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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 10—October 2007

Volume 13, Number 10—October 2007

[PDF - 21.67 MB - 183 pages]

THEME ISSUE
Global Poverty and Human Development
Policy Review

Global Public Health Security [PDF - 126 KB - 6 pages]
G. Rodier et al.
EID Rodier G, Greenspan AL, Hughes JM, Heymann DL. Global Public Health Security. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1447-1452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070732
AMA Rodier G, Greenspan AL, Hughes JM, et al. Global Public Health Security. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1447-1452. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070732.
APA Rodier, G., Greenspan, A. L., Hughes, J. M., & Heymann, D. L. (2007). Global Public Health Security. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1447-1452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070732.
Perspective

Preparedness for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Pandemic in Africa [PDF - 207 KB - 6 pages]
R. F. Breiman et al.

Global concerns about an impending influenza pandemic escalated when highly pathogenic influenza A subtype H5N1 appeared in Nigeria in January 2006. The potential devastation from emergence of a pandemic strain in Africa has led to a sudden shift of public health focus to pandemic preparedness. Preparedness and control activities must work within the already strained capacity of health infrastructure in Africa to respond to immense existing public health problems. Massive attention and resources directed toward influenza could distort priorities and damage critical public health programs. Responses to concerns about pandemic influenza should strengthen human and veterinary surveillance and laboratory capacity to help address a variety of health threats. Experiences in Asia should provide bases for reassessing strategies for Africa and elsewhere. Fowl depopulation strategies will need to be adapted for Africa. Additionally, the role of avian vaccines should be comprehensively evaluated and clearly defined.

EID Breiman RF, Nasidi A, Katz MA, Njenga MK, Vertefeuille J. Preparedness for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Pandemic in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1453-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070400
AMA Breiman RF, Nasidi A, Katz MA, et al. Preparedness for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Pandemic in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1453-1458. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070400.
APA Breiman, R. F., Nasidi, A., Katz, M. A., Njenga, M. K., & Vertefeuille, J. (2007). Preparedness for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Pandemic in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1453-1458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070400.
Research

Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003 [PDF - 127 KB - 4 pages]
E. Bertherat et al.

An outbreak of plague occurred in the region of Oran, Algeria, from June to July 2003. Algeria had not reported this disease for >50 years. Eighteen bubonic cases were identified, and Yersinia pestis was isolated from 6 patients. Except for the index case-patient, all patients recovered. Targeted chemoprophylaxis, sanitation, and vector control played a crucial role in controlling the outbreak. Epidemiologic and biomolecular findings strongly suggested the existence of a local animal reservoir during this period, but its origin (resurgence or re-importation) could not be determined. This sudden and unexpected reemergence of plague, close to an important commercial seaport, is a textbook illustration of a public health event of international importance. It also demonstrates that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the currently indexed natural foci.

EID Bertherat E, Bekhoucha S, Chougrani S, Razik F, Duchemin JB, Houti L, et al. Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1459-1462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070284
AMA Bertherat E, Bekhoucha S, Chougrani S, et al. Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1459-1462. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070284.
APA Bertherat, E., Bekhoucha, S., Chougrani, S., Razik, F., Duchemin, J. B., Houti, L....Carniel, E. (2007). Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1459-1462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070284.

HIV and Tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997–2002 [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]
T. N. Buu et al.

In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, reporting rates for tuberculosis (TB) are rising in an emerging HIV epidemic. To describe the HIV epidemic among TB patients and quantify its impact on rates of reported TB, we performed a repeated cross-sectional survey from 1997 through 2002 in a randomly selected sample of inner city TB patients. We assessed effect by adjusting TB case reporting rates by the fraction of TB cases attributable to HIV infection. HIV prevalence in TB patients rose exponentially from 1.5% to 9.0% during the study period. Young (<35 years), single, male patients were mostly affected; injection drug use was a potent risk factor. After correction for HIV infection, the trend in TB reporting rates changed from a 1.9% increase to a 0.4% decrease per year. An emerging HIV epidemic, concentrated in young, male, injection drug users, is responsible for increased TB reporting rates in urban Vietnam.

EID Buu TN, Houben RM, Quy HT, Lan NT, Borgdorff MW, Cobelens FG. HIV and Tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1463-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060774
AMA Buu TN, Houben RM, Quy HT, et al. HIV and Tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1463-1469. doi:10.3201/eid1310.060774.
APA Buu, T. N., Houben, R. M., Quy, H. T., Lan, N. T., Borgdorff, M. W., & Cobelens, F. G. (2007). HIV and Tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1463-1469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060774.

Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China, 2004 [PDF - 250 KB - 7 pages]
X. Zhou et al.

