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Volume 15, Number 1—January 2009

Volume 15, Number 1—January 2009   PDF Version [PDF - 3.90 MB - 151 pages]

Perspective

  • Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 6 pages]
    T. E. Erlanger et al.
        View Abstract

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), a vector-borne viral disease, is endemic to large parts of Asia and the Pacific. An estimated 3 billion people are at risk, and JE has recently spread to new territories. Vaccination programs, increased living standards, and mechanization of agriculture are key factors in the decline in the incidence of this disease in Japan and South Korea. However, transmission of JE is likely to increase in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, North Korea, and Pakistan because of population growth, intensified rice farming, pig rearing, and the lack of vaccination programs and surveillance. On a global scale, however, the incidence of JE may decline as a result of large-scale vaccination programs implemented in China and India.

        Cite This Article
    EID Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K. Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080311
    AMA Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, et al. Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):1-7. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080311.
    APA Erlanger, T. E., Weiss, S., Keiser, J., Utzinger, J., & Wiedenmayer, K. (2009). Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080311.
  • Threat of Dengue to Blood Safety in Dengue-Endemic Countries PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Wilder-Smith et al.
        View Abstract

    Dengue, the most common arbovirus infection globally, is transmitted by mosquito vectors. Healthcare-related transmission, including transmission by blood products, has been documented, although the frequency of these occurrences is unknown. Dengue is endemic to Singapore, a city-state in Asia. Using mathematical modeling, we estimated the risk for dengue-infected blood transfusions in Singapore in 2005 to be 1.625–6/10,000 blood transfusions, assuming a ratio of asymptomatic to symptomatic infections of 2:1 to 10:1. However, the level of viremia required to cause clinical dengue cases is person-dependent and unknown. Further studies are needed to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety in countries where it is endemic. It will then be possible after this information is obtained to assess whether screening is feasible and to identify approaches that are most cost-effective on the basis of characteristics of local populations and seasonality of dengue.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wilder-Smith A, Chen LH, Massad E, Wilson ME. Threat of Dengue to Blood Safety in Dengue-Endemic Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):8-11. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071097
    AMA Wilder-Smith A, Chen LH, Massad E, et al. Threat of Dengue to Blood Safety in Dengue-Endemic Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):8-11. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071097.
    APA Wilder-Smith, A., Chen, L. H., Massad, E., & Wilson, M. E. (2009). Threat of Dengue to Blood Safety in Dengue-Endemic Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 8-11. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071097.

Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl PDF Version [PDF - 1.56 MB - 8 pages]
    L. L. Maragakis et al.
    View Summary

    Compounding pharmacies should be required to follow good manufacturing practices, including end-product sterility testing.

        View Abstract

    Nationally distributed medications from compounding pharmacies, which typically adhere to less stringent quality-control standards than pharmaceutical manufacturers, can lead to multistate outbreaks. We investigated a cluster of 6 patients in a Maryland hospital who had Sphingomonas paucimobilis bloodstream infections in November 2007. Of the 6 case-patients, 5 (83%) had received intravenous fentanyl within 48 hours before bacteremia developed. Cultures of unopened samples of fentanyl grew S. paucimobilis; the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was indistinguishable from that of the isolates of 5 case-patients. The contaminated fentanyl lot had been prepared at a compounding pharmacy and distributed to 4 states. Subsequently, in California, S. paucimobilis bacteremia was diagnosed for 2 patients who had received intravenous fentanyl from the same compounding pharmacy. These pharmacies should adopt more stringent quality-control measures, including prerelease product testing, when compounding and distributing large quantities of sterile preparations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Maragakis LL, Chaiwarith R, Srinivasan A, Torriani FJ, Avdic E, Lee A, et al. Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):12-18. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081054
    AMA Maragakis LL, Chaiwarith R, Srinivasan A, et al. Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):12-18. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081054.
    APA Maragakis, L. L., Chaiwarith, R., Srinivasan, A., Torriani, F. J., Avdic, E., Lee, A....Perl, T. M. (2009). Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 12-18. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081054.
  • Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Northern Vietnam, 2004–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 4 pages]
    N. D. Hien et al.
        View Abstract

