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Issue Cover for Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011

Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011

[PDF - 6.59 MB - 207 pages]

Perspective

Global Spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [PDF - 766 KB - 8 pages]
P. Nordmann et al.

Carbapenemases increasingly have been reported in Enterobacteriaceae in the past 10 years. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases have been reported in the United States and then worldwide, with a marked endemicity at least in the United States and Greece. Metallo-enzymes (Verona integron–encoded metallo-β-lactamase, IMP) also have been reported worldwide, with a higher prevalence in southern Europe and Asia. Carbapenemases of the oxacillinase-48 type have been identified mostly in Mediterranean and European countries and in India. Recent identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 producers, originally in the United Kingdom, India, and Pakistan and now worldwide, is worrisome. Detection of infected patients and carriers with carbapenemase producers is necessary for prevention of their spread. Identification of the carbapenemase genes relies mostly on molecular techniques, whereas detection of carriers is possible by using screening culture media. This strategy may help prevent development of nosocomial outbreaks caused by carbapenemase producers, particularly K. pneumoniae.

EID Nordmann P, Naas T, Poirel L. Global Spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1791-1798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110655
AMA Nordmann P, Naas T, Poirel L. Global Spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1791-1798. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110655.
APA Nordmann, P., Naas, T., & Poirel, L. (2011). Global Spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1791-1798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110655.
Research

Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Humans and Macaques, Thailand [PDF - 319 KB - 8 pages]
S. Jongwutiwes et al.

Naturally acquired human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi are endemic to Southeast Asia. To determine the prevalence of P. knowlesi malaria in malaria-endemic areas of Thailand, we analyzed genetic characteristics of P. knowlesi circulating among naturally infected macaques and humans. This study in 2008–2009 and retrospective analysis of malaria species in human blood samples obtained in 1996 from 1 of these areas showed that P. knowlesi accounted for 0.67% and 0.48% of human malaria cases, respectively, indicating that this simian parasite is not a newly emergent human pathogen in Thailand. Sequence analysis of the complete merozoite surface protein 1 gene of P. knowlesi from 10 human and 5 macaque blood samples showed considerable genetic diversity among isolates. The sequence from 1 patient was identical with that from a pig-tailed macaque living in the same locality, suggesting cross-transmission of P. knowlesi from naturally infected macaques to humans.

EID Jongwutiwes S, Buppan P, Kosuvin R, Seethamchai S, Pattanawong U, Sirichaisinthop J, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Humans and Macaques, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1799-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110349
AMA Jongwutiwes S, Buppan P, Kosuvin R, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Humans and Macaques, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1799-1806. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110349.
APA Jongwutiwes, S., Buppan, P., Kosuvin, R., Seethamchai, S., Pattanawong, U., Sirichaisinthop, J....Putaporntip, C. (2011). Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Humans and Macaques, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1799-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110349.

Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in England and Scotland, 2009–2010 [PDF - 222 KB - 9 pages]
L. Calatayud et al.

Oseltamivir has been widely used for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, and by April 30, 2010, a total of 285 resistant cases were reported worldwide, including 45 in the United Kingdom. To determine risk factors for emergence of oseltamivir resistance and severe infection, a case–control study was conducted in the United Kingdom. Study participants were hospitalized in England or Scotland during January 4, 2009–April 30, 2010. Controls had confirmed oseltamivir-sensitive pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infections, and case-patients had confirmed oseltamivir-resistant infections. Of 28 case-patients with available information, 21 (75%) were immunocompromised; 31 of 33 case-patients (94%) received antiviral drugs before a sample was obtained. After adjusting for confounders, case-patients remained significantly more likely than controls to be immunocompromised and at higher risk for showing development of respiratory complications. Selective drug pressure likely explains the development of oseltamivir resistance, especially among immunocompromised patients. Monitoring of antiviral resistance is strongly recommended in this group.

EID Calatayud L, Lackenby A, Reynolds A, McMenamin J, Phin NF, Zambon M, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in England and Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1807-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110117
AMA Calatayud L, Lackenby A, Reynolds A, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in England and Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1807-1815. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110117.
APA Calatayud, L., Lackenby, A., Reynolds, A., McMenamin, J., Phin, N. F., Zambon, M....Pebody, R. G. (2011). Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in England and Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1807-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110117.