Results from the third nationwide cluster sampling survey on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China, conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2004, are presented. A stratified cluster random sampling technique was used, and 239 villages were selected in 7 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remains endemic. A total of 250,987 residents 6–65 years of age were included in the survey. Estimated prevalence rates in the provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Jiangsu were 4.2%, 3.8%, 3.1%, 2.2%, 1.7%, 0.9%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in the lake and marshland region (3.8%) and the lowest rates were in the plain region with waterway networks (0.06%). Extrapolation to all residents in schistosome-endemic areas indicated 726,112 infections. This indicates a reduction of 16.1% compared with a nationwide survey conducted in 1995. However, human infection rates increased by 3.9% in settings where transmission is ongoing.

EID Zhou X, Guo J, Wu X, Jiang Q, Zheng J, Dang H, et al. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1470-1476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061423
AMA Zhou X, Guo J, Wu X, et al. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1470-1476. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061423.
APA Zhou, X., Guo, J., Wu, X., Jiang, Q., Zheng, J., Dang, H....Hao, Y. (2007). Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1470-1476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061423.

Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas–Mexico Border, 2004 [PDF - 175 KB - 7 pages]
J. M. Brunkard et al.

Reported autochthonous dengue fever transmission in the United States has been limited to 5 south Texas border counties since 1980. We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Brownsville, Texas, and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico (n = 600), in 2004 to assess dengue seroprevalence. Recent dengue infection was detected in 2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5%–3.5%) and 7.3% (95% CI 4.3%–10.3%) of residents in Brownsville and Matamoros, respectively. Past infection was detected in 40% (95% CI 34%–45%) of Brownsville residents and 78% (95% CI 74%–83%) of Matamoros residents. For recent infection, only weekly family income <$100 was a significant predictor (adjusted odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–8.0). Risk factors that predicted past dengue infection were presence of larval habitat, absence of air-conditioning and street drainage, and weekly family income <$100. Mosquito larvae were present in 30% of households in both cities. Our results show that dengue fever is endemic in this area of the southern Texas–Mexico border.

EID Brunkard JM, López JL, Ramirez J, Cifuentes E, Rothenberg SJ, Hunsperger EA, et al. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas–Mexico Border, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1477-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061586
AMA Brunkard JM, López JL, Ramirez J, et al. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas–Mexico Border, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1477-1483. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061586.
APA Brunkard, J. M., López, J. L., Ramirez, J., Cifuentes, E., Rothenberg, S. J., Hunsperger, E. A....Haddad, B. M. (2007). Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas–Mexico Border, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1477-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061586.

Cost-effectiveness of Algorithms for Confirmation Test of Human African Trypanosomiasis [PDF - 626 KB - 7 pages]
P. Lutumba et al.

The control of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is compromised by low sensitivity of the routinely used parasitologic confirmation tests. More sensitive alternatives, such as mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique (mAECT) or capillary tube centrifugation (CTC), are more expensive. We used formal decision analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative HAT confirmation algorithms in terms of cost per life saved. The effectiveness of the standard method, a combination of lymph node puncture (LNP), fresh blood examination (FBE), and thick blood film (TBF), was 36.8%; the LNP-FBE-CTC-mAECT sequence reached almost 80%. The cost per person examined ranged from €1.56 for LNP-FBE-TBF to €2.99 for LNP-TBF-CTC-mAECT-CATT (card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis) titration. LNP-TBF-CTC-mAECT was the most cost-effective in terms of cost per life saved. HAT confirmation algorithms that incorporate concentration techniques are more effective and efficient than the algorithms that are currently and routinely used by several T.b. gambiense control programs.

EID Lutumba P, Meheus F, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Büscher P, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Algorithms for Confirmation Test of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060358
AMA Lutumba P, Meheus F, Robays J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Algorithms for Confirmation Test of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1484. doi:10.3201/eid1310.060358.
APA Lutumba, P., Meheus, F., Robays, J., Miaka, C., Kande, V., Büscher, P....Boelaert, M. (2007). Cost-effectiveness of Algorithms for Confirmation Test of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060358.
Dispatches

Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
O. J. Horna-Campos et al.

The association between public transportation for commuting and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was analyzed in workers in Lima, Peru. Traveling in minibuses was a risk factor for pulmonary TB. Preventive measures need to be taken by health services to prevent spread of this disease.

EID Horna-Campos OJ, Sánchez-Pérez HJ, Sánchez I, Bedoya A, Martín M. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060793
AMA Horna-Campos OJ, Sánchez-Pérez HJ, Sánchez I, et al. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1491-1493. doi:10.3201/eid1310.060793.
APA Horna-Campos, O. J., Sánchez-Pérez, H. J., Sánchez, I., Bedoya, A., & Martín, M. (2007). Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060793.

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rainy Season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006 [PDF - 130 KB - 3 pages]
T. P. Eisele et al.

We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection.

EID Eisele TP, Keating J, Bennett A, Londono B, Johnson D, Lafontant C, et al. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rainy Season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070567
AMA Eisele TP, Keating J, Bennett A, et al. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rainy Season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1494-1496. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070567.
APA Eisele, T. P., Keating, J., Bennett, A., Londono, B., Johnson, D., Lafontant, C....Krogstad, D. J. (2007). Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rainy Season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1494-1496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070567.