    We performed a retrospective case-series study of patients with influenza A (H5N1) admitted to the National Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam, from January 2004 through July 2005 with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, a history of high-risk exposure or chest radiographic findings such as pneumonia, and positive findings for A/H5 viral RNA by reverse transcription–PCR. We investigated data from 29 patients (mean age 35.1 years) of whom 7 (24.1%) had died. Mortality rates were 20% (5/25) and 50% (2/4) among patients treated with or without oseltamivir (p = 0.24), respectively, and were 33.3% (5/15) and 14.2% (2/14) among patients treated with and without methylprednisolone (p = 0.39), respectively. After exact logistic regression analysis was adjusted for variation in severity, no significant effectiveness for survival was observed among patients treated with oseltamivir or methylprednisolone.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hien ND, Ha NH, Van NT, Ha NT, Lien TT, Thai NQ, et al. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Northern Vietnam, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):19-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080073
    AMA Hien ND, Ha NH, Van NT, et al. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Northern Vietnam, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):19-23. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080073.
    APA Hien, N. D., Ha, N. H., Van, N. T., Ha, N. T., Lien, T. T., Thai, N. Q....Kudo, K. (2009). Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Northern Vietnam, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 19-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080073.
  • Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 7 pages]
    J. C. Heijne et al.
        View Abstract

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%–86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Heijne JC, Teunis P, Morroy G, Wijkmans C, Oostveen S, Duizer E, et al. Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):24-30. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080299
    AMA Heijne JC, Teunis P, Morroy G, et al. Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):24-30. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080299.
    APA Heijne, J. C., Teunis, P., Morroy, G., Wijkmans, C., Oostveen, S., Duizer, E....Wallinga, J. (2009). Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 24-30. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080299.
  • Selection Tool for Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 8 pages]
    L. Verhoef et al.
        View Abstract

    Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting validated multivariate logistic regression model comparing foodborne (n = 224) and person-to-person (n = 654) outbreaks was used to create a practical web-based tool that can be limited to epidemiologic parameters for nongenotyping countries. Non–genogroup-II.4 outbreaks, higher numbers of cases, and outbreaks in restaurants or households characterized (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.86) foodborne outbreaks and reduced the percentage of outbreaks requiring source-tracing to 31%. The selection tool enabled prospectively focused follow-up. Use of this tool is likely to improve data quality and strain typing in current surveillance systems, which is necessary for identification of potential international foodborne outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Verhoef L, Kroneman A, van Duynhoven Y, Boshuizen H, van Pelt W, Koopmans M, et al. Selection Tool for Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):31-38. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080673
    AMA Verhoef L, Kroneman A, van Duynhoven Y, et al. Selection Tool for Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):31-38. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080673.
    APA Verhoef, L., Kroneman, A., van Duynhoven, Y., Boshuizen, H., van Pelt, W., & Koopmans, M. (2009). Selection Tool for Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 31-38. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080673.

Historical Review

  • Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries PDF Version [PDF - 254 KB - 4 pages]
    K. Konstantinidou et al.
        View Abstract

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance.

        Cite This Article
    EID Konstantinidou K, Mantadakis E, Falagas ME, Sardi T, Samonis G. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):39-43. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071545
    AMA Konstantinidou K, Mantadakis E, Falagas ME, et al. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):39-43. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071545.
    APA Konstantinidou, K., Mantadakis, E., Falagas, M. E., Sardi, T., & Samonis, G. (2009). Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 39-43. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071545.
  • Parapneumonic Empyema Deaths during Past Century, Utah PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 5 pages]
    J. M. Bender et al.
        View Abstract

    Bacterial pneumonia with empyema is a serious complication of influenza and commonly resulted in death during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We hypothesize that deaths caused by parapneumonic empyema are increasing in Utah once again despite advances in critical care and the availability of antimicrobial drugs and new vaccines. In this study, we analyzed the historical relationship between deaths caused by empyema and influenza pandemics by using 100 years of data from Utah. Deaths caused by empyema have indeed increased from 2000–2004 when compared with the historic low death rates of 1950–1975. Vaccine strategies and antimicrobial drug stockpiling to control empyema will be important as we prepare for the next influenza pandemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bender JM, Ampofo K, Sheng X, Pavia AT, Cannon-Albright L, Byington CL, et al. Parapneumonic Empyema Deaths during Past Century, Utah. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):44-48. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080618
    AMA Bender JM, Ampofo K, Sheng X, et al. Parapneumonic Empyema Deaths during Past Century, Utah. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):44-48. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080618.
    APA Bender, J. M., Ampofo, K., Sheng, X., Pavia, A. T., Cannon-Albright, L., & Byington, C. L. (2009). Parapneumonic Empyema Deaths during Past Century, Utah. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 44-48. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080618.

