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Issue Cover for Volume 16, Number 1—January 2010

Volume 16, Number 1—January 2010

[PDF - 4.25 MB - 187 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World [PDF - 180 KB - 8 pages]
S. J. Cutler et al.

Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity.

EID Cutler SJ, Fooks AR, van der Poel WH. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081467
AMA Cutler SJ, Fooks AR, van der Poel WH. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):1-7. doi:10.3201/eid1601.081467.
APA Cutler, S. J., Fooks, A. R., & van der Poel, W. H. (2010). Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081467.

Laboratory Surge Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York City Metropolitan Area, USA [PDF - 111 KB - 6 pages]
J. M. Crawford et al.

The North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System Laboratories serve 15 hospitals and affiliated regional physician practices in the New York City metropolitan area, with virus testing performed at a central reference laboratory. The influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak began in this area on April 24, 2009, and within weeks respiratory virus testing increased 7.5 times. In response, laboratory and client service workforces were increased, physical plant build-out was completed, testing paradigms were converted from routine screening tests and viral culture to a high-capacity molecular assay for respiratory viruses, laboratory information system interfaces were built, and same-day epidemiologic reports were produced. Daily review by leadership of data from emergency rooms, hospital facilities, and the Health System Laboratories enabled real-time management of unfolding events. The ability of System laboratories to rapidly increase to high-volume comprehensive diagnostics, including influenza A subtyping, provided key epidemiologic information for local and state public health departments.

EID Crawford JM, Stallone R, Zhang F, Gerolimatos M, Korologos DD, Sweetapple C, et al. Laboratory Surge Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York City Metropolitan Area, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):8-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091167
AMA Crawford JM, Stallone R, Zhang F, et al. Laboratory Surge Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York City Metropolitan Area, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):8-13. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091167.
APA Crawford, J. M., Stallone, R., Zhang, F., Gerolimatos, M., Korologos, D. D., Sweetapple, C....Ginocchio, C. C. (2010). Laboratory Surge Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York City Metropolitan Area, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 8-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091167.

Projecting Global Occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii [PDF - 142 KB - 7 pages]
D. J. Springer and V. Chaturvedi

Cryptococcus gattii and C. neoformans cause pulmonary and systemic cryptococcosis. Recently, C. gattii was recognized as a distinct pathogen of humans and animals. We analyzed information from 400 publications (1948–2008) to examine whether the fungus occurs globally. Known distribution of C. gattii is possibly limited because specialized reagents for differentiation from C. neoformans are not readily available and not always used, and environmental surveys are patchy. However, autochthonous reports of C. gattii cryptococcosis have now been recognized from tropical and temperate regions. An ongoing outbreak in western Canada strengthens the case that the range of the pathogen has expanded. A few studies have highlighted differences in cryptococcosis between C. gattii and C. neoformans. More than 50 tree species have yielded C. gattii especially from decayed hollows suggesting a possible ecologic niche. This pathogen merits more attention so its environmental occurrence and role in cryptococcosis can be accurately determined.

EID Springer DJ, Chaturvedi V. Projecting Global Occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):14-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090369
AMA Springer DJ, Chaturvedi V. Projecting Global Occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):14-20. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090369.
APA Springer, D. J., & Chaturvedi, V. (2010). Projecting Global Occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 14-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090369.
Research

Epidemiology of Travel-associated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in 116 Patients, Singapore [PDF - 308 KB - 6 pages]
P. Mukherjee et al.

In June 2009, during Singapore’s pandemic influenza plan containment phase, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was introduced into the country through imported cases. To understand how travel patterns affected the initial outbreak, we examined epidemiologic and travel data for the first 116 case-patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, with travel-associated infection. Sixty-one percent and 54% of patients, respectively, met US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization temperature criteria for influenza-like illness. One fourth of the case-patients traveled after illness onset, and 15% became ill while traveling. Regions of exposure for imported infections changed rapidly; case-patients initially arrived from North America, followed by Australasia and Southeast Asia. Case-patients on longer flights were more likely to become ill before arrival; those with shorter flights tended to become ill after arrival. Thermal scanners detected fevers in 12% of the arriving case-patients, resulting in a shorter time to isolation.

EID Mukherjee P, Lim P, Chow A, Barkham T, Seow E, Win MK, et al. Epidemiology of Travel-associated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in 116 Patients, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):21-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091376
AMA Mukherjee P, Lim P, Chow A, et al. Epidemiology of Travel-associated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in 116 Patients, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):21-26. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091376.
APA Mukherjee, P., Lim, P., Chow, A., Barkham, T., Seow, E., Win, M. K....Chen, M. I. (2010). Epidemiology of Travel-associated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in 116 Patients, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 21-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091376.

Severe Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, San Luis Potosí, Mexico [PDF - 280 KB - 8 pages]
A. Gómez-Gómez et al.

We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adults hospitalized with pneumonia during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Patients admitted to a general hospital in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from April 10 through May 11, 2009, suspected to have influenza virus–associated pneumonia were evaluated. We identified 50 patients with suspected influenza pneumonia; the presence of influenza virus was confirmed in 18: 11 with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, 5 with unsubtypeable influenza A virus, 1 with seasonal influenza A virus (H3N2), and 1 in whom assay results for seasonal and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were positive. Eighteen patients were treated in the intensive care unit, and 10 died. During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, severe pneumonia developed in young adults who had no identifiable risk factors; early diagnosis and treatment of influenza virus infections may have a determinant role in outcome.