Humans Infected with Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia [PDF - 410 KB - 8 pages]
A. E. Platonov et al.

Borrelia miyamotoi is distantly related to B. burgdorferi and transmitted by the same hard-body tick species. We report 46 cases of B. miyamotoi infection in humans and compare the frequency and clinical manifestations of this infection with those caused by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi infection. All 46 patients lived in Russia and had influenza-like illness with fever as high as 39.5°C; relapsing febrile illness occurred in 5 (11%) and erythema migrans in 4 (9%). In Russia, the rate of B. miyamotoi infection in Ixodes persulcatus ticks was 1%–16%, similar to rates in I. ricinus ticks in western Europe and I. scapularis ticks in the United States. B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease–like symptoms throughout the Holarctic region of the world because of the widespread prevalence of this pathogen in its ixodid tick vectors.

EID Platonov AE, Karan LS, Kolyasnikova NM, Makhneva NA, Toporkova MG, Maleev VV, et al. Humans Infected with Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1816-1823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101474
AMA Platonov AE, Karan LS, Kolyasnikova NM, et al. Humans Infected with Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1816-1823. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101474.
APA Platonov, A. E., Karan, L. S., Kolyasnikova, N. M., Makhneva, N. A., Toporkova, M. G., Maleev, V. V....Krause, P. J. (2011). Humans Infected with Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1816-1823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101474.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Quarantined Close Contacts, Beijing, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 196 KB - 7 pages]
X. Pang et al.

We estimated the attack rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and assessed risk factors for infection among close contacts quarantined in Beijing, People’s Republic of China. The first 613 confirmed cases detected between May 16 and September 15, 2009, were investigated; 7,099 close contacts were located and quarantined. The attack rate of confirmed infection in close contacts was 2.4% overall, ranging from 0.9% among aircraft passengers to >5% among household members. Risk factors for infection among close contacts were younger age, being a household member of an index case-patient, exposure during the index case-patient’s symptomatic phase, and longer exposure. Among close contacts with positive test results at the start of quarantine, 17.2% had subclinical infection. Having contact with a household member and younger age were the major risk factors for acquiring pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection. One person in 6 with confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was asymptomatic.

EID Pang X, Yang P, Li S, Zhang L, Tian L, Li Y, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Quarantined Close Contacts, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1824-1830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101344
AMA Pang X, Yang P, Li S, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Quarantined Close Contacts, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1824-1830. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101344.
APA Pang, X., Yang, P., Li, S., Zhang, L., Tian, L., Li, Y....Wang, Q. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Quarantined Close Contacts, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1824-1830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101344.

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, People’s Republic of China, 2007–2009 [PDF - 313 KB - 8 pages]
G. X. He et al.

We conducted a case–control study to investigate risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in the People’s Republic of China. Genotyping analysis was used to estimate the percentage of cases from recent transmission among 100 MDR TB case-patients hospitalized during April 2007–July 2009. Molecular subtyping of isolates showed that 41% of MDR TB strains clustered. Beijing genotype was found in 94% of the MDR TB isolates and 79% of the pan-susceptible isolates. In multivariate analysis, MDR TB was independently associated with Beijing genotype, retreatment for TB, symptoms lasting >3 months before first evaluation at the hospital, lack of health insurance, and being a farmer (vs. being a student). MDR TB was associated with Beijing genotype and lower socioeconomic status. A large percentage of MDR TB cases seemed to result from recent transmission. Early detection, effective treatment, and infection control measures for MDR TB are needed to reduce transmission.

EID He GX, Wang HY, Borgdorff MW, van Soolingen D, van der Werf MJ, Liu ZM, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, People’s Republic of China, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1831-1838. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110546
AMA He GX, Wang HY, Borgdorff MW, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, People’s Republic of China, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1831-1838. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110546.
APA He, G. X., Wang, H. Y., Borgdorff, M. W., van Soolingen, D., van der Werf, M. J., Liu, Z. M....van den Hof, S. (2011). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, People’s Republic of China, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1831-1838. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110546.

Bacterial Causes of Empyema in Children, Australia, 2007–2009 [PDF - 265 KB - 7 pages]
R. E. Strachan et al.

