061538.

Blood Screening for Influenza [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
M. K. Hourfar et al.

Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.

EID Hourfar MK, Themann A, Eickmann M, Puthavathana P, Laue T, Seifried E, et al. Blood Screening for Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1081. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060861
AMA Hourfar MK, Themann A, Eickmann M, et al. Blood Screening for Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1081. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060861.
APA Hourfar, M. K., Themann, A., Eickmann, M., Puthavathana, P., Laue, T., Seifried, E....Schmidt, M. (2007). Blood Screening for Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1081. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060861.

Fatal Coxsackievirus A-16 Pneumonitis in Adult [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
F. Legay et al.

Coxsackievirus A-16 (CVA-16) is the agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children. We report a case of fatal pneumonitis in an adult due to a CVA-16 strain with a low (78.6%) rate of sequence homology with the reference strain. A modified, more virulent, strain of CVA-16 could be emerging.

EID Legay F, Lévêque N, Gacouin A, Tattevin P, Bouet J, Thomas R, et al. Fatal Coxsackievirus A-16 Pneumonitis in Adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070295
AMA Legay F, Lévêque N, Gacouin A, et al. Fatal Coxsackievirus A-16 Pneumonitis in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1084. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070295.
APA Legay, F., Lévêque, N., Gacouin, A., Tattevin, P., Bouet, J., Thomas, R....Chomel, J. (2007). Fatal Coxsackievirus A-16 Pneumonitis in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070295.

Estimating Severe Coccidioidomycosis in California [PDF - 341 KB - 4 pages]
V. J. Flaherman et al.

We used hospital discharge data to estimate incidence and distribution of coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations in California. For 1997–2002, the average annual rate of hospitalization was 3.67 per 100,000 population. County of residence, older age, black race, male sex, HIV infection, and pregnancy were strongly associated with increased risk for hospitalization.

EID Flaherman VJ, Hector R, Rutherford GW. Estimating Severe Coccidioidomycosis in California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061480
AMA Flaherman VJ, Hector R, Rutherford GW. Estimating Severe Coccidioidomycosis in California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1087. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061480.
APA Flaherman, V. J., Hector, R., & Rutherford, G. W. (2007). Estimating Severe Coccidioidomycosis in California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1087. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061480.

Canine-Origin G3P[3] Rotavirus Strain in Child with Acute Gastroenteritis [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
S. De Grazia et al.

Infection by an animal-like strain of rotavirus (PA260/97) was diagnosed in a child with gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, in 1997. Sequence analysis of VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 genes showed resemblance to a G3P[3] canine strain identified in Italy in 1996. Dogs are a potential source of human viral pathogens.

EID De Grazia S, Martella V, Giammanco GM, Gòmara MI, Ramirez S, Cascio A, et al. Canine-Origin G3P[3] Rotavirus Strain in Child with Acute Gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070239
AMA De Grazia S, Martella V, Giammanco GM, et al. Canine-Origin G3P[3] Rotavirus Strain in Child with Acute Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1091. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070239.
APA De Grazia, S., Martella, V., Giammanco, G. M., Gòmara, M. I., Ramirez, S., Cascio, A....Arista, S. (2007). Canine-Origin G3P[3] Rotavirus Strain in Child with Acute Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070239.

Possible Zoonotic Transmission of Hepatitis E from Pet Pig to Its Owner [PDF - 249 KB - 3 pages]
C. Renou et al.

Hepatitis E is transmitted mainly by water or food, but in industrialized countries, all routes of transmission have not been identified. We describe possible zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus that involved direct contact between a pet pig and its owner.

EID Renou C, Cadranel J, Bourlière M, Halfon P, Ouzan D, Rifflet H, et al. Possible Zoonotic Transmission of Hepatitis E from Pet Pig to Its Owner. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070063
AMA Renou C, Cadranel J, Bourlière M, et al. Possible Zoonotic Transmission of Hepatitis E from Pet Pig to Its Owner. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1094. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070063.
APA Renou, C., Cadranel, J., Bourlière, M., Halfon, P., Ouzan, D., Rifflet, H....Pavio, N. (2007). Possible Zoonotic Transmission of Hepatitis E from Pet Pig to Its Owner. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070063.