Dispatches

  • Microsporidiosis and Malnutrition in Children with Persistent Diarrhea, Uganda PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 3 pages]
    S. M. Mor et al.
        View Abstract

    We show that the microsporidian fungus Enterocytozoon bieneusi is associated with lower rates of weight gain in children in Uganda with persistent diarrhea. This relationship remained after controlling for HIV and concurrent cryptosporidiosis. Children with microsporidiosis were predicted to weigh 1.3 kg less than children without microsporidiosis at 5 years of age.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mor SM, Tumwine JK, Naumova EN, Ndeezi G, Tzipori S. Microsporidiosis and Malnutrition in Children with Persistent Diarrhea, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):49-52. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071536
    AMA Mor SM, Tumwine JK, Naumova EN, et al. Microsporidiosis and Malnutrition in Children with Persistent Diarrhea, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):49-52. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071536.
    APA Mor, S. M., Tumwine, J. K., Naumova, E. N., Ndeezi, G., & Tzipori, S. (2009). Microsporidiosis and Malnutrition in Children with Persistent Diarrhea, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 49-52. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071536.
  • Invasive Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Tanzania PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
    J. A. Crump et al.
        View Abstract

    Data on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. During 2006–2008, we identified 3 HIV-infected patients in northern Tanzania who had invasive NTM; 2 were infected with “Mycobacterium sherrisii” and 1 with M. avium complex sequevar MAC-D. Invasive NTM disease is present in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

        Cite This Article
    EID Crump JA, van Ingen J, Morrissey AB, Boeree MJ, Mavura DR, Swai B, et al. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):53-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081093
    AMA Crump JA, van Ingen J, Morrissey AB, et al. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):53-55. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081093.
    APA Crump, J. A., van Ingen, J., Morrissey, A. B., Boeree, M. J., Mavura, D. R., Swai, B....van Soolingen, D. (2009). Invasive Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 53-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081093.
  • Experimental Infection of Dogs with Avian-Origin Canine Influenza A Virus (H3N2) PDF Version [PDF - 657 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Song et al.
        View Abstract

    Susceptible dogs were brought into contact with dogs experimentally infected with an avian-origin influenza A virus (H3N2) that had been isolated from a pet dog with severe respiratory syndrome. All the experimentally infected and contact-exposed dogs showed elevated rectal temperatures, virus shedding, seroconversion, and severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Song D, Lee C, Kang B, Saif LJ, Oh T, Kim H, et al. Experimental Infection of Dogs with Avian-Origin Canine Influenza A Virus (H3N2). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):56-58. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080755
    AMA Song D, Lee C, Kang B, et al. Experimental Infection of Dogs with Avian-Origin Canine Influenza A Virus (H3N2). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):56-58. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080755.
    APA Song, D., Lee, C., Kang, B., Saif, L. J., Oh, T., Kim, H....Oh, J. (2009). Experimental Infection of Dogs with Avian-Origin Canine Influenza A Virus (H3N2). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 56-58. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080755.
  • Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3) PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
    O. Morgan et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials.

        Cite This Article
    EID Morgan O, Kuhne M, Nair P, Verlander NQ, Preece R, McDougal M, et al. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):59-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.070660
    AMA Morgan O, Kuhne M, Nair P, et al. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):59-62. doi:10.3201/eid1501.070660.
    APA Morgan, O., Kuhne, M., Nair, P., Verlander, N. Q., Preece, R., McDougal, M....Reacher, M. (2009). Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 59-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.070660.
  • Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
    A. J. Stewardson et al.
        View Abstract

    Wild poliovirus–associated paralytic poliomyelitis has not been reported in Australia since 1977. We report type 1 wild poliovirus infection in a man who had traveled from Pakistan to Australia in 2007. Poliomyelitis should be considered for patients with acute flaccid paralysis or unexplained fever who have been to poliomyelitis-endemic countries.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stewardson AJ, Roberts JA, Beckett CL, Prime HT, Loh P, Thorley BR, et al. Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):63-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080791
    AMA Stewardson AJ, Roberts JA, Beckett CL, et al. Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):63-65. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080791.
    APA Stewardson, A. J., Roberts, J. A., Beckett, C. L., Prime, H. T., Loh, P., Thorley, B. R....Daffy, J. R. (2009). Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 63-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080791.
  • Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
    R. G. Maggi et al.
        View Abstract

    Candidatus Bartonella melophagi was isolated by blood culture from 2 women, 1 of whom was co-infected with B. henselae. Partial 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase B, and citrate synthase genes and 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer sequences indicated that human isolates were similar to Candidatus B. melophagi.