An increase in the incidence of empyema worldwide could be related to invasive pneumococcal disease caused by emergent nonvaccine replacement serotypes. To determine bacterial pathogens and pneumococcal serotypes that cause empyema in children in Australia, we conducted a 2-year study of 174 children with empyema. Blood and pleural fluid samples were cultured, and pleural fluid was tested by PCR. Thirty-two (21.0%) of 152 blood and 53 (33.1%) of 160 pleural fluid cultures were positive for bacteria; Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism identified. PCR identified S. pneumoniae in 74 (51.7%) and other bacteria in 19 (13.1%) of 145 pleural fluid specimens. Of 53 samples in which S. pneumoniae serotypes were identified, 2 (3.8%) had vaccine-related and 51 (96.2%) had nonvaccine serotypes; 19A (n = 20; 36.4%), 3 (n = 18; 32.7%), and 1 (n = 8; 14.5%) were the most common. High proportions of nonvaccine serotypes suggest the need to broaden vaccine coverage.

EID Strachan RE, Cornelius A, Gilbert GL, Gulliver T, Martin A, McDonald T, et al. Bacterial Causes of Empyema in Children, Australia, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1839-1845. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101825
AMA Strachan RE, Cornelius A, Gilbert GL, et al. Bacterial Causes of Empyema in Children, Australia, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1839-1845. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101825.
APA Strachan, R. E., Cornelius, A., Gilbert, G. L., Gulliver, T., Martin, A., McDonald, T....Jaffé, A. (2011). Bacterial Causes of Empyema in Children, Australia, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1839-1845. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101825.

Medscape CME Activity
Clinical Implications of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands, 2007–2009 [PDF - 279 KB - 9 pages]
J. van der Linden et al.

The prevalence and spread of azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in the Netherlands are currently unknown. Therefore, we performed a prospective nationwide multicenter surveillance study to determine the effects of resistance on patient management strategies and public health. From June 2007 through January 2009, all clinical Aspergillus spp. isolates were screened for itraconazole resistance. In total, 2,062 isolates from 1,385 patients were screened; the prevalence of itraconazole resistance in A. fumigatus in our patient cohort was 5.3% (range 0.8%–9.5%). Patients with a hematologic or oncologic disease were more likely to harbor an azole-resistant isolate than were other patient groups (p<0.05). Most patients (64.0%) from whom a resistant isolate was identified were azole naive, and the case-fatality rate of patients with azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis was 88.0%. Our study found that multiazole resistance in A. fumigatus is widespread in the Netherlands and is associated with a high death rate for patients with invasive aspergillosis.

EID van der Linden J, Snelders E, Kampinga GA, Rijnders BJ, Mattsson E, Debets-Ossenkopp YJ, et al. Clinical Implications of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1846-1854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110226
AMA van der Linden J, Snelders E, Kampinga GA, et al. Clinical Implications of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1846-1854. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110226.
APA van der Linden, J., Snelders, E., Kampinga, G. A., Rijnders, B. J., Mattsson, E., Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J....Verweij, P. E. (2011). Clinical Implications of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1846-1854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110226.

Medscape CME Activity
Invasive Non-Aspergillus Mold Infections in Transplant Recipients, United States, 2001–2006 [PDF - 297 KB - 10 pages]
B. J. Park et al.

Recent reports describe increasing incidence of non-Aspergillus mold infections in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. To investigate the epidemiology of infections with Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp. molds, we analyzed data from the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network, 23 transplant centers that conducted prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections during 2001–2006. We identified 169 infections (105 Mucorales, 37 Fusarium spp., and 27 Scedosporium spp.) in 169 patients; 124 (73.4%) were in HCT recipients, and 45 (26.6%) were in SOT recipients. The crude 90-day mortality rate was 56.6%. The 12-month mucormycosis cumulative incidence was 0.29% for HCT and 0.07% for SOT. Mucormycosis incidence among HCT recipients varied widely, from 0.08% to 0.69%, with higher incidence in cohorts receiving transplants during 2003 and 2004. Non-Aspergillus mold infections continue to be associated with high mortality rates. The incidence of mucormycosis in HCT recipients increased substantially during the surveillance period.