Evaluating Tuberculosis Case Detection in Eritrea [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
M. J. van der Werf et al.

We used results from a national tuberculosis prevalence survey in Eritrea to calculate case detection rate (CDR) and compared it with the published CDR. The CDR obtained from the survey was ≈40%, whereas the CDR published by the World Health Organization was 3× lower (14%).

EID van der Werf MJ, Sebhatu M, Borgdorff MW. Evaluating Tuberculosis Case Detection in Eritrea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1497-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061279
AMA van der Werf MJ, Sebhatu M, Borgdorff MW. Evaluating Tuberculosis Case Detection in Eritrea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1497-1499. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061279.
APA van der Werf, M. J., Sebhatu, M., & Borgdorff, M. W. (2007). Evaluating Tuberculosis Case Detection in Eritrea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1497-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061279.

West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas [PDF - 164 KB - 4 pages]
T. E. Meyer et al.

Among 397 homeless participants studied, the overall West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence was 6.8%. Risk factors for WNV infection included being homeless >1 year, spending >6 hours outside daily, regularly taking mosquito precautions, and current marijuana use. Public health interventions need to be directed toward this high-risk population.

EID Meyer TE, Bull LM, Holmes KC, Pascua RF, Travassos da Rosa A, Gutierrez CR, et al. West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1500-1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070442
AMA Meyer TE, Bull LM, Holmes KC, et al. West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1500-1503. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070442.
APA Meyer, T. E., Bull, L. M., Holmes, K. C., Pascua, R. F., Travassos da Rosa, A., Gutierrez, C. R....Murray, K. O. (2007). West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1500-1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070442.

Schistosoma hematobium and S. mansoni among Children, Southern Sudan [PDF - 575 KB - 3 pages]
R. Deganello et al.

We conducted a survey of schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in 2 villages in Southern Sudan. In Lui (West Equatoria region), prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 51.5%; no cases of S. hematobium infection were detected. In Nyal (Upper Nile region), prevalence of S. hematobium infection was 73% and S. mansoni infection, 70%.

EID Deganello R, Cruciani M, Beltramello C, Duncan O, Oyugi V, Montresor A. Schistosoma hematobium and S. mansoni among Children, Southern Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1504-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070356
AMA Deganello R, Cruciani M, Beltramello C, et al. Schistosoma hematobium and S. mansoni among Children, Southern Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1504-1506. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070356.
APA Deganello, R., Cruciani, M., Beltramello, C., Duncan, O., Oyugi, V., & Montresor, A. (2007). Schistosoma hematobium and S. mansoni among Children, Southern Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1504-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070356.
Another Dimension

Burning the Rat [PDF - 175 KB - 1 page]
A. Zolynas
EID Zolynas A. Burning the Rat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.ad1310
AMA Zolynas A. Burning the Rat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1621. doi:10.3201/eid1310.ad1310.
APA Zolynas, A. (2007). Burning the Rat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.ad1310.
Letters

Influenza A and B Infection in Children in Urban Slum, Bangladesh [PDF - 28 KB - 2 pages]
W. A. Brooks et al.
EID Brooks WA, Terebuh P, Bridges C, Klimov A, Goswami D, Sharmeen AT, et al. Influenza A and B Infection in Children in Urban Slum, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1507-1508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070368
AMA Brooks WA, Terebuh P, Bridges C, et al. Influenza A and B Infection in Children in Urban Slum, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1507-1508. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070368.
APA Brooks, W. A., Terebuh, P., Bridges, C., Klimov, A., Goswami, D., Sharmeen, A. T....Breiman, R. F. (2007). Influenza A and B Infection in Children in Urban Slum, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1507-1508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070368.

Identification of Rickettsiae, Uganda and Djibouti [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
C. Socolovschi et al.
EID Socolovschi C, Matsumoto K, Marie J, Davoust B, Raoult D, Parola P. Identification of Rickettsiae, Uganda and Djibouti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1508-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070078
AMA Socolovschi C, Matsumoto K, Marie J, et al. Identification of Rickettsiae, Uganda and Djibouti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1508-1509. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070078.
APA Socolovschi, C., Matsumoto, K., Marie, J., Davoust, B., Raoult, D., & Parola, P. (2007). Identification of Rickettsiae, Uganda and Djibouti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1508-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070078.

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Vascular Disease among Drug Users, England [PDF - 52 KB - 2 pages]
C. Irish et al.
EID Irish C, Maxwell R, Dancox M, Brown P, Trotter CL, Verne J, et al. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Vascular Disease among Drug Users, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1510-1511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061196
AMA Irish C, Maxwell R, Dancox M, et al. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Vascular Disease among Drug Users, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1510-1511. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061196.
APA Irish, C., Maxwell, R., Dancox, M., Brown, P., Trotter, C. L., Verne, J....Shaw, M. (2007). Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Vascular Disease among Drug Users, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1510-1511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061196.
Volume 13, Number 10—October 2007 - Continued

Perspective

Confronting Potential Influenza A (H5N1) Pandemic with Better Vaccines [PDF - 196 KB - 7 pages]
A. Haque et al.