        Cite This Article
    EID Maggi RG, Kosoy MY, Mintzer M, Breitschwerdt EB. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):66-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081080
    AMA Maggi RG, Kosoy MY, Mintzer M, et al. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):66-68. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081080.
    APA Maggi, R. G., Kosoy, M. Y., Mintzer, M., & Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2009). Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from Human Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 66-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081080.
  • Botulism from Drinking Pruno PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
    D. J. Vugia et al.
        View Abstract

    Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation. Pruno, an alcoholic drink made illicitly in prisons, was the novel vehicle for these cases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vugia DJ, Mase SR, Cole B, Stiles J, Rosenberg J, Velasquez L, et al. Botulism from Drinking Pruno. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):69-71. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081024
    AMA Vugia DJ, Mase SR, Cole B, et al. Botulism from Drinking Pruno. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):69-71. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081024.
    APA Vugia, D. J., Mase, S. R., Cole, B., Stiles, J., Rosenberg, J., Velasquez, L....Inami, G. (2009). Botulism from Drinking Pruno. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 69-71. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081024.
  • Isolation of Bordetella avium and Novel Bordetella Strain from Patients with Respiratory Disease PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
    A. T. Harrington et al.
        View Abstract

    Bordetella avium is thought to be strictly an avian pathogen. However, 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified 2 isolates from 2 humans with respiratory disease as B. avium and a novel B. avium–like strain. Thus, B. avium and B. avium–like organisms are rare opportunistic human pathogens.

        Cite This Article
    EID Harrington AT, Castellanos JA, Ziedalski TM, Clarridge JE, Cookson BT. Isolation of Bordetella avium and Novel Bordetella Strain from Patients with Respiratory Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):72-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071677
    AMA Harrington AT, Castellanos JA, Ziedalski TM, et al. Isolation of Bordetella avium and Novel Bordetella Strain from Patients with Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):72-74. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071677.
    APA Harrington, A. T., Castellanos, J. A., Ziedalski, T. M., Clarridge, J. E., & Cookson, B. T. (2009). Isolation of Bordetella avium and Novel Bordetella Strain from Patients with Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 72-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071677.
  • Clonal Multidrug-Resistant Corynebacterium striatum Strains, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 305 KB - 4 pages]
    F. Campanile et al.
        View Abstract

    We assessed the clinical relevance and performed molecular characterization of 36 multidrug-resistant strains of Corynebacterium striatum. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed a single clone, possessing erm(X), tetA/B, cmxA/B, and aphA1 genes, but few related subclones. This strain is emerging as a pathogen in Italy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Campanile F, Carretto E, Barbarini D, Grigis A, Falcone M, Goglio A, et al. Clonal Multidrug-Resistant Corynebacterium striatum Strains, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):75-78. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080804
    AMA Campanile F, Carretto E, Barbarini D, et al. Clonal Multidrug-Resistant Corynebacterium striatum Strains, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):75-78. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080804.
    APA Campanile, F., Carretto, E., Barbarini, D., Grigis, A., Falcone, M., Goglio, A....Stefani, S. (2009). Clonal Multidrug-Resistant Corynebacterium striatum Strains, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 75-78. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080804.
  • Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
    S. AbuBakar et al.
        View Abstract

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks occur periodically in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, Brunei reported its first major outbreak of EV71 infections, associated with fatalities from neurologic complications. Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei.

        Cite This Article
    EID AbuBakar S, Sam I, Yusof J, Lim MK, Misbah S, Hooi P, et al. Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):79-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080264
    AMA AbuBakar S, Sam I, Yusof J, et al. Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):79-82. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080264.
    APA AbuBakar, S., Sam, I., Yusof, J., Lim, M. K., Misbah, S., & Hooi, P. (2009). Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 79-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080264.
  • Novel Human Rotavirus Genotype G5P[7] from Child with Diarrhea, Cameroon PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 4 pages]
    M. D. Esona et al.
        View Abstract

    We report characterization of a genotype G5P[7] human rotavirus (HRV) from a child in Cameroon who had diarrhea. Sequencing of all 11 gene segments showed similarities to >5 genes each from porcine and human rotaviruses. This G5P[7] strain exemplifies the importance of heterologous animal rotaviruses in generating HRV genetic diversity through reassortment.