EID Park BJ, Pappas PG, Wannemuehler KA, Alexander BD, Anaissie EJ, Andes DR, et al. Invasive Non-Aspergillus Mold Infections in Transplant Recipients, United States, 2001–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1855-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110087
AMA Park BJ, Pappas PG, Wannemuehler KA, et al. Invasive Non-Aspergillus Mold Infections in Transplant Recipients, United States, 2001–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1855-1864. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110087.
APA Park, B. J., Pappas, P. G., Wannemuehler, K. A., Alexander, B. D., Anaissie, E. J., Andes, D. R....Kontoyiannis, D. P. (2011). Invasive Non-Aspergillus Mold Infections in Transplant Recipients, United States, 2001–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1855-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110087.
Dispatches

Rickettsia honei Infection in Human, Nepal, 2009 [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
H. Murphy et al.

We report a case of Rickettsia honei infection in a human in Nepal. The patient had severe illness and many clinical features typical of Flinders Island spotted fever. Diagnosis was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescent assay with serum and molecular biological techniques. Flinders Island spotted fever may be an endemic rickettsiosis in Nepal.

EID Murphy H, Renvoisé A, Pandey P, Parola P, Raoult D. Rickettsia honei Infection in Human, Nepal, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1865-1867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101943
AMA Murphy H, Renvoisé A, Pandey P, et al. Rickettsia honei Infection in Human, Nepal, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1865-1867. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101943.
APA Murphy, H., Renvoisé, A., Pandey, P., Parola, P., & Raoult, D. (2011). Rickettsia honei Infection in Human, Nepal, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1865-1867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101943.

Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010 [PDF - 387 KB - 5 pages]
K. Danis et al.

During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors.

EID Danis K, Papa A, Theocharopoulos G, Dougas G, Athanasiou M, Detsis M, et al. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1868-1872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110525
AMA Danis K, Papa A, Theocharopoulos G, et al. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1868-1872. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110525.
APA Danis, K., Papa, A., Theocharopoulos, G., Dougas, G., Athanasiou, M., Detsis, M....Panagiotopoulos, T. (2011). Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1868-1872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110525.

Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Cao et al.

In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%–91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks.

EID Cao Z, Zhang C, Liu Y, Ye W, Han J, Ma G, et al. Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1873-1875. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101890
AMA Cao Z, Zhang C, Liu Y, et al. Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1873-1875. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101890.
APA Cao, Z., Zhang, C., Liu, Y., Ye, W., Han, J., Ma, G....Zhang, D. (2011). Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1873-1875. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101890.

Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
L. Li et al.

We used viral metagenomics to identify a novel parvovirus in tissues of a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Nearly full genome characterization and phylogenetic analyses showed this parvovirus (provisionally named gray fox amdovirus) to be distantly related to Aleutian mink disease virus, representing the second viral species in the Amdovirus genus.

EID Li L, Pesavento PA, Woods L, Clifford DL, Luff J, Wang C, et al. Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1876-1878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110233
AMA Li L, Pesavento PA, Woods L, et al. Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1876-1878. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110233.
APA Li, L., Pesavento, P. A., Woods, L., Clifford, D. L., Luff, J., Wang, C....Delwart, E. (2011). Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1876-1878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110233.

Bacteremia and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance over Time, Ghana [PDF - 284 KB - 4 pages]
U. Groß et al.

Bacterial distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance were monitored in patients with bacterial bloodstream infections in rural hospitals in Ghana. In 2001–2002 and in 2009, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was the most prevalent pathogen. Although most S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates were chloramphenicol resistant, all isolates tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin.

EID Groß U, Amuzu SK, de Ciman R, Kassimova I, Groß L, Rabsch W, et al. Bacteremia and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance over Time, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1879-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110327
AMA Groß U, Amuzu SK, de Ciman R, et al. Bacteremia and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance over Time, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1879-1882. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110327.
APA Groß, U., Amuzu, S. K., de Ciman, R., Kassimova, I., Groß, L., Rabsch, W....Zimmermann, O. (2011). Bacteremia and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance over Time, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1879-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110327.

Isolation and Phylogenetic Grouping of Equine Encephalosis Virus in Israel [PDF - 536 KB - 4 pages]
K. Aharonson-Raz et al.

During 2008–2009 in Israel, equine encephalosis virus (EEV) caused febrile outbreaks in horses. Phylogenetic analysis of segment 10 of the virus strains showed that they form a new cluster; analysis of segment 2 showed ≈92% sequence identity to EEV-3, the reference isolate. Thus, the source of this emerging EEV remains uncertain.