EID Gómez-Gómez A, Magaña-Aquino M, García-Sepúlveda CA, Ochoa-Pérez UR, Falcón-Escobedo R, Comas-García A, et al. Severe Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):27-34. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090941
AMA Gómez-Gómez A, Magaña-Aquino M, García-Sepúlveda CA, et al. Severe Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):27-34. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090941.
APA Gómez-Gómez, A., Magaña-Aquino, M., García-Sepúlveda, C. A., Ochoa-Pérez, U. R., Falcón-Escobedo, R., Comas-García, A....Noyola, D. E. (2010). Severe Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 27-34. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090941.

Worldwide Dissemination of the blaOXA-23 Carbapenemase Gene of Acinetobacter baumannii [PDF - 276 KB - 6 pages]
P. D. Mugnier et al.

To assess dissemination of OXA-23–producing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, we obtained 20 carbapenem-resistant, OXA-23–producing isolates from different regions. Their clonal relationship was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. We identified 8 sequence types, including 4 novel types. All except 2 strains belonged to 2 main European clonal lineages. The blaOXA-23 gene was either located on the chromosome or on plasmids and associated with 4 genetic structures.

EID Mugnier PD, Poirel L, Naas T, Nordmann P. Worldwide Dissemination of the blaOXA-23 Carbapenemase Gene of Acinetobacter baumannii1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):35-40. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090852
AMA Mugnier PD, Poirel L, Naas T, et al. Worldwide Dissemination of the blaOXA-23 Carbapenemase Gene of Acinetobacter baumannii1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):35-40. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090852.
APA Mugnier, P. D., Poirel, L., Naas, T., & Nordmann, P. (2010). Worldwide Dissemination of the blaOXA-23 Carbapenemase Gene of Acinetobacter baumannii1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 35-40. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090852.

Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe [PDF - 266 KB - 7 pages]
N. Decaro et al.

Coronaviruses of potential recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001–2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with gastroenteritis. Of 1,172 samples, 493 (42.06%) were positive for CCoV. CCoV-II was found in 218 samples, and CCoV-I and CCoV-II genotypes were found in 182. Approximately 20% of the samples with CCoV-II had the TGEV-like subtype; detection rates varied according to geographic origin. The highest and lowest rates of prevalence for CCoV-II infection were found in samples from Hungary and Greece (96.87% and 3.45%, respectively). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CCoV-IIb strains were related to prototype TGEV-like strains in the 5′ and the 3′ ends of the spike protein gene.

EID Decaro N, Mari V, Elia G, Addie DD, Camero M, Lucente MS, et al. Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):41-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090726
AMA Decaro N, Mari V, Elia G, et al. Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):41-47. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090726.
APA Decaro, N., Mari, V., Elia, G., Addie, D. D., Camero, M., Lucente, M. S....Buonavoglia, C. (2010). Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 41-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090726.

Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada [PDF - 278 KB - 7 pages]
L. Dutil et al.

The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance describes a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p<0.0001) between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada. In Québec, changes of ceftiofur resistance in chicken Salmonella Heidelberg and Escherichia coli isolates appear related to changing levels of ceftiofur use in hatcheries during the study period, from highest to lowest levels before and after a voluntary withdrawal, to increasing levels after reintroduction of use (62% to 7% to 20%, and 34% to 6% to 19%, respectively). These events provide evidence that ceftiofur use in chickens results in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in bacteria from chicken and humans. To ensure the continued effectiveness of extended-spectrum cephalosporins for treating serious infections in humans, multidisciplinary efforts are needed to scrutinize and, where appropriate, limit use of ceftiofur in chicken production in Canada.

EID Dutil L, Irwin RJ, Finley R, Ng LK, Avery BP, Boerlin P, et al. Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):48-54. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090729
AMA Dutil L, Irwin RJ, Finley R, et al. Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):48-54. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090729.
APA Dutil, L., Irwin, R. J., Finley, R., Ng, L. K., Avery, B. P., Boerlin, P....Pillai, D. R. (2010). Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 48-54. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090729.

Healthcare-associated Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in a Large Pediatric Hospital, United Kingdom [PDF - 339 KB - 8 pages]
N. A. Cunliffe et al.

Viruses are the major pathogens of community-acquired (CA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children, but their role in healthcare-associated (HA) AGE is poorly understood. Children with AGE hospitalized at Alder Hey Children’s Hospital, Liverpool, UK, were enrolled over a 2-year period. AGE was classified as HA if diarrhea developed >48 hours after admission. Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus 40/41, astrovirus, and sapovirus were detected by PCR. A total of 225 children with HA-AGE and 351 with CA-AGE were enrolled in the study. HA viral gastroenteritis constituted one fifth of the diarrheal diseases among hospitalized children and commonly occurred in critical care areas. We detected >1 virus in 120 (53%) of HA-AGE cases; rotavirus (31%), norovirus (16%), and adenovirus 40/41 (15%) were the predominant viruses identified. Molecular evidence indicated rotaviruses and noroviruses were frequently introduced into the hospital from the community. Rotavirus vaccines could substantially reduce the incidence of HA-AGE in children.