Virus Detection and Monitoring of Viral Load in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Patients [PDF - 309 KB - 4 pages]
R. Wölfel et al.

We developed a real-time reverse transcription–-PCR that detected 1,164 copies/mL of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus per milliliter of serum at 95% probability (probit analysis) and was 100% concordant with nested PCR on 63 samples from 31 patients with confirmed infection. Infected patients who died appeared to have higher viral loads; low viral loads correlated with IgG detection.

EID Wölfel R, Paweska JT, Petersen N, Grobbelaar AA, Leman PA, Hewson R, et al. Virus Detection and Monitoring of Viral Load in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070068
AMA Wölfel R, Paweska JT, Petersen N, et al. Virus Detection and Monitoring of Viral Load in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1097. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070068.
APA Wölfel, R., Paweska, J. T., Petersen, N., Grobbelaar, A. A., Leman, P. A., Hewson, R....Park, S. (2007). Virus Detection and Monitoring of Viral Load in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070068.

Zinc Cream and Reliability of Tuberculosis Skin Testing [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
V. B. Rao et al.

In 50 healthy Peruvian shantytown residents, zinc cream applied to tuberculosis skin-test sitescaused a 32% increase in induration compared with placebo cream. Persons with lower plasma zinc had smaller skin-test reactions and greater augmentation with zinc cream. Zinc deficiency caused false-negative skin-test results, and topical zinc supplementation augmented antimycobacterial immune responses enough to improve diagnosis.

EID Rao VB, Pelly TF, Gilman RH, Cabrera L, Delgado J, Soto G, et al. Zinc Cream and Reliability of Tuberculosis Skin Testing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070227
AMA Rao VB, Pelly TF, Gilman RH, et al. Zinc Cream and Reliability of Tuberculosis Skin Testing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1101. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070227.
APA Rao, V. B., Pelly, T. F., Gilman, R. H., Cabrera, L., Delgado, J., Soto, G....Evans, C. A. (2007). Zinc Cream and Reliability of Tuberculosis Skin Testing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070227.

Three Rickettsioses, Darnley Island, Australia [PDF - 203 KB - 3 pages]
N. B. Unsworth et al.

We report 3 rickettsioses on Darnley Island, Australia, in the Torres Strait. In addition to previously described cases of Flinders Island spotted fever (Rickettsia honei strain “marmionii”), we describe 1 case of Queensland tick typhus (R. australis) and 2 cases of scrub typhus caused by a unique strain (Orientia tsutsugamushi).

EID Unsworth NB, Stenos J, Faa AG, Graves SR. Three Rickettsioses, Darnley Island, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1105. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.050088
AMA Unsworth NB, Stenos J, Faa AG, et al. Three Rickettsioses, Darnley Island, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1105. doi:10.3201/eid1307.050088.
APA Unsworth, N. B., Stenos, J., Faa, A. G., & Graves, S. R. (2007). Three Rickettsioses, Darnley Island, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1105. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.050088.

Chlamydophila psittaci Transmission from Pet Birds to Humans [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
D. Vanrompay et al.

We studied zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs. Genotypes A or E/B were detected in 14.9% of humans at these facilities. Information on antimicrobial drug use in Psittaciformes and a C. psittaci vaccine are urgently required.

EID Vanrompay D, Harkinezhad T, van de Walle M, Beeckman D, van Droogenbroeck C, Verminnen K, et al. Chlamydophila psittaci Transmission from Pet Birds to Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070074
AMA Vanrompay D, Harkinezhad T, van de Walle M, et al. Chlamydophila psittaci Transmission from Pet Birds to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1108. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070074.
APA Vanrompay, D., Harkinezhad, T., van de Walle, M., Beeckman, D., van Droogenbroeck, C., Verminnen, K....Cauwerts, K. (2007). Chlamydophila psittaci Transmission from Pet Birds to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070074.

Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil [PDF - 309 KB - 3 pages]
I. Silveira et al.

We report finding Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil in 9.7% of Amblyomma triste ticks examined. An R. parkeri isolate was successfully established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the agent was performed by DNA sequencing of portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA, and ompB.

EID Silveira I, Pacheco RC, Szabó MP, Ramos HG, Labruna MB. Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061397
AMA Silveira I, Pacheco RC, Szabó MP, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1111. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061397.
APA Silveira, I., Pacheco, R. C., Szabó, M. P., Ramos, H. G., & Labruna, M. B. (2007). Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061397.