Influenza A (H5N1) viruses are strong candidates for causing the next influenza pandemic if they acquire the ability for efficient human-to-human transmission. A major public health goal is to make efficacious vaccines against these viruses by using novel approaches, including cell-culture system, reverse genetics, and adjuvant development. Important consideration for the strategy includes preparation of vaccines from a currently circulating strain to induce broad-spectrum immunity toward newly emerged human H5 strains. This strategy would be a good solution early in a pandemic until an antigenically matched and approved vaccine is produced. The concept of therapeutic vaccines (e.g., antidisease vaccine) directed at diminishing the cytokine storm frequently seen in subtype H5N1–infected persons is underscored. Better understanding of host–virus interaction is essential to identify tools to produce effective vaccines against influenza (H5N1).

EID Haque A, Hober D, Kasper LH. Confronting Potential Influenza A (H5N1) Pandemic with Better Vaccines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1512-1518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061262
AMA Haque A, Hober D, Kasper LH. Confronting Potential Influenza A (H5N1) Pandemic with Better Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1512-1518. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061262.
APA Haque, A., Hober, D., & Kasper, L. H. (2007). Confronting Potential Influenza A (H5N1) Pandemic with Better Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1512-1518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061262.
Research

Antigenic Diversity of Human Sapoviruses [PDF - 324 KB - 7 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.

Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis. On the basis of capsid protein (VP1) nucleotide sequences, SaV can be divided into 5 genogroups (GI–GV), of which the GI, GII, GIV, and GV strains infect humans. SaV is uncultivable, but expression of recombinant VP1 in insect cells results in formation of viruslike particles (VLPs) that are antigenically similar to native SaV. In this study, we newly expressed SaV GII and GIV VLPs to compare genetic and antigenic relationships among all human SaV genogroups. Hyperimmune antiserum samples against VLPs reacted strongly with homologous VLPs. However, several antiserum samples weakly cross-reacted against heterologous VLPs in an antibody ELISA. Conversely, an antigen ELISA showed that VLPs of SaV in all human genogroups were antigenically distinct. These findings indicate a likely correspondence between SaV antigenicity and VP1 genogrouping and genotyping.

EID Hansman GS, Oka T, Sakon N, Takeda N. Antigenic Diversity of Human Sapoviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1519-1525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070402
AMA Hansman GS, Oka T, Sakon N, et al. Antigenic Diversity of Human Sapoviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1519-1525. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070402.
APA Hansman, G. S., Oka, T., Sakon, N., & Takeda, N. (2007). Antigenic Diversity of Human Sapoviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1519-1525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070402.

Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts [PDF - 273 KB - 7 pages]
J. Cui et al.

Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed multiple incongruent associations between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs, which suggested that host shifts have occurred in the recent evolutionary history of this group. These shifts may be due to either virus biologic traits or host behavioral traits. This finding has implications for the emergence of SARS and for the potential future emergence of SARS-CoVs or related viruses.

EID Cui J, Han N, Streicker D, Li G, Tang X, Shi Z, et al. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1526-1532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070448
AMA Cui J, Han N, Streicker D, et al. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1526-1532. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070448.
APA Cui, J., Han, N., Streicker, D., Li, G., Tang, X., Shi, Z....Daszak, P. (2007). Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1526-1532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070448.

Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark [PDF - 213 KB - 8 pages]
M. D. Bartels et al.

In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980–2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had no identified risk factors. We identified 29 spa types (t) and 16 sequence types (STs) belonging to 8 clonal complexes and 3 ST singletons. The most common clonal types were t024/ST8-IV, t019/ST30-IV, t044/ST80-IV, and t008/ST8-IV (USA300). A total of 86% of isolates harbored SCCmec IV, and 44% had PVL. Skin and soft tissue infections dominated. CO-MRSA with diverse genetic backgrounds is rapidly emerging in a low MRSA prevalence area.

EID Bartels MD, Boye K, Larsen AR, Skov R, Westh H. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1533-1540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070503
AMA Bartels MD, Boye K, Larsen AR, et al. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1533-1540. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070503.
APA Bartels, M. D., Boye, K., Larsen, A. R., Skov, R., & Westh, H. (2007). Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1533-1540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070503.

Personal Protective Equipment and Antiviral Drug Use during Hospitalization for Suspected Avian or Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 294 KB - 7 pages]
A. Swaminathan et al.

For pandemic influenza planning, realistic estimates of personal protective equipment (PPE) and antiviral medication required for hospital healthcare workers (HCWs) are vital. In this simulation study, a patient with suspected avian or pandemic influenza (API) sought treatment at 9 Australian hospital emergency departments where patient–staff interactions during the first 6 hours of hospitalization were observed. Based on World Health Organization definitions and guidelines, the mean number of “close contacts” of the API patient was 12.3 (range 6–17; 85% HCWs); mean “exposures” were 19.3 (range 15–26). Overall, 20–25 PPE sets were required per patient, with variable HCW compliance for wearing these items (93% N95 masks, 77% gowns, 83% gloves, and 73% eye protection). Up to 41% of HCW close contacts would have qualified for postexposure antiviral prophylaxis. These data indicate that many current national stockpiles of PPE and antiviral medication are likely inadequate for a pandemic.