EID Cunliffe NA, Booth JA, Elliot C, Lowe SJ, Sopwith W, Kitchin N, et al. Healthcare-associated Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in a Large Pediatric Hospital, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):55-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090401
AMA Cunliffe NA, Booth JA, Elliot C, et al. Healthcare-associated Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in a Large Pediatric Hospital, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):55-62. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090401.
APA Cunliffe, N. A., Booth, J. A., Elliot, C., Lowe, S. J., Sopwith, W., Kitchin, N....Regan, M. (2010). Healthcare-associated Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in a Large Pediatric Hospital, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 55-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090401.

Meningitis and a Febrile Vomiting illness Caused by Echovirus Type 4, Northern Territory, Australia [PDF - 318 KB - 6 pages]
P. G. Markey et al.

In July 2007, a cluster of meningitis cases caused by an echovirus 4 strain was detected in 1 indigenous community in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Illness was characterized by fever, vomiting, and headache. Over the next 4 months, additional cases of meningitis and the fever and vomiting syndrome emerged in other indigenous communities and subsequently in the major urban center of Darwin. We describe the epidemiology of 95 laboratory-confirmed meningitis cases and conclude that the epidemic fever and vomiting syndrome was caused by the same enterovirus. Nucleotide sequencing of the whole genome verified this enterovirus (AUS250G) as a strain of echovirus type 4. Viral protein 1 nucleotide sequencing demonstrated 96% homology with an echovirus 4 strain responsible for a large outbreak of meningitis in the Yanbian Prefecture of China in 1996.

EID Markey PG, Davis JS, Harnett GB, Williams SH, Speers DJ. Meningitis and a Febrile Vomiting illness Caused by Echovirus Type 4, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):63-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081519
AMA Markey PG, Davis JS, Harnett GB, et al. Meningitis and a Febrile Vomiting illness Caused by Echovirus Type 4, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):63-68. doi:10.3201/eid1601.081519.
APA Markey, P. G., Davis, J. S., Harnett, G. B., Williams, S. H., & Speers, D. J. (2010). Meningitis and a Febrile Vomiting illness Caused by Echovirus Type 4, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 63-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081519.

Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Dogs [PDF - 250 KB - 7 pages]
M. C. Faires et al.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a pathogen of animals. To compare types of infections, clinical outcomes, and risk factors associated with MRSA in dogs with those associated with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections, we conducted a case–control study at 3 veterinary referral hospitals in the United States and Canada during 2001–2007. Risk factors analyzed were signalment, medical and surgical history, and infection site. Among 40 dogs with MRSA and 80 with MSSA infections, highest prevalence of both infections was found in skin and ears. Although most (92.3%) dogs with MRSA infections were discharged from the hospital, we found that significant risk factors for MRSA infection were receipt of antimicrobial drugs (odds ratio [OR] 3.84, p = 0.02), β-lactams (OR 3.58, p = 0.04), or fluoroquinolones (OR 5.34, p = 0.01), and intravenous catheterization (OR 3.72, p = 0.02). Prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in veterinary hospitals is advised.

EID Faires MC, Traverse M, Tater KC, Pearl DL, Weese J. Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):69-75. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081758
AMA Faires MC, Traverse M, Tater KC, et al. Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):69-75. doi:10.3201/eid1601.081758.
APA Faires, M. C., Traverse, M., Tater, K. C., Pearl, D. L., & Weese, J. (2010). Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 69-75. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081758.

Actinobaculum schaalii, a Common Uropathogen in Elderly Patients, Denmark [PDF - 212 KB - 5 pages]
S. Bank et al.

Actinobaculum schaalii can cause urinary tract infections and septicemia but is difficult to identify by cultivation. To obtain a fast diagnosis and identify A. schaalii, we developed a TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Routine urine samples were obtained from 177 hospitalized patients and 75 outpatients in Viborg County, Denmark, in 2008–2009. The PCR detected A. schaalii in 22% of samples from patients >60 years of age. This assay showed that A. schaalii is more common than implied by routine cultivation. In 90% of PCR-positive urine samples, other common uropathogens were identified. This finding suggests that A. schaalii is a common, undetected, bacterial pathogen. Our results suggest that A. schaalii may be a more common pathogen than previously thought, especially in patients with unexplained chronic urinary tract infections, who are often treated with trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin, to which A. schaalii is resistant.

EID Bank S, Jensen A, Hansen TM, Søby KM, Prag J. Actinobaculum schaalii, a Common Uropathogen in Elderly Patients, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):76-80. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090761
AMA Bank S, Jensen A, Hansen TM, et al. Actinobaculum schaalii, a Common Uropathogen in Elderly Patients, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):76-80. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090761.
APA Bank, S., Jensen, A., Hansen, T. M., Søby, K. M., & Prag, J. (2010). Actinobaculum schaalii, a Common Uropathogen in Elderly Patients, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 76-80. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090761.

Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden [PDF - 242 KB - 7 pages]
J. Nordgren et al.

Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic disease was as likely to develop in nonsecretors as in secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46–4.36 vs. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.23–2.18, p = 0.57). Moreover, no statistical difference in susceptibility was found between persons of different Lewis or ABO phenotypes. The capsid gene of the outbreak strain shares high amino acid homology with the Kashiwa645 GI.3 strain, previously shown to recognize nonsecretor saliva, as well as synthetic Lewis a. This norovirus outbreak affected persons regardless of secretor status or Lewis or ABO phenotypes.

EID Nordgren J, Kindberg E, Lindgren P, Matussek A, Svensson L. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):81-87. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090633
AMA Nordgren J, Kindberg E, Lindgren P, et al. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):81-87. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090633.
APA Nordgren, J., Kindberg, E., Lindgren, P., Matussek, A., & Svensson, L. (2010). Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 81-87. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090633.

Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections [PDF - 479 KB - 8 pages]
C. Vincent et al.

Closely related strains of Escherichia coli have been shown to cause extraintestinal infections in unrelated persons. This study tests whether a food reservoir may exist for these E. coli. Isolates from 3 sources over the same time period (2005–2007) and geographic area were compared. The sources comprised prospectively collected E. coli isolates from women with urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 353); retail meat (n = 417); and restaurant/ready-to-eat foods (n = 74). E. coli were evaluated for antimicrobial drug susceptibility and O:H serotype and compared by using 4 different genotyping methods. We identified 17 clonal groups that contained E. coli isolates (n = 72) from >1 source. E. coli from retail chicken (O25:H4-ST131 and O114:H4-ST117) and honeydew melon (O2:H7-ST95) were indistinguishable from or closely related to E. coli from human UTIs. This study provides strong support for the role of food reservoirs or foodborne transmission in the dissemination of E. coli causing common community-acquired UTIs.

EID Vincent C, Boerlin P, Daignault D, Dozois CM, Dutil L, Galanakis C, et al. Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):88-95. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091118
AMA Vincent C, Boerlin P, Daignault D, et al. Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):88-95. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091118.
APA Vincent, C., Boerlin, P., Daignault, D., Dozois, C. M., Dutil, L., Galanakis, C....Manges, A. R. (2010). Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 88-95. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091118.
Dispatches

Serologic Cross-Reactivity with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, Europe [PDF - 210 KB - 4 pages]
C. S. Kyriakis et al.

We tested serum samples from pigs infected or vaccinated with European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in hemagglutination-inhibition assays against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and related North American SIVs. We found more serologic cross-reaction than expected. Data suggest pigs in Europe may have partial immunity to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

EID Kyriakis CS, Olsen CW, Carman S, Brown IH, Brookes SM, Van Doorsselaere J, et al. Serologic Cross-Reactivity with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):96-99. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091190
AMA Kyriakis CS, Olsen CW, Carman S, et al. Serologic Cross-Reactivity with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):96-99. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091190.
APA Kyriakis, C. S., Olsen, C. W., Carman, S., Brown, I. H., Brookes, S. M., Van Doorsselaere, J....Van Reeth, K. (2010). Serologic Cross-Reactivity with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 96-99. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091190.

Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand [PDF - 212 KB - 3 pages]
A. Verrall et al.

Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities.

EID Verrall A, Norton K, Rooker S, Dee S, Olsen L, Tan CE, et al. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):100-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090994
AMA Verrall A, Norton K, Rooker S, et al. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):100-102. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090994.
APA Verrall, A., Norton, K., Rooker, S., Dee, S., Olsen, L., Tan, C. E....Blackmore, T. K. (2010). Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 100-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090994.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance and Prevalence of Seasonal Influenza, Singapore [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Leo et al.

On April 25, 2009, Singapore implemented strict containment measures for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 with enhanced surveillance and hospital isolation. In the first month, seasonal influenza, predominantly virus subtype H3N2, was diagnosed for 32% of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Our findings underscore the high prevalence of seasonal influenza in Singapore.

EID Leo Y, Lye D, Barkham T, Krishnan P, Seow E, Chow A. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance and Prevalence of Seasonal Influenza, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):103-105. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091164
AMA Leo Y, Lye D, Barkham T, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance and Prevalence of Seasonal Influenza, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):103-105. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091164.
APA Leo, Y., Lye, D., Barkham, T., Krishnan, P., Seow, E., & Chow, A. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance and Prevalence of Seasonal Influenza, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 103-105. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091164.

Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008 [PDF - 314 KB - 4 pages]
A. Cabié et al.

Syphilis reemerged in Martinique in 2004 and initially affected 3 HIV-infected patients. By March 2008, syphilis was diagnosed for 37 men and 18 women. As of October 31, 2009, this outbreak had not yet been brought under control. It initially affected mainly men who had sex with men before it spread to heterosexual persons, minority group members, and crack cocaine users.

EID Cabié A, Rollin B, Pierre-François S, Abel S, Desbois N, Richard P, et al. Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):106-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081730
AMA Cabié A, Rollin B, Pierre-François S, et al. Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):106-109. doi:10.3201/eid1601.081730.
APA Cabié, A., Rollin, B., Pierre-François, S., Abel, S., Desbois, N., Richard, P....Liautaud, B. (2010). Reemergence of Syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 106-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081730.

Seagulls and Beaches as Reservoirs for Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli [PDF - 253 KB - 3 pages]
R. R. Simões et al.