EID Aharonson-Raz K, Steinman A, Bumbarov V, Maan S, Maan NS, Nomikou K, et al. Isolation and Phylogenetic Grouping of Equine Encephalosis Virus in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1883-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110350
AMA Aharonson-Raz K, Steinman A, Bumbarov V, et al. Isolation and Phylogenetic Grouping of Equine Encephalosis Virus in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1883-1886. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110350.
APA Aharonson-Raz, K., Steinman, A., Bumbarov, V., Maan, S., Maan, N. S., Nomikou, K....Klement, E. (2011). Isolation and Phylogenetic Grouping of Equine Encephalosis Virus in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1883-1886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110350.

Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Henan, China [PDF - 367 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Zhou et al.

To determine prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection in Henan, China, we conducted a study of 11,554 hospital patients. Prevalence was 0.70% (95% confidence interval 0.70% ± 0.15%), with all age groups infected. Most cases were found in the summer. Minor sequence polymorphisms were observed in the 18S rRNA gene of 35 isolates characterized.

EID Zhou Y, Lv B, Wang Q, Wang R, Jian F, Zhang L, et al. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Henan, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1887-1890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101296
AMA Zhou Y, Lv B, Wang Q, et al. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Henan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1887-1890. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101296.
APA Zhou, Y., Lv, B., Wang, Q., Wang, R., Jian, F., Zhang, L....Xiao, L. (2011). Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Henan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1887-1890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101296.

Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women [PDF - 164 KB - 3 pages]
S. J. Seligman

Yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.

EID Seligman SJ. Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1891-1893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101789
AMA Seligman SJ. Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1891-1893. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101789.
APA Seligman, S. J. (2011). Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1891-1893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101789.

Unexpected Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Northern Mauritania [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
A. B. El Mamy et al.

During September–October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

EID El Mamy AB, Baba MO, Barry Y, Isselmou K, Dia ML, Hampate B, et al. Unexpected Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Northern Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1894-1896. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110397
AMA El Mamy AB, Baba MO, Barry Y, et al. Unexpected Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Northern Mauritania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1894-1896. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110397.
APA El Mamy, A. B., Baba, M. O., Barry, Y., Isselmou, K., Dia, M. L., Hampate, B....Doumbia, B. (2011). Unexpected Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Northern Mauritania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1894-1896. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110397.

Seroconversion to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Cross-Reactive Immunity to Other Swine Influenza Viruses [PDF - 289 KB - 3 pages]
R. Perera et al.

To assess herd immunity to swine influenza viruses, we determined antibodies in 28 paired serum samples from participants in a prospective serologic cohort study in Hong Kong who had seroconverted to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Results indicated that infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 broadens cross-reactive immunity to other recent subtype H1 swine viruses.

EID Perera R, Riley S, Ma SK, Zhu H, Guan Y, Peiris JS. Seroconversion to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Cross-Reactive Immunity to Other Swine Influenza Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1897-1899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110629
AMA Perera R, Riley S, Ma SK, et al. Seroconversion to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Cross-Reactive Immunity to Other Swine Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1897-1899. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110629.
APA Perera, R., Riley, S., Ma, S. K., Zhu, H., Guan, Y., & Peiris, J. S. (2011). Seroconversion to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Cross-Reactive Immunity to Other Swine Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1897-1899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110629.

Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans, Cambodia, 2007–2010 [PDF - 247 KB - 3 pages]
N. Khim et al.

Two cases of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans were identified in Cambodia by 3 molecular detection assays and sequencing. This finding confirms the widespread distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Further wide-scale studies are required to assess the public health relevance of this zoonotic malaria parasite.

EID Khim N, Siv S, Kim S, Mueller T, Fleischmann E, Singh B, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans, Cambodia, 2007–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1900-1902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110355
AMA Khim N, Siv S, Kim S, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans, Cambodia, 2007–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1900-1902. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110355.
APA Khim, N., Siv, S., Kim, S., Mueller, T., Fleischmann, E., Singh, B....Ménard, D. (2011). Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans, Cambodia, 2007–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1900-1902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110355.

Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA [PDF - 172 KB - 3 pages]
G. A. Scoles et al.