EID Swaminathan A, Martin R, Gamon S, Aboltins C, Athan E, Braitberg G, et al. Personal Protective Equipment and Antiviral Drug Use during Hospitalization for Suspected Avian or Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1541-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070033
AMA Swaminathan A, Martin R, Gamon S, et al. Personal Protective Equipment and Antiviral Drug Use during Hospitalization for Suspected Avian or Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1541-1547. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070033.
APA Swaminathan, A., Martin, R., Gamon, S., Aboltins, C., Athan, E., Braitberg, G....Grayson, M. L. (2007). Personal Protective Equipment and Antiviral Drug Use during Hospitalization for Suspected Avian or Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1541-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070033.

SurvNet Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany [PDF - 279 KB - 8 pages]
G. Krause et al.

In 2001, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) implemented a new electronic surveillance system (SurvNet) for infectious disease outbreaks in Germany. SurvNet has captured 30,578 outbreak reports in 2001–2005. The size of the outbreaks ranged from 2 to 527 cases. For outbreaks reported in 2002–2005, the median duration from notification of the first case to the local health department until receipt of the outbreak report at RKI was 7 days. Median outbreak duration ranged from 1 day (caused by Campylobacter) up to 73 days (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The most common settings among the 10,008 entries for 9,946 outbreaks in 2004 and 2005 were households (5,262; 53%), nursing homes (1,218; 12%), and hospitals (1,248; 12%). SurvNet may be a useful tool for other outbreak surveillance systems because it minimizes the workload of local health departments and captures outbreaks even when causative pathogens have not yet been identified.

EID Krause G, Altmann D, Faensen D, Porten K, Benzler J, Pfoch T, et al. SurvNet Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1548-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070253
AMA Krause G, Altmann D, Faensen D, et al. SurvNet Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1548-1555. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070253.
APA Krause, G., Altmann, D., Faensen, D., Porten, K., Benzler, J., Pfoch, T....Claus, H. (2007). SurvNet Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1548-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070253.
Dispatches

Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico [PDF - 249 KB - 3 pages]
G. Gordillo-Pérez et al.

Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico.

EID Gordillo-Pérez G, Torres J, Solórzano-Santos F, de Martino S, Lipsker D, Velázquez E, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1556. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060630
AMA Gordillo-Pérez G, Torres J, Solórzano-Santos F, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1556. doi:10.3201/eid1310.060630.
APA Gordillo-Pérez, G., Torres, J., Solórzano-Santos, F., de Martino, S., Lipsker, D., Velázquez, E....Jaulhac, B. (2007). Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1556. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060630.

Using Death Certificate Reports to Find Severe Leptospirosis Cases, Brazil [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
A. Spichler et al.

Severe leptospirosis with pulmonary hemorrhage is emerging globally. Measures to control leptospirosis through sanitation depend on accurate case finding and reporting. Rapid death certificate reporting, plus necropsy of persons who died of leptospirosis, facilitates public health intervention and could provide an important tool in assessing the global burden of leptospirosis.

EID Spichler A, Athanazio D, Buzzar M, Castro B, Chapolla E, Seguro A, et al. Using Death Certificate Reports to Find Severe Leptospirosis Cases, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1559-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070150
AMA Spichler A, Athanazio D, Buzzar M, et al. Using Death Certificate Reports to Find Severe Leptospirosis Cases, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1559-1561. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070150.
APA Spichler, A., Athanazio, D., Buzzar, M., Castro, B., Chapolla, E., Seguro, A....Vinetz, J. M. (2007). Using Death Certificate Reports to Find Severe Leptospirosis Cases, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1559-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070150.

Duration of Antibody Responses after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome [PDF - 226 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wu et al.

Among 176 patients who had had severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS-specific antibodies were maintained for an average of 2 years, and significant reduction of immunoglobulin G–positive percentage and titers occurred in the third year. Thus, SARS patients might be susceptible to reinfection >3 years after initial exposure.

EID Wu L, Wang N, Chang Y, Tian X, Na D, Zhang L, et al. Duration of Antibody Responses after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070576
AMA Wu L, Wang N, Chang Y, et al. Duration of Antibody Responses after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1562-1564. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070576.
APA Wu, L., Wang, N., Chang, Y., Tian, X., Na, D., Zhang, L....Liang, G. (2007). Duration of Antibody Responses after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070576.

Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood [PDF - 264 KB - 3 pages]
D. A. Bemis and S. A. Kania

A Bartonella sp. was isolated from sheep blood. Bacterial identification was conducted by using electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, riboflavin synthase, and RNAase P genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovine Bartonella infection.