A variety of extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli isolates, with a high rate of cefotaximase-15 resistance, were identified in seagull feces from Porto, Portugal, beaches. Beaches may therefore present a risk to public health because of the potential pathogen-spreading capacity of migratory birds.

EID Simões RR, Poirel L, Da Costa PM, Nordmann P. Seagulls and Beaches as Reservoirs for Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):110-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090896
AMA Simões RR, Poirel L, Da Costa PM, et al. Seagulls and Beaches as Reservoirs for Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):110-112. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090896.
APA Simões, R. R., Poirel, L., Da Costa, P. M., & Nordmann, P. (2010). Seagulls and Beaches as Reservoirs for Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 110-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090896.

Cluster of Serogroup W135 Meningococci, Southeastern Florida, 2008–2009 [PDF - 323 KB - 3 pages]
T. J. Doyle et al.

Recently, 14 persons in southeastern Florida were identified with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 invasive infections. All isolates tested had matching or near-matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and belonged to the multilocus sequence type 11 clonal complex. The epidemiologic investigation suggested recent endemic transmission of this clonal complex in southeastern Florida.

EID Doyle TJ, Mejia-Echeverry A, Fiorella P, Leguen F, Livengood J, Kay R, et al. Cluster of Serogroup W135 Meningococci, Southeastern Florida, 2008–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):113-115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091026
AMA Doyle TJ, Mejia-Echeverry A, Fiorella P, et al. Cluster of Serogroup W135 Meningococci, Southeastern Florida, 2008–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):113-115. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091026.
APA Doyle, T. J., Mejia-Echeverry, A., Fiorella, P., Leguen, F., Livengood, J., Kay, R....Hopkins, R. (2010). Cluster of Serogroup W135 Meningococci, Southeastern Florida, 2008–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 113-115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091026.

Human Group A Streptococci Virulence Genes in Bovine Group C Streptococci [PDF - 324 KB - 4 pages]
M. G. Rato et al.

Phage-encoded virulence genes of group A streptococci were detected in 10 (55.6%) of 18 isolates of group C streptococci that had caused bovine mastitis. Bovine isolates carried other genetic determinants, such as composite transposon Tn1207.3/Φ10394.4 (100%) and antimicrobial drug resistance genes erm(B)/erm(A) (22.2%), linB (16.6%), and tet(M)/tet(O) (66.7%), located on mobile elements.

EID Rato MG, Bexiga R, Nunes SF, Vilela CL, Santos-Sanches I. Human Group A Streptococci Virulence Genes in Bovine Group C Streptococci. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):116-119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090632
AMA Rato MG, Bexiga R, Nunes SF, et al. Human Group A Streptococci Virulence Genes in Bovine Group C Streptococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):116-119. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090632.
APA Rato, M. G., Bexiga, R., Nunes, S. F., Vilela, C. L., & Santos-Sanches, I. (2010). Human Group A Streptococci Virulence Genes in Bovine Group C Streptococci. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 116-119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090632.

Perceptions and Reactions with Regard to Pneumonic Plague [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
G. J. Rubin et al.

We assessed perceptions and likely reactions of 1,005 UK adults to a hypothetical terrorist attack involving pneumonic plague. Likely compliance with official recommendations ranged from good (98% would take antimicrobial drugs) to poor (76% would visit a treatment center). Perceptions about plague were associated with these intentions.

EID Rubin GJ, Amlôt R, Rogers MB, Hall I, Leach S, Simpson J, et al. Perceptions and Reactions with Regard to Pneumonic Plague. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):120-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081604
AMA Rubin GJ, Amlôt R, Rogers MB, et al. Perceptions and Reactions with Regard to Pneumonic Plague. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):120-122. doi:10.3201/eid1601.081604.
APA Rubin, G. J., Amlôt, R., Rogers, M. B., Hall, I., Leach, S., Simpson, J....Wessely, S. (2010). Perceptions and Reactions with Regard to Pneumonic Plague. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 120-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.081604.

Rapid Displacement of Dengue Virus Type 1 by Type 4, Pacific Region, 2007–2009 [PDF - 239 KB - 3 pages]
D. Li et al.

Since 2000–2001, dengue virus type 1 has circulated in the Pacific region. However, in 2007, type 4 reemerged and has almost completely displaced the strains of type 1. If only 1 serotype circulates at any time and is replaced approximately every 5 years, DENV-3 may reappear in 2012.

EID Li D, Liu W, Guigon A, Mostyn C, Grant R, Aaskov JG. Rapid Displacement of Dengue Virus Type 1 by Type 4, Pacific Region, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):123-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091275
AMA Li D, Liu W, Guigon A, et al. Rapid Displacement of Dengue Virus Type 1 by Type 4, Pacific Region, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):123-125. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091275.
APA Li, D., Liu, W., Guigon, A., Mostyn, C., Grant, R., & Aaskov, J. G. (2010). Rapid Displacement of Dengue Virus Type 1 by Type 4, Pacific Region, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 123-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091275.

Hepatitis E Epidemic, Uganda [PDF - 266 KB - 3 pages]
E. H. Teshale et al.

In October 2007, an epidemic of hepatitis E was suspected in Kitgum District of northern Uganda where no previous epidemics had been documented. This outbreak has progressed to become one of the largest hepatitis E outbreaks in the world. By June 2009, the epidemic had caused illness in >10,196 persons and 160 deaths.