Tickborne Encephalitis, Southwestern France [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
B. Herpe et al.

We report an autochthonous human case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in the Bordeaux area, southwestern France. The patient was a farmer who had severe encephalomyelitis. ELISA and neutralization assay of serum and cerebrospinal fluid established the diagnosis. This potential new endemic focus for TBE virus should be further investigated.

EID Herpe B, Schuffenecker I, Pillot J, Malvy D, Clouzeau B, Bui N, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis, Southwestern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070041
AMA Herpe B, Schuffenecker I, Pillot J, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis, Southwestern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1114. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070041.
APA Herpe, B., Schuffenecker, I., Pillot, J., Malvy, D., Clouzeau, B., Bui, N....Hilbert, G. (2007). Tickborne Encephalitis, Southwestern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070041.

Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Use among Mothers in Malawi [PDF - 278 KB - 4 pages]
L. J. Stockman et al.

A national household survey was conducted in Malawi to determine awareness and use of a socially marketed water treatment product. In all, 64% of mothers were aware of the product, and 7% were using it. Both poor and rural mothers had lower awareness and use rates. Targeting promotion to rural populations could enhance program effectiveness.

EID Stockman LJ, Fischer TK, Deming M, Ngwira B, Bowie C, Cunliffe N, et al. Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Use among Mothers in Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1077. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060767
AMA Stockman LJ, Fischer TK, Deming M, et al. Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Use among Mothers in Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1077. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060767.
APA Stockman, L. J., Fischer, T. K., Deming, M., Ngwira, B., Bowie, C., Cunliffe, N....Quick, R. E. (2007). Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Use among Mothers in Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1077. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060767.
Letters

Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [PDF - 103 KB - 3 pages]
T. M. Straub et al.
EID Straub TM, Höner zu Bentrup K, Orosz-Coghlan P, Dohnalkova A, Mayer BK, Bartholomew RA, et al. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1117-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070131
AMA Straub TM, Höner zu Bentrup K, Orosz-Coghlan P, et al. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1117-1118. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070131.
APA Straub, T. M., Höner zu Bentrup, K., Orosz-Coghlan, P., Dohnalkova, A., Mayer, B. K., Bartholomew, R. A....Leung, W. K. (2007). Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1117-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070131.

Anthrax in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Italy [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
A. Fasanella et al.
EID Fasanella A, Palazzo L, Petrella A, Quaranta V, Romanelli B, Garofolo G. Anthrax in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061465
AMA Fasanella A, Palazzo L, Petrella A, et al. Anthrax in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1118. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061465.
APA Fasanella, A., Palazzo, L., Petrella, A., Quaranta, V., Romanelli, B., & Garofolo, G. (2007). Anthrax in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061465.

Invasive Fresh Water Snail, China [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
Q. Wang et al.
EID Wang Q, Chen X, Lun Z. Invasive Fresh Water Snail, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061360
AMA Wang Q, Chen X, Lun Z. Invasive Fresh Water Snail, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1119. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061360.
APA Wang, Q., Chen, X., & Lun, Z. (2007). Invasive Fresh Water Snail, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061360.

Community-acquired Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers, United States [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Doi et al.
EID Doi Y, Adams J, O’Keefe A, Quereshi Z, Ewan L, Paterson DL. Community-acquired Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070094
AMA Doi Y, Adams J, O’Keefe A, et al. Community-acquired Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1121. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070094.
APA Doi, Y., Adams, J., O’Keefe, A., Quereshi, Z., Ewan, L., & Paterson, D. L. (2007). Community-acquired Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070094.

Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006 [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wang et al.
EID Wang L, Fu S, Wang H, Liang X, Cheng J, Jing H, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1123. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070010
AMA Wang L, Fu S, Wang H, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1123. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070010.
APA Wang, L., Fu, S., Wang, H., Liang, X., Cheng, J., Jing, H....Liang, G. (2007). Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1123. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070010.

Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax, Brazilian Amazon [PDF - 103 KB - 2 pages]
F. S. Filho et al.
EID Filho FS, Arcanjo AR, Chehuan YM, Costa MR, Martinez-Espinosa FE, Vieira JL, et al. Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061386
AMA Filho FS, Arcanjo AR, Chehuan YM, et al. Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1125. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061386.
APA Filho, F. S., Arcanjo, A. R., Chehuan, Y. M., Costa, M. R., Martinez-Espinosa, F. E., Vieira, J. L....Alecrim, M. d. (2007). Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061386.