We report an outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in southern Texas, USA, in 2009. Infection prevalence reached 100% in some areas (292 infected horses). Amblyomma cajennense was the predominant tick and experimentally transmitted Theileria equi to an uninfected horse. We suggest that transmission by this tick species played a role in this outbreak.

EID Scoles GA, Hutcheson HJ, Schlater JL, Hennager SG, Pelzel AM, Knowles DP. Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1903-1905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101182
AMA Scoles GA, Hutcheson HJ, Schlater JL, et al. Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1903-1905. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101182.
APA Scoles, G. A., Hutcheson, H. J., Schlater, J. L., Hennager, S. G., Pelzel, A. M., & Knowles, D. P. (2011). Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1903-1905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101182.

Timeliness of Surveillance during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infection, Germany, 2011 [PDF - 202 KB - 4 pages]
M. Altmann et al.

In the context of a large outbreak of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Germany, we quantified the timeliness of the German surveillance system for hemolytic uremic syndrome and Shiga toxin–producing E. coli notifiable diseases during 2003–2011. Although reporting occurred faster than required by law, potential for improvement exists at all levels of the information chain.

EID Altmann M, Spode A, Altmann D, Wadl M, Benzler J, Eckmanns T, et al. Timeliness of Surveillance during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infection, Germany, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1906-1909. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.111027
AMA Altmann M, Spode A, Altmann D, et al. Timeliness of Surveillance during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infection, Germany, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1906-1909. doi:10.3201/eid1710.111027.
APA Altmann, M., Spode, A., Altmann, D., Wadl, M., Benzler, J., Eckmanns, T....Heiden, an der, M. (2011). Timeliness of Surveillance during Outbreak of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infection, Germany, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1906-1909. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.111027.

Global Distribution of Shigella sonnei Clones [PDF - 213 KB - 3 pages]
I. Filliol-Toutain et al.

To investigate global epidemiology of Shigella sonnei, we performed multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 1,672 isolates obtained since 1943 from 50 countries on 5 continents and the Pacific region. Three major clonal groups were identified; 2 were globally spread. Type 18 and its derivatives have circulated worldwide in recent decades.

EID Filliol-Toutain I, Chiou C, Mammina C, Gerner-Smidt P, Thong K, Phung DC, et al. Global Distribution of Shigella sonnei Clones. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1910-1912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101486
AMA Filliol-Toutain I, Chiou C, Mammina C, et al. Global Distribution of Shigella sonnei Clones. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1910-1912. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101486.
APA Filliol-Toutain, I., Chiou, C., Mammina, C., Gerner-Smidt, P., Thong, K., Phung, D. C....Liang, S. (2011). Global Distribution of Shigella sonnei Clones. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1910-1912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101486.

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2001–2007 [PDF - 298 KB - 4 pages]
K. Wallengren et al.

In Africa, incidence and prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis have been assumed to be low. However, investigation after a 2005 outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, found that the incidence rate for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal was among the highest globally and would be higher if case-finding efforts were intensified.

EID Wallengren K, Scano F, Nunn P, Margot B, Buthelezi SS, Williams B, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2001–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1913-1916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.100952
AMA Wallengren K, Scano F, Nunn P, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1913-1916. doi:10.3201/eid1710.100952.
APA Wallengren, K., Scano, F., Nunn, P., Margot, B., Buthelezi, S. S., Williams, B....Pillay, Y. (2011). Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1913-1916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.100952.

Antimicrobial Ointments and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 [PDF - 289 KB - 4 pages]
M. Suzuki et al.

We tested 259 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 2 USA300 ATCC type strains for susceptibility to bacitracin and neomycin contained in over-the-counter antibacterial ointments. Resistance to both bacitracin and neomycin was found only in USA300. The use of over-the counter antimicrobial drugs may select for the USA300 clone.

EID Suzuki M, Yamada K, Nagao M, Aoki E, Matsumoto M, Hirayama T, et al. Antimicrobial Ointments and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1917-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101365
AMA Suzuki M, Yamada K, Nagao M, et al. Antimicrobial Ointments and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1917-1920. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101365.
APA Suzuki, M., Yamada, K., Nagao, M., Aoki, E., Matsumoto, M., Hirayama, T....Iinuma, Y. (2011). Antimicrobial Ointments and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1917-1920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101365.

Novel Arenavirus, Zambia [PDF - 274 KB - 4 pages]
A. Ishii et al.