EID Teshale EH, Howard CM, Grytdal SP, Handzel TR, Barry V, Kamili S, et al. Hepatitis E Epidemic, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):126-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090764
AMA Teshale EH, Howard CM, Grytdal SP, et al. Hepatitis E Epidemic, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):126-129. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090764.
APA Teshale, E. H., Howard, C. M., Grytdal, S. P., Handzel, T. R., Barry, V., Kamili, S....Hu, D. J. (2010). Hepatitis E Epidemic, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 126-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090764.

Novel Human Parechovirus, Sri Lanka [PDF - 242 KB - 3 pages]
N. T. Pham et al.

Of 362 fecal samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka during 2005–2006, 30 (8.3%) were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) by reverse transcription–PCR. A novel HPeV, designated as HPeV10, was identified in 2 samples by sequence analysis of the viral protein 1 gene of the detected HPeVs.

EID Pham NT, Trinh QD, Takanashi S, Abeysekera C, Abeygunawardene A, Shimizu H, et al. Novel Human Parechovirus, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):130-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091105
AMA Pham NT, Trinh QD, Takanashi S, et al. Novel Human Parechovirus, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):130-132. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091105.
APA Pham, N. T., Trinh, Q. D., Takanashi, S., Abeysekera, C., Abeygunawardene, A., Shimizu, H....Ushijima, H. (2010). Novel Human Parechovirus, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 130-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091105.

Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland [PDF - 197 KB - 3 pages]
T. R. Thorsteinsdottir et al.

To investigate feed as a source for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler chickens, we compared antimicrobial drug–resistant E. coli from broiler feed and broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant human clinical isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Feed was implicated as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant broiler-derived E. coli and broilers as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant human-derived E. coli.

EID Thorsteinsdottir TR, Haraldsson G, Fridriksdottir V, Kristinsson KG, Gunnarsson E. Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):133-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090243
AMA Thorsteinsdottir TR, Haraldsson G, Fridriksdottir V, et al. Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):133-135. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090243.
APA Thorsteinsdottir, T. R., Haraldsson, G., Fridriksdottir, V., Kristinsson, K. G., & Gunnarsson, E. (2010). Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 133-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090243.

Human Listeriosis Caused by Listeria ivanovii [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
C. Guillet et al.

Two species of Listeria are pathogenic; L. monocytogenes infects humans and animals, and L. ivanovii has been considered to infect ruminants only. We report L. ivanovii–associated gastroenteritis and bacteremia in a man. This isolate was indistinguishable from prototypic ruminant strains. L. ivanovii is thus an enteric opportunistic human pathogen.

EID Guillet C, Join-Lambert O, Le Monnier A, Leclercq A, Mechaï F, Mamzer-Bruneel M, et al. Human Listeriosis Caused by Listeria ivanovii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):136-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091155
AMA Guillet C, Join-Lambert O, Le Monnier A, et al. Human Listeriosis Caused by Listeria ivanovii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):136-138. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091155.
APA Guillet, C., Join-Lambert, O., Le Monnier, A., Leclercq, A., Mechaï, F., Mamzer-Bruneel, M....Lecuit, M. (2010). Human Listeriosis Caused by Listeria ivanovii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 136-138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091155.

Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza A Infection in Adults [PDF - 199 KB - 4 pages]
N. Lee et al.

We report acute encephalopathy associated with influenza A infection in 3 adults. We detected high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma concentrations of CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL2/MCP-1 (CSF/plasma ratios >3), and interleukin-6, CXCL10/IP-10, but no evidence of viral neuroinvasion. Patients recovered without sequelae. Hyperactivated cytokine response may play a role in pathogenesis.

EID Lee N, Wong CK, Chan P, Lindegardh N, White NJ, Hayden FG, et al. Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza A Infection in Adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):139-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090077
AMA Lee N, Wong CK, Chan P, et al. Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza A Infection in Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):139-142. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090077.
APA Lee, N., Wong, C. K., Chan, P., Lindegardh, N., White, N. J., Hayden, F. G....Hui, D. S. (2010). Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza A Infection in Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 139-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090077.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Multilocus Sequence Types in Guatemala and Mexico [PDF - 254 KB - 4 pages]
M. Nicklasson et al.

The genetic backgrounds of 24 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains from Mexico and Guatemala expressing heat-stable toxin (ST) and coli surface antigen 6 (CS6) were analyzed. US travelers to these countries and resident children in Guatemala were infected by ETEC strains of sequence type 398, expressing STp and carrying genetically identical CS6 sequences.