Avian Influenza Risk Perceptions, Laos [PDF - 109 KB - 3 pages]
H. Barennes et al.
EID Barennes H, Martinez-Aussel B, Vongphrachanh P, Strobel M. Avian Influenza Risk Perceptions, Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061197
AMA Barennes H, Martinez-Aussel B, Vongphrachanh P, et al. Avian Influenza Risk Perceptions, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1126. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061197.
APA Barennes, H., Martinez-Aussel, B., Vongphrachanh, P., & Strobel, M. (2007). Avian Influenza Risk Perceptions, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061197.

Norovirus GII.4 Strains and Outbreaks, Australia [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
E. T. Tu et al.
EID Tu ET, Nguyen T, Lee P, Bull RA, Musto J, Hansman G, et al. Norovirus GII.4 Strains and Outbreaks, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060999
AMA Tu ET, Nguyen T, Lee P, et al. Norovirus GII.4 Strains and Outbreaks, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1128. doi:10.3201/eid1307.060999.
APA Tu, E. T., Nguyen, T., Lee, P., Bull, R. A., Musto, J., Hansman, G....McIver, C. J. (2007). Norovirus GII.4 Strains and Outbreaks, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060999.

Echinostoma malayanum Infection, the Philippines [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
V. Y. Belizario et al.
EID Belizario VY, Geronilla GG, Anastacio MB, de Leon WU, Suba-an AP, Sebastian AC, et al. Echinostoma malayanum Infection, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061486
AMA Belizario VY, Geronilla GG, Anastacio MB, et al. Echinostoma malayanum Infection, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1130. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061486.
APA Belizario, V. Y., Geronilla, G. G., Anastacio, M. B., de Leon, W. U., Suba-an, A. P., Sebastian, A. C....Bangs, M. J. (2007). Echinostoma malayanum Infection, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061486.

Zoonotic Pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
S. A. Hamer et al.
EID Hamer SA, Roy PL, Hickling GJ, Walker ED, Foster ES, Barber CC, et al. Zoonotic Pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070046
AMA Hamer SA, Roy PL, Hickling GJ, et al. Zoonotic Pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1131. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070046.
APA Hamer, S. A., Roy, P. L., Hickling, G. J., Walker, E. D., Foster, E. S., Barber, C. C....Tsao, J. I. (2007). Zoonotic Pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070046.

Possible Avian Influenza (H5N1) from Migratory Bird, Egypt [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
M. D. Saad et al.
EID Saad MD, Ahmed LS, Gamal-Eldein MA, Fouda MK, Khalil FM, Yingst SL, et al. Possible Avian Influenza (H5N1) from Migratory Bird, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061222
AMA Saad MD, Ahmed LS, Gamal-Eldein MA, et al. Possible Avian Influenza (H5N1) from Migratory Bird, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1120. doi:10.3201/eid1307.061222.
APA Saad, M. D., Ahmed, L. S., Gamal-Eldein, M. A., Fouda, M. K., Khalil, F. M., Yingst, S. L....Montevillel, M. R. (2007). Possible Avian Influenza (H5N1) from Migratory Bird, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.061222.
Books and Media

The Ghost Map [PDF - 83 KB - 1 page]
R. R. Frerichs
EID Frerichs RR. The Ghost Map. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070357
AMA Frerichs RR. The Ghost Map. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1134. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070357.
APA Frerichs, R. R. (2007). The Ghost Map. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.070357.
About the Cover

Rowing on the Schuylkill, Damming on the Yangtze [PDF - 113 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Rowing on the Schuylkill, Damming on the Yangtze. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(7):1135-1136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.ac1307
AMA Potter P. Rowing on the Schuylkill, Damming on the Yangtze. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(7):1135-1136. doi:10.3201/eid1307.ac1307.
APA Potter, P. (2007). Rowing on the Schuylkill, Damming on the Yangtze. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(7), 1135-1136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.ac1307.
Page created: July 10, 2012
Page updated: July 10, 2012
Page reviewed: July 10, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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