EID Bemis DA, Kania SA. Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1565-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070570
AMA Bemis DA, Kania SA. Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1565-1567. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070570.
APA Bemis, D. A., & Kania, S. A. (2007). Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1565-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070570.

Predominance of Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil [PDF - 364 KB - 3 pages]
R. Q. Gurgel et al.

We identified 21 rotaviruses in 129 patients with diarrhea in a Brazilian city with high rotavirus vaccine coverage. All rotaviruses were genotype P[4]G2 with 1 mixed infection with P[NT]G9. Although virus predominance could have occurred randomly, the vaccine may be less protective against P[4]G2. Prospective surveillance is urgently needed.

EID Gurgel RQ, Cuevas LE, Vieira SC, Barros VC, Fontes PB, Salustino EF, et al. Predominance of Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070412
AMA Gurgel RQ, Cuevas LE, Vieira SC, et al. Predominance of Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1571-1573. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070412.
APA Gurgel, R. Q., Cuevas, L. E., Vieira, S. C., Barros, V. C., Fontes, P. B., Salustino, E. F....Hart, C. A. (2007). Predominance of Rotavirus P[4]G2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070412.

Novel Variant of Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Russia [PDF - 362 KB - 5 pages]
V. A. Ternovoi et al.

We isolated a novel strain of tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Glubinnoe/2004, from a patient with a fatal case in Russia. We sequenced the strain, whose landmark features included 57 amino acid substitutions and 5 modified cleavage sites. Phylogenetically, Glubinnoe/2004 is a novel variant that belongs to the Eastern type of TBEV.

EID Ternovoi VA, Protopopova EV, Chausov EV, Novikov DV, Leonova GN, Netesov SV, et al. Novel Variant of Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1574-1578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070158
AMA Ternovoi VA, Protopopova EV, Chausov EV, et al. Novel Variant of Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1574-1578. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070158.
APA Ternovoi, V. A., Protopopova, E. V., Chausov, E. V., Novikov, D. V., Leonova, G. N., Netesov, S. V....Loktev, V. B. (2007). Novel Variant of Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1574-1578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070158.

Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, Pacific Northwest, United States [PDF - 232 KB - 4 pages]
M. A. Davis et al.

We compared human and bovine isolates of Salmonella enterica using antimicrobial-drug resistance profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. From 2000 through 2006, we observed an increase in a novel multidrug-resistant clone of S. Typhimurium with no recognized phage type. This clone may represent an emerging epidemic strain in the Pacific Northwest.

EID Davis MA, Besser TE, Eckmann K, MacDonald JK, Green D, Hancock DD, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, Pacific Northwest, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1583-1586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070536
AMA Davis MA, Besser TE, Eckmann K, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, Pacific Northwest, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1583-1586. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070536.
APA Davis, M. A., Besser, T. E., Eckmann, K., MacDonald, J. K., Green, D., Hancock, D. D....Call, D. R. (2007). Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, Pacific Northwest, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1583-1586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070536.

Emergence of Human Rotavirus Group A Genotype G9 Strains, Wuhan, China [PDF - 172 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yang et al.

Of 322 stool specimens collected from children with diarrhea from October 2005 through September 2006 in Wuhan, China, group A rotavirus was identified in 101 (31.4%). The most prevalent group A rotavirus genotype was G3P[8] (62.6%), followed by G1P[8](17.6%), G1+G3P[8](8.8%), G3P[4](6.6%), G1P[4](2.2%), and G9P[8](2.2%). The G9 strains were first detected in Wuhan.

EID Yang J, Wang T, Wang Y, Lu B, Bai X, Zhang L, et al. Emergence of Human Rotavirus Group A Genotype G9 Strains, Wuhan, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1587-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070142
AMA Yang J, Wang T, Wang Y, et al. Emergence of Human Rotavirus Group A Genotype G9 Strains, Wuhan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1587-1589. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070142.
APA Yang, J., Wang, T., Wang, Y., Lu, B., Bai, X., Zhang, L....Wang, H. (2007). Emergence of Human Rotavirus Group A Genotype G9 Strains, Wuhan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1587-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070142.

International Epidemic Intelligence at the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, France [PDF - 278 KB - 3 pages]
B. Rotureau et al.

The French Institute for Public Health Surveillance monitors health events of potential international importance occurring worldwide to provide timely warning to French health authorities. We reviewed the nature and place of occurrence of the last 200 events. From an individual country’s perspective, the need for multiple sources is emphasized.

EID Rotureau B, Barboza P, Tarantola A, Paquet C. International Epidemic Intelligence at the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070522
AMA Rotureau B, Barboza P, Tarantola A, et al. International Epidemic Intelligence at the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1590-1592. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070522.
APA Rotureau, B., Barboza, P., Tarantola, A., & Paquet, C. (2007). International Epidemic Intelligence at the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070522.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt [PDF - 262 KB - 4 pages]
N. J. Knowles et al.