EID Nicklasson M, Klena JD, Rodas C, Bourgeois AL, Torres O, Svennerholm A, et al. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Multilocus Sequence Types in Guatemala and Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):143-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090979
AMA Nicklasson M, Klena JD, Rodas C, et al. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Multilocus Sequence Types in Guatemala and Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):143-146. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090979.
APA Nicklasson, M., Klena, J. D., Rodas, C., Bourgeois, A. L., Torres, O., Svennerholm, A....Sjöling, Å. (2010). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Multilocus Sequence Types in Guatemala and Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 143-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090979.
Commentaries

Laboratory Surge Capacity and Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 216 KB - 2 pages]
M. I. Meltzer et al.
EID Meltzer MI, McNeill KM, Miller JD. Laboratory Surge Capacity and Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):147-148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091741
AMA Meltzer MI, McNeill KM, Miller JD. Laboratory Surge Capacity and Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):147-148. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091741.
APA Meltzer, M. I., McNeill, K. M., & Miller, J. D. (2010). Laboratory Surge Capacity and Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 147-148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091741.
Letters

Fatal Case of Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in HIV-Positive Patient [PDF - 158 KB - 2 pages]
N. C. Klein et al.
EID Klein NC, Chak A, Chengot M, Johnson DH, Cunha BA. Fatal Case of Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in HIV-Positive Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):149-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090930
AMA Klein NC, Chak A, Chengot M, et al. Fatal Case of Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in HIV-Positive Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):149-150. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090930.
APA Klein, N. C., Chak, A., Chengot, M., Johnson, D. H., & Cunha, B. A. (2010). Fatal Case of Pneumonia Associated with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in HIV-Positive Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 149-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090930.

Age-based Human Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Infection Patterns, Egypt [PDF - 143 KB - 2 pages]
A. Schroedl
EID Schroedl A. Age-based Human Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Infection Patterns, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):161-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090560
AMA Schroedl A. Age-based Human Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Infection Patterns, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):161-162. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090560.
APA Schroedl, A. (2010). Age-based Human Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Infection Patterns, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 161-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090560.

Human Herpesvirus 8 in Healthy Blood Donors, Argentina [PDF - 152 KB - 2 pages]
C. L. Pérez et al.
EID Pérez CL, Tous MI, Zala N, Camino S. Human Herpesvirus 8 in Healthy Blood Donors, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):150-151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090893
AMA Pérez CL, Tous MI, Zala N, et al. Human Herpesvirus 8 in Healthy Blood Donors, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):150-151. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090893.
APA Pérez, C. L., Tous, M. I., Zala, N., & Camino, S. (2010). Human Herpesvirus 8 in Healthy Blood Donors, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 150-151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090893.

Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Oculoglandular Tularemia [PDF - 170 KB - 2 pages]
M. Maurin et al.
EID Maurin M, Castan B, Roch N, Gestin B, Pelloux I, Mailles A, et al. Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Oculoglandular Tularemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):152-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090793
AMA Maurin M, Castan B, Roch N, et al. Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Oculoglandular Tularemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):152-153. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090793.
APA Maurin, M., Castan, B., Roch, N., Gestin, B., Pelloux, I., Mailles, A....Chavanet, P. (2010). Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Oculoglandular Tularemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 152-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090793.

Increase in Serotype 6C Pneumococcal Carriage, United Kingdom [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
A. S. Tocheva et al.
EID Tocheva AS, Jefferies JM, Christodoulides M, Faust SN, Clarke SC. Increase in Serotype 6C Pneumococcal Carriage, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):154-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090650
AMA Tocheva AS, Jefferies JM, Christodoulides M, et al. Increase in Serotype 6C Pneumococcal Carriage, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):154-155. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090650.
APA Tocheva, A. S., Jefferies, J. M., Christodoulides, M., Faust, S. N., & Clarke, S. C. (2010). Increase in Serotype 6C Pneumococcal Carriage, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 154-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090650.

Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1) [PDF - 152 KB - 2 pages]
P. K. Cheng et al.
EID Cheng PK, To AP, Leung TW, Leung PC, Lee CW, Lim WW. Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):155-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091304
AMA Cheng PK, To AP, Leung TW, et al. Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):155-156. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091304.
APA Cheng, P. K., To, A. P., Leung, T. W., Leung, P. C., Lee, C. W., & Lim, W. W. (2010). Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 155-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091304.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Reinfection, Chile [PDF - 161 KB - 2 pages]
C. M. Perez et al.
EID Perez CM, Ferres M, Labarca JA. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Reinfection, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):156-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091420
AMA Perez CM, Ferres M, Labarca JA. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Reinfection, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):156-157. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091420.
APA Perez, C. M., Ferres, M., & Labarca, J. A. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Reinfection, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 156-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091420.

Skin Lesion Caused by ST398 and ST1 MRSA, Spain [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
C. Aspiroz et al.
EID Aspiroz C, Lozano C, Vindel A, Lasarte JJ, Zarazaga M, Torres C. Skin Lesion Caused by ST398 and ST1 MRSA, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):157-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090694
AMA Aspiroz C, Lozano C, Vindel A, et al. Skin Lesion Caused by ST398 and ST1 MRSA, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):157-159. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090694.
APA Aspiroz, C., Lozano, C., Vindel, A., Lasarte, J. J., Zarazaga, M., & Torres, C. (2010). Skin Lesion Caused by ST398 and ST1 MRSA, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 157-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090694.

Identification of a Rotavirus G12 Strain, Indonesia [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
W. N. Wulan et al.
EID Wulan WN, Listiyaningsih E, Samsi KM, Agtini MD, Kasper MR, Putnam SD. Identification of a Rotavirus G12 Strain, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):159-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091010
AMA Wulan WN, Listiyaningsih E, Samsi KM, et al. Identification of a Rotavirus G12 Strain, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):159-161. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091010.
APA Wulan, W. N., Listiyaningsih, E., Samsi, K. M., Agtini, M. D., Kasper, M. R., & Putnam, S. D. (2010). Identification of a Rotavirus G12 Strain, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 159-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091010.