        Cite This Article
    EID Esona MD, Geyer A, Banyai K, Page N, Aminu M, Armah GE, et al. Novel Human Rotavirus Genotype G5P[7] from Child with Diarrhea, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):83-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080899
    AMA Esona MD, Geyer A, Banyai K, et al. Novel Human Rotavirus Genotype G5P[7] from Child with Diarrhea, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):83-86. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080899.
    APA Esona, M. D., Geyer, A., Banyai, K., Page, N., Aminu, M., Armah, G. E....Gentsch, J. R. (2009). Novel Human Rotavirus Genotype G5P[7] from Child with Diarrhea, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 83-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080899.
  • Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Lilongwe, Malawi PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
    N. A. Cunliffe et al.
        View Abstract

    To assess diversity of rotavirus strains in Lilongwe, Malawi, we conducted a cross-sectional study of children with acute gastroenteritis, July 2005–June 2007. Serotype G12 was identified in 30 (5%) of 546 rotavirus-positive fecal specimens. The G12 strain possessed multiple electropherotypes and P-types, but their viral protein 7 sequences were closely related, indicating that reassortment has occurred.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cunliffe NA, Ngwira BM, Dove W, Nakagomi O, Nakagomi T, Perez A, et al. Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Lilongwe, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):87-90. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080427
    AMA Cunliffe NA, Ngwira BM, Dove W, et al. Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Lilongwe, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):87-90. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080427.
    APA Cunliffe, N. A., Ngwira, B. M., Dove, W., Nakagomi, O., Nakagomi, T., Perez, A....Mwansambo, C. C. (2009). Serotype G12 Rotaviruses, Lilongwe, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 87-90. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080427.
  • G2 Strain of Rotavirus among Infants and Children, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 4 pages]
    S. K. Dey et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine G and P genotypes, we performed nested PCR on 307 rotavirus specimens collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2004–2005. G2 (43.3%) was detected at the highest frequency, followed by G4 (19.5%), G9 (13.7%), G1 (12.7%), and G3 (2.6%). P[8] was the most predominant genotype (53.2%), followed by P[4] (42.9%).

        Cite This Article
    EID Dey SK, Hayakawa Y, Rahman M, Islam R, Mizuguchi M, Okitsu S, et al. G2 Strain of Rotavirus among Infants and Children, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):91-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080883
    AMA Dey SK, Hayakawa Y, Rahman M, et al. G2 Strain of Rotavirus among Infants and Children, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):91-94. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080883.
    APA Dey, S. K., Hayakawa, Y., Rahman, M., Islam, R., Mizuguchi, M., Okitsu, S....Ushijima, H. (2009). G2 Strain of Rotavirus among Infants and Children, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 91-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080883.
  • Rotavirus Genotype Distribution after Vaccine Introduction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 111 KB - 2 pages]
    F. A. Carvalho-Costa et al.
        View Abstract

    Brazil introduced rotavirus vaccination in March 2006. We studied 133 rotavirus-positive fecal samples collected from February 2005 through December 2007. Genotype G2P[4] was found in 1.4% of samples in 2005, in 44% in 2006, and in 96% in 2007. Rotavirus detection rate decreased from 38% in 2005 to 24% in 2007 (p = 0.012).

        Cite This Article
    EID Carvalho-Costa FA, Araújo IT, Santos de Assis RM, Fialho AM, Martins CM, Bóia MN, et al. Rotavirus Genotype Distribution after Vaccine Introduction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):95-97. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071136
    AMA Carvalho-Costa FA, Araújo IT, Santos de Assis RM, et al. Rotavirus Genotype Distribution after Vaccine Introduction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):95-97. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071136.
    APA Carvalho-Costa, F. A., Araújo, I. T., Santos de Assis, R. M., Fialho, A. M., Martins, C. M., Bóia, M. N....Leite, J. P. (2009). Rotavirus Genotype Distribution after Vaccine Introduction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 95-97. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071136.
  • Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Dobec et al.
        View Abstract

    We report on the molecular evidence that Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Croatia are infected with Rickettsia helvetica (10%) or Rickettsia slovaca (2%) or co-infected with both species (1%). These findings expand the knowledge of the geographic distribution of R. helvetica and D. reticulatus ticks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dobec M, Golubic D, Punda-Polic V, Kaeppeli F, Sievers M. Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):98-100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080815
    AMA Dobec M, Golubic D, Punda-Polic V, et al. Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):98-100. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080815.
    APA Dobec, M., Golubic, D., Punda-Polic, V., Kaeppeli, F., & Sievers, M. (2009). Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 98-100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080815.
  • Variation in Antimicrobial Resistance in Sporadic and Outbreak-related Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Nielsen et al.
        View Abstract