We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

EID Knowles NJ, Wadsworth J, Reid SM, Swabey KG, El-Kholy AA, El-Rahman AO, et al. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1593-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070252
AMA Knowles NJ, Wadsworth J, Reid SM, et al. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1593-1596. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070252.
APA Knowles, N. J., Wadsworth, J., Reid, S. M., Swabey, K. G., El-Kholy, A. A., El-Rahman, A. O....Paton, D. J. (2007). Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1593-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070252.

Malaria Diagnosis and Hospitalization Trends, Brazil [PDF - 282 KB - 4 pages]
P. D. Santos-Ciminera et al.

We focused on rates of malaria in the state of Amazonas and city of Manaus, Brazil. Plasmodium vivax accounted for an increased number and rate of hospital admissions, while P. falciparum cases decreased. Our observations on malaria epidemiology suggest that the increased hospitalization rate could be due to increased severity of P. vivax infections.

EID Santos-Ciminera PD, Roberts DR, Alecrim Md, Costa MR, Quinnan GV. Malaria Diagnosis and Hospitalization Trends, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1597-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070052
AMA Santos-Ciminera PD, Roberts DR, Alecrim Md, et al. Malaria Diagnosis and Hospitalization Trends, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1597-1600. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070052.
APA Santos-Ciminera, P. D., Roberts, D. R., Alecrim, M. d., Costa, M. R., & Quinnan, G. V. (2007). Malaria Diagnosis and Hospitalization Trends, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1597-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070052.

Multifocal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreak [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
R. D. Balicer et al.

During March 2006, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) occurred in multiple poultry farms in Israel. The epidemiologic investigation and review of outbreak mitigation efforts uncovered gaps in planning for and containing the outbreak, thus affording valuable lessons applicable to other countries in similar settings.

EID Balicer RD, Reznikovich S, Berman E, Pirak M, Inbar A, Pokamunski S, et al. Multifocal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1601-1603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070558
AMA Balicer RD, Reznikovich S, Berman E, et al. Multifocal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1601-1603. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070558.
APA Balicer, R. D., Reznikovich, S., Berman, E., Pirak, M., Inbar, A., Pokamunski, S....Grotto, I. (2007). Multifocal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1601-1603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070558.

Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice [PDF - 259 KB - 4 pages]
T. Schountz et al.

We developed a 1-hour field enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detecting antibody to Sin Nombre virus in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). The assay specificity and sensitivity were comparable to those of a standard EIA. This test will permit identification of rodents with antibody to this and perhaps other hantaviruses.

EID Schountz T, Calisher CH, Richens TR, Rich AA, Doty JB, Hughes MT, et al. Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1604-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070383
AMA Schountz T, Calisher CH, Richens TR, et al. Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1604-1607. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070383.
APA Schountz, T., Calisher, C. H., Richens, T. R., Rich, A. A., Doty, J. B., Hughes, M. T....Beaty, B. J. (2007). Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1604-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070383.

Super-Sentinel Chickens and Detection of Low-Pathogenicity Influenza Virus [PDF - 212 KB - 3 pages]
P. I. Marcus et al.

Chicken interferon-α administered perorally in drinking water acts on the oropharyngeal mucosal system as an adjuvant that causes chickens to rapidly seroconvert after natural infection by low-pathogenicity Influenza virus. These chickens, termed super sentinels, can serve as sensitive early detectors of clinically inapparent infections.

EID Marcus PI, Girshick T, van der Heide L, Sekellick MJ. Super-Sentinel Chickens and Detection of Low-Pathogenicity Influenza Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1608-1610. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061552
AMA Marcus PI, Girshick T, van der Heide L, et al. Super-Sentinel Chickens and Detection of Low-Pathogenicity Influenza Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1608-1610. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061552.
APA Marcus, P. I., Girshick, T., van der Heide, L., & Sekellick, M. J. (2007). Super-Sentinel Chickens and Detection of Low-Pathogenicity Influenza Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1608-1610. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061552.

Human Metapneumovirus Infection among Children, Bangladesh [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
W. A. Brooks et al.

We confirmed circulation of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) among children with febrile and respiratory illness in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during active surveillance in 2001. HMPV was the most common single virus identified among febrile children and appears to contribute to the high rates of illness in this population.

EID Brooks WA, Erdman DD, Terebuh P, Klimov A, Goswami D, Sharmeen AT, et al. Human Metapneumovirus Infection among Children, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1611-1613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070337
AMA Brooks WA, Erdman DD, Terebuh P, et al. Human Metapneumovirus Infection among Children, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1611-1613. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070337.
APA Brooks, W. A., Erdman, D. D., Terebuh, P., Klimov, A., Goswami, D., Sharmeen, A. T....Breiman, R. (2007). Human Metapneumovirus Infection among Children, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1611-1613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070337.

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, Delhi, India [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
S. Singhal et al.

Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis isolates to ciprofloxacin emerged from an outbreak in Delhi, India. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the meningococcal isolates to ciprofloxacin and further sequencing of DNA gyrase A quinolone-resistance–determining region confirmed the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in the outbreak.