Imported Chikungunya Virus Infection [PDF - 142 KB - 2 pages]
M. Soumahoro et al.
EID Soumahoro M, Fontenille D, Turbelin C, Pelat C, Boyd A, Flahault A, et al. Imported Chikungunya Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):162-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.080776
AMA Soumahoro M, Fontenille D, Turbelin C, et al. Imported Chikungunya Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):162-163. doi:10.3201/eid1601.080776.
APA Soumahoro, M., Fontenille, D., Turbelin, C., Pelat, C., Boyd, A., Flahault, A....Hanslik, T. (2010). Imported Chikungunya Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 162-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.080776.

Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs [PDF - 151 KB - 1 page]
T. Seuberlich and A. Zurbriggen
EID Seuberlich T, Zurbriggen A. Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091104
AMA Seuberlich T, Zurbriggen A. Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):164. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091104.
APA Seuberlich, T., & Zurbriggen, A. (2010). Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091104.

Parvovirus 4 in Blood Donors, France [PDF - 232 KB - 2 pages]
M. Touinssi et al.
EID Touinssi M, Brisbarre N, Picard C, Frassati C, Dussol B, Uch R, et al. Parvovirus 4 in Blood Donors, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):165-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090517
AMA Touinssi M, Brisbarre N, Picard C, et al. Parvovirus 4 in Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):165-166. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090517.
APA Touinssi, M., Brisbarre, N., Picard, C., Frassati, C., Dussol, B., Uch, R....Biagini, P. (2010). Parvovirus 4 in Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 165-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090517.

Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, the Netherlands [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
J. van Ingen et al.
EID van Ingen J, Looijmans F, Mirck P, Dekhuijzen R, Boeree M, van Soolingen D. Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090473
AMA van Ingen J, Looijmans F, Mirck P, et al. Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):166-168. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090473.
APA van Ingen, J., Looijmans, F., Mirck, P., Dekhuijzen, R., Boeree, M., & van Soolingen, D. (2010). Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090473.

Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends, Spain [PDF - 145 KB - 1 page]
A. Valdivia and S. Monge-Corella
EID Valdivia A, Monge-Corella S. Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091308
AMA Valdivia A, Monge-Corella S. Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):168. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091308.
APA Valdivia, A., & Monge-Corella, S. (2010). Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091308.

Detection of Newly Described Astrovirus MLB1 in Stool Samples from Children [PDF - 163 KB - 2 pages]
S. R. Finkbeiner et al.
EID Finkbeiner SR, Bányai K, Meleg E, Le B, Moschidou P, Holtz LR, et al. Detection of Newly Described Astrovirus MLB1 in Stool Samples from Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):169-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091120
AMA Finkbeiner SR, Bányai K, Meleg E, et al. Detection of Newly Described Astrovirus MLB1 in Stool Samples from Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):169-170. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091120.
APA Finkbeiner, S. R., Bányai, K., Meleg, E., Le, B., Moschidou, P., Holtz, L. R....Wang, D. (2010). Detection of Newly Described Astrovirus MLB1 in Stool Samples from Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 169-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091120.

Optimal Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [PDF - 193 KB - 2 pages]
B. A. Cunha et al.
EID Cunha BA, Paterson DL, Doi Y. Optimal Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):170-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090922
AMA Cunha BA, Paterson DL, Doi Y. Optimal Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):170-171. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090922.
APA Cunha, B. A., Paterson, D. L., & Doi, Y. (2010). Optimal Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 170-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090922.
Another Dimension

Some Haphazard Aphorisms for Epidemiology and Life [PDF - 142 KB - 4 pages]
J. M. Cowden
EID Cowden JM. Some Haphazard Aphorisms for Epidemiology and Life. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):174-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090030
AMA Cowden JM. Some Haphazard Aphorisms for Epidemiology and Life. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):174-177. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090030.
APA Cowden, J. M. (2010). Some Haphazard Aphorisms for Epidemiology and Life. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 174-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.090030.
Books and Media

Case Studies in Infectious Disease [PDF - 110 KB - 1 page]
P. S. Brachman
EID Brachman PS. Case Studies in Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091254
AMA Brachman PS. Case Studies in Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):172. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091254.
APA Brachman, P. S. (2010). Case Studies in Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091254.

Infectious Disease: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Case Studies [PDF - 168 KB - 2 pages]
EID Infectious Disease: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Case Studies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):172-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091408
AMA Infectious Disease: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Case Studies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):172-173. doi:10.3201/eid1601.091408.
APA (2010). Infectious Disease: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Case Studies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 172-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.091408.
About the Cover

Tasty Bits a Dutch Treat [PDF - 156 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Tasty Bits a Dutch Treat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):178-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.ac1601
AMA Potter P. Tasty Bits a Dutch Treat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):178-179. doi:10.3201/eid1601.ac1601.
APA Potter, P. (2010). Tasty Bits a Dutch Treat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 178-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.ac1601.
Corrections

Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 11 [PDF - 121 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 11. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(1):177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.er1601
AMA Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 11. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):177. doi:10.3201/eid1601.er1601.
APA (2010). Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 11. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1601.er1601.
Page created: June 08, 2012
Page updated: June 08, 2012
Page reviewed: June 08, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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