    The prevalence of different antimicrobial resistance profiles and variants of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) was reported for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 strains isolated from patients in Denmark. Variation in antimicrobial resistance and corresponding changes of SGI1 were shown among isolates from a foodborne outbreak.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nielsen E, Torpdahl M, Ethelberg S, Hammerum AM. Variation in Antimicrobial Resistance in Sporadic and Outbreak-related Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):101-103. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080853
    AMA Nielsen E, Torpdahl M, Ethelberg S, et al. Variation in Antimicrobial Resistance in Sporadic and Outbreak-related Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):101-103. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080853.
    APA Nielsen, E., Torpdahl, M., Ethelberg, S., & Hammerum, A. M. (2009). Variation in Antimicrobial Resistance in Sporadic and Outbreak-related Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 101-103. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080853.
  • Predicting High Risk for Human Hantavirus Infections, Sweden PDF Version [PDF - 107 KB - 2 pages]
    G. E. Olsson et al.
        View Abstract

    An increased risk for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus was forecast for Sweden in 2007. The forecast was based on a predicted increase in the number of Myodes glareolus rodents (reservoir hosts). Despite raised awareness and preparedness, the number of human cases during July 2007–June 2008 was 1,483, a new high.

        Cite This Article
    EID Olsson GE, Hjertqvist M, Lundkvist Å, Hörnfeldt B. Predicting High Risk for Human Hantavirus Infections, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):104-106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080502
    AMA Olsson GE, Hjertqvist M, Lundkvist Å, et al. Predicting High Risk for Human Hantavirus Infections, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):104-106. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080502.
    APA Olsson, G. E., Hjertqvist, M., Lundkvist, Å., & Hörnfeldt, B. (2009). Predicting High Risk for Human Hantavirus Infections, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 104-106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080502.
  • Polyomaviruses KI and WU in Immunocompromised Patients with Respiratory Disease PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Mourez et al.
        View Abstract

    Polyomaviruses KI (KIPyV) and WU (WUPyV) were recently identified, mainly in respiratory specimens from children. Among 200 patients with respiratory disorders admitted to Saint Louis Hospital, Paris, France, KIPyV was detected in 8% and WUPyV in 1%. KIPyV was significantly more frequent among human stem cell transplant patients (17.8% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.01).

        Cite This Article
    EID Mourez T, Bergeron A, Ribaud P, Scieux C, Peffault de Latour R, Tazi A, et al. Polyomaviruses KI and WU in Immunocompromised Patients with Respiratory Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):107-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080758
    AMA Mourez T, Bergeron A, Ribaud P, et al. Polyomaviruses KI and WU in Immunocompromised Patients with Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):107-109. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080758.
    APA Mourez, T., Bergeron, A., Ribaud, P., Scieux, C., Peffault de Latour, R., Tazi, A....LeGoff, J. (2009). Polyomaviruses KI and WU in Immunocompromised Patients with Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 107-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080758.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Diversity, France PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 4 pages]
    F. Legrand-Abravanel et al.
        View Abstract

    We characterized 42 hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 strains from infected patients in France in 3 parts of the genome and sequenced the full-length HEV genotype 3f genome found in Europe. These strains are closely related to swine strains in Europe, which suggests zoonotic transmission of HEV in France.

        Cite This Article
    EID Legrand-Abravanel F, Mansuy J, Dubois M, Kamar N, Peron J, Rostaing L, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Diversity, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):110-114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080296
    AMA Legrand-Abravanel F, Mansuy J, Dubois M, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Diversity, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):110-114. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080296.
    APA Legrand-Abravanel, F., Mansuy, J., Dubois, M., Kamar, N., Peron, J., Rostaing, L....Izopet, J. (2009). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Diversity, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 110-114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080296.

Another Dimension

  • It Can’t Happen Here
    M. Natiello
            Cite This Article
    EID Natiello M. It Can’t Happen Here. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.AD1501
    AMA Natiello M. It Can’t Happen Here. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):139. doi:10.3201/eid1501.AD1501.
    APA Natiello, M. (2009). It Can’t Happen Here. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.AD1501.