EID Singhal S, Purnapatre KP, Kalia V, Dube S, Nair D, Deb M, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, Delhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1614-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060820
AMA Singhal S, Purnapatre KP, Kalia V, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1614-1616. doi:10.3201/eid1310.060820.
APA Singhal, S., Purnapatre, K. P., Kalia, V., Dube, S., Nair, D., Deb, M....Raj, V. S. (2007). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1614-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.060820.

Exposure to Wild Primates among HIV-infected Persons [PDF - 425 KB - 4 pages]
M. LeBreton et al.

HIV-1 is an immunosuppressive pathogen. Our behavioral data for 191 HIV-1–infected rural Cameroonians show frequent exposure to nonhuman primates through activities such as hunting and butchering. Immunosuppression among persons exposed to body fluids of wild nonhuman primates could favor the process of adaptation and subsequent emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

EID LeBreton M, Yang O, Tamoufe U, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Torimiro JN, Djoko CF, et al. Exposure to Wild Primates among HIV-infected Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1579-1582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070338
AMA LeBreton M, Yang O, Tamoufe U, et al. Exposure to Wild Primates among HIV-infected Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1579-1582. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070338.
APA LeBreton, M., Yang, O., Tamoufe, U., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Torimiro, J. N., Djoko, C. F....Wolfe, N. D. (2007). Exposure to Wild Primates among HIV-infected Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1579-1582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070338.

Chlorine Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) [PDF - 282 KB - 3 pages]
E. W. Rice et al.

To determine resistance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus to chlorination, we exposed allantoic fluid containing 2 virus strains to chlorinated buffer at pH 7 and 8, at 5°C. Free chlorine concentrations typically used in drinking water treatment are sufficient to inactivate the virus by >3 orders of magnitude.

EID Rice EW, Adcock NJ, Sivaganesan M, Brown JD, Stallknecht DE, Swayne DE. Chlorine Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070323
AMA Rice EW, Adcock NJ, Sivaganesan M, et al. Chlorine Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1568-1570. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070323.
APA Rice, E. W., Adcock, N. J., Sivaganesan, M., Brown, J. D., Stallknecht, D. E., & Swayne, D. E. (2007). Chlorine Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070323.
Letters

Compliance with Exclusion Requirements to Prevent Mumps Transmission [PDF - 158 KB - 2 pages]
S. M. Borchardt et al.
EID Borchardt SM, Rao P, Dworkin MS. Compliance with Exclusion Requirements to Prevent Mumps Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1617-1618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070117
AMA Borchardt SM, Rao P, Dworkin MS. Compliance with Exclusion Requirements to Prevent Mumps Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1617-1618. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070117.
APA Borchardt, S. M., Rao, P., & Dworkin, M. S. (2007). Compliance with Exclusion Requirements to Prevent Mumps Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1617-1618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070117.

Alveolar Echinococcosis, Lithuania [PDF - 236 KB - 2 pages]
R. Bružinskaitė et al.
EID Bružinskaitė R, Marcinkutė A, Strupas K, Sokolovas V, Deplazes P, Mathis A, et al. Alveolar Echinococcosis, Lithuania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1618-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061161
AMA Bružinskaitė R, Marcinkutė A, Strupas K, et al. Alveolar Echinococcosis, Lithuania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1618-1619. doi:10.3201/eid1310.061161.
APA Bružinskaitė, R., Marcinkutė, A., Strupas, K., Sokolovas, V., Deplazes, P., Mathis, A....Šarkūnas, M. (2007). Alveolar Echinococcosis, Lithuania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1618-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.061161.

Human Bocavirus and Gastroenteritis [PDF - 189 KB - 2 pages]
D. Vicente et al.
EID Vicente D, Cilla G, Montes M, Pérez-Yarza EG, Pérez-Trallero E, Schildgen O, et al. Human Bocavirus and Gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1620-1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070436
AMA Vicente D, Cilla G, Montes M, et al. Human Bocavirus and Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1620-1621. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070436.
APA Vicente, D., Cilla, G., Montes, M., Pérez-Yarza, E. G., Pérez-Trallero, E., Schildgen, O....Simon, A. (2007). Human Bocavirus and Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1620-1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.070436.
About the Cover

Rats, Global Poverty, and Paying the Piper [PDF - 206 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Rats, Global Poverty, and Paying the Piper. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1622-1623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.ac1310
AMA Potter P. Rats, Global Poverty, and Paying the Piper. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1622-1623. doi:10.3201/eid1310.ac1310.
APA Potter, P. (2007). Rats, Global Poverty, and Paying the Piper. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1622-1623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.ac1310.
Etymologia

schistosomiasis [PDF - 10 KB - 1 page]
EID schistosomiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.e11310
AMA schistosomiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1476. doi:10.3201/eid1310.e11310.
APA (2007). schistosomiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 1476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1310.e11310.
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Page updated: July 09, 2012
Page reviewed: July 09, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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