Letters

  • Falciparum Malaria in Patient 9 Years after Leaving Malaria-Endemic Area PDF Version [PDF - 113 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Theunissen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Theunissen C, Janssens P, Demulder A, Nouboussié D, Van Esbroeck M, Van Gompel A, et al. Falciparum Malaria in Patient 9 Years after Leaving Malaria-Endemic Area. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):115-116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080909
    AMA Theunissen C, Janssens P, Demulder A, et al. Falciparum Malaria in Patient 9 Years after Leaving Malaria-Endemic Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):115-116. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080909.
    APA Theunissen, C., Janssens, P., Demulder, A., Nouboussié, D., Van Esbroeck, M., Van Gompel, A....Van den Ende, J. (2009). Falciparum Malaria in Patient 9 Years after Leaving Malaria-Endemic Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 115-116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080909.
  • Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus cohnii, Greece PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Petinaki et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Petinaki E, Kanellopoulou M, Damani A, Foka A, Spiliopoulou I, Skalmoutsou N, et al. Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus cohnii, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):116-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080769
    AMA Petinaki E, Kanellopoulou M, Damani A, et al. Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus cohnii, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):116-118. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080769.
    APA Petinaki, E., Kanellopoulou, M., Damani, A., Foka, A., Spiliopoulou, I., Skalmoutsou, N....Papafragas, E. (2009). Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus cohnii, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 116-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080769.
  • Buruli Ulcer in Long-Term Traveler to Senegal PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 1 page]
    K. Ezzedine et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ezzedine K, Pistone T, Cottin J, Marsollier L, Guir V, Malvy D, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Long-Term Traveler to Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):118-119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080123
    AMA Ezzedine K, Pistone T, Cottin J, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Long-Term Traveler to Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):118-119. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080123.
    APA Ezzedine, K., Pistone, T., Cottin, J., Marsollier, L., Guir, V., & Malvy, D. (2009). Buruli Ulcer in Long-Term Traveler to Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 118-119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080123.
  • Evidence of Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae PDF Version [PDF - 107 KB - 2 pages]
    D. Baud et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Baud D, Goy G, Gerber S, Vial Y, Hohlfeld P, Greub G, et al. Evidence of Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):120-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080911
    AMA Baud D, Goy G, Gerber S, et al. Evidence of Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):120-121. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080911.
    APA Baud, D., Goy, G., Gerber, S., Vial, Y., Hohlfeld, P., & Greub, G. (2009). Evidence of Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 120-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080911.
  • Emerging Mycobacteria spp. in Cooling Towers PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 1 page]
    I. Pagnier et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pagnier I, Merchat M, Raoult D, La Scola B. Emerging Mycobacteria spp. in Cooling Towers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):121-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071356
    AMA Pagnier I, Merchat M, Raoult D, et al. Emerging Mycobacteria spp. in Cooling Towers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):121-122. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071356.
    APA Pagnier, I., Merchat, M., Raoult, D., & La Scola, B. (2009). Emerging Mycobacteria spp. in Cooling Towers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 121-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071356.
  • Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations among US Adults, 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 102 KB - 3 pages]
    M. D. Zilberberg
            Cite This Article
    EID Zilberberg MD. Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations among US Adults, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):122-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080793
    AMA Zilberberg MD. Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations among US Adults, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):122-124. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080793.
    APA Zilberberg, M. D. (2009). Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations among US Adults, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 122-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080793.
  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, Uganda PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 1 page]
    F. Byarugaba et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Byarugaba F, Etter EM, Godreuil S, Grimaud P. Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):124-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080487
    AMA Byarugaba F, Etter EM, Godreuil S, et al. Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):124-125. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080487.
    APA Byarugaba, F., Etter, E. M., Godreuil, S., & Grimaud, P. (2009). Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 124-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080487.
  • Vertical Transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Humans PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
    M. A. Montes-Cano et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Montes-Cano MA, Chabe M, Fontillon-Alberdi M, de la Horra C, Respaldiza N, Medrano FJ, et al. Vertical Transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):125-127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080242
    AMA Montes-Cano MA, Chabe M, Fontillon-Alberdi M, et al. Vertical Transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):125-127. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080242.
    APA Montes-Cano, M. A., Chabe, M., Fontillon-Alberdi, M., de la Horra, C., Respaldiza, N., Medrano, F. J....Calderon, E. J. (2009). Vertical Transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 125-127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080242.
  • Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Human, Laos PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Puthavathana et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Puthavathana P, Sangsiriwut K, Korkusol A, Pooruk P, Auewarakul P, Pittayawanganon C, et al. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Human, Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):127-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080524
    AMA Puthavathana P, Sangsiriwut K, Korkusol A, et al. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Human, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):127-129. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080524.
    APA Puthavathana, P., Sangsiriwut, K., Korkusol, A., Pooruk, P., Auewarakul, P., Pittayawanganon, C....Ungchusak, K. (2009). Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Human, Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 127-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080524.
  • Fatal HIV Encephalitis in HIV-Seronegative Patients PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
    T. M. Martin and J. D. Rich
            Cite This Article
    EID Martin TM, Rich JD. Fatal HIV Encephalitis in HIV-Seronegative Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):129-131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.070834
    AMA Martin TM, Rich JD. Fatal HIV Encephalitis in HIV-Seronegative Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):129-131. doi:10.3201/eid1501.070834.
    APA Martin, T. M., & Rich, J. D. (2009). Fatal HIV Encephalitis in HIV-Seronegative Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 129-131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.070834.
  • Classical ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India PDF Version [PDF - 113 KB - 1 page]
    A. Raychoudhuri et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Raychoudhuri A, Patra T, Ghosh K, Ramamurthy T, Nandy RK, Takeda Y, et al. Classical ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):131-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080543
    AMA Raychoudhuri A, Patra T, Ghosh K, et al. Classical ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):131-132. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080543.
    APA Raychoudhuri, A., Patra, T., Ghosh, K., Ramamurthy, T., Nandy, R. K., Takeda, Y....Mukhopadhyay, A. K. (2009). Classical ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 131-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080543.
  • Sphingomonas mucosissima Bacteremia in Patient with Sickle Cell Disease PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 1 page]
    E. Angelakis et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Angelakis E, Roux V, Raoult D. Sphingomonas mucosissima Bacteremia in Patient with Sickle Cell Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):133-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080465
    AMA Angelakis E, Roux V, Raoult D. Sphingomonas mucosissima Bacteremia in Patient with Sickle Cell Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):133-134. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080465.
    APA Angelakis, E., Roux, V., & Raoult, D. (2009). Sphingomonas mucosissima Bacteremia in Patient with Sickle Cell Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 133-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080465.
  • WU Polyomavirus in Fecal Specimens of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, China PDF Version [PDF - 96 KB - 2 pages]
    L. Ren et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ren L, Gonzalez R, Xu X, Li J, Zhang J, Vernet G, et al. WU Polyomavirus in Fecal Specimens of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):134-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080693
    AMA Ren L, Gonzalez R, Xu X, et al. WU Polyomavirus in Fecal Specimens of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):134-135. doi:10.3201/eid1501.080693.
    APA Ren, L., Gonzalez, R., Xu, X., Li, J., Zhang, J., Vernet, G....Wang, J. (2009). WU Polyomavirus in Fecal Specimens of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 134-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.080693.
  • SCCmec Typing in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains of Animal Origin PDF Version [PDF - 106 KB - 1 page]
    M. D. Jansen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Jansen MD, Box AT, Fluit AC. SCCmec Typing in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains of Animal Origin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):136-137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071647
    AMA Jansen MD, Box AT, Fluit AC. SCCmec Typing in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains of Animal Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):136-137. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071647.
    APA Jansen, M. D., Box, A. T., & Fluit, A. C. (2009). SCCmec Typing in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains of Animal Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 136-137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.071647.
  • School Closure to Reduce Influenza Transmission PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
    L. M. Koonin and M. S. Cetron
            Cite This Article
    EID Koonin LM, Cetron MS. School Closure to Reduce Influenza Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):137-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081289
    AMA Koonin LM, Cetron MS. School Closure to Reduce Influenza Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):137-138. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081289.
    APA Koonin, L. M., & Cetron, M. S. (2009). School Closure to Reduce Influenza Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 137-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081289.

Books and Media

  • Legionella: Molecular Microbiology PDF Version [PDF - 72 KB - 1 page]
    T. J. Marrie
            Cite This Article
    EID Marrie TJ. Legionella: Molecular Microbiology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081248
    AMA Marrie TJ. Legionella: Molecular Microbiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):139. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081248.
    APA Marrie, T. J. (2009). Legionella: Molecular Microbiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081248.

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  • Traveling Light and the Tyranny of Higher Expectations
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Traveling Light and the Tyranny of Higher Expectations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):140-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.AC1501
    AMA Potter P. Traveling Light and the Tyranny of Higher Expectations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):140-141. doi:10.3201/eid1501.AC1501.
    APA Potter, P. (2009). Traveling Light and the Tyranny of Higher Expectations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 140-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.AC1501.
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