To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA–positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus–related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses.

EID Ishii A, Thomas Y, Moonga L, Nakamura I, Ohnuma A, Hang’ombe BM, et al. Novel Arenavirus, Zambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1921-1924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101452
AMA Ishii A, Thomas Y, Moonga L, et al. Novel Arenavirus, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1921-1924. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101452.
APA Ishii, A., Thomas, Y., Moonga, L., Nakamura, I., Ohnuma, A., Hang’ombe, B. M....Sawa, H. (2011). Novel Arenavirus, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1921-1924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101452.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan [PDF - 186 KB - 3 pages]
A. Cheng et al.

We report an unusual case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009–related encephalitis in an immunocompetent woman. Although rare cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 associated with encephalitis have been reported previously, in this patient, direct viral invasion of the central nervous system was shown by simultaneous detection of viral RNA and pleocytosis.

EID Cheng A, Kuo K, Yang C. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1925-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110916
AMA Cheng A, Kuo K, Yang C. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1925-1927. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110916.
APA Cheng, A., Kuo, K., & Yang, C. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1925-1927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110916.

Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Taiwan [PDF - 263 KB - 4 pages]
L. Chang et al.

During August–November 2009, to investigate disease transmission within households in Taiwan, we recruited 87 pandemic (H1N1) 2009 patients and their household members. Overall, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was transmitted to 60 (27%) of 223 household contacts. Transmission was 4× higher to children than to adults (61% vs. 15%; p<0.001).

EID Chang L, Chen W, Lu C, Shao P, Fan T, Cheng A, et al. Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1928-1931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101662
AMA Chang L, Chen W, Lu C, et al. Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1928-1931. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101662.
APA Chang, L., Chen, W., Lu, C., Shao, P., Fan, T., Cheng, A....Huang, L. (2011). Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1928-1931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101662.

Group B Streptococcus and HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Malawi, 2008–2010 [PDF - 167 KB - 4 pages]
K. J. Gray et al.

To determine whether an association exists between group B streptococcus carriage and HIV infection, we recruited 1,857 pregnant women (21.7% HIV positive) from Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Overall, group B streptococcus carriage was 21.2% and did not differ by HIV status. However, carriage was increased among HIV-positive women with higher CD4 counts.

EID Gray KJ, Kafulafula G, Matemba M, Kamdolozi M, Membe G, French N. Group B Streptococcus and HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Malawi, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1932-1935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.102008
AMA Gray KJ, Kafulafula G, Matemba M, et al. Group B Streptococcus and HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Malawi, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1932-1935. doi:10.3201/eid1710.102008.
APA Gray, K. J., Kafulafula, G., Matemba, M., Kamdolozi, M., Membe, G., & French, N. (2011). Group B Streptococcus and HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Malawi, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1932-1935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.102008.

Incidence Rate for Hantavirus Infections without Pulmonary Syndrome, Panama [PDF - 230 KB - 4 pages]
B. Armien et al.

During 2001–2007, to determine incidence of all hantavirus infections, including those without pulmonary syndrome, in western Panama, we conducted 11 communitywide surveys. Among 1,129 persons, antibody prevalence was 16.5%–60.4%. Repeat surveys of 476 found that patients who seroconverted outnumbered patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by 14 to 1.

EID Armien B, Pascale JM, Munoz C, Lee S, Choi KL, Avila M, et al. Incidence Rate for Hantavirus Infections without Pulmonary Syndrome, Panama. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1936-1939. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101717
AMA Armien B, Pascale JM, Munoz C, et al. Incidence Rate for Hantavirus Infections without Pulmonary Syndrome, Panama. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1936-1939. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101717.
APA Armien, B., Pascale, J. M., Munoz, C., Lee, S., Choi, K. L., Avila, M....Koster, F. (2011). Incidence Rate for Hantavirus Infections without Pulmonary Syndrome, Panama. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1936-1939. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101717.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Afghanistan, 2009 [PDF - 132 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Mustafa et al.

In response to an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in western Afghanistan, we measured immunoglobulin G seroprevalence among household members and their animals. Seroprevalence was 11.2% and 75.0% in humans (n = 330) and livestock (n = 132), respectively. Persons with frequent exposure to cattle had an elevated risk of being immunoglobulin G positive.

EID Mustafa ML, Ayazi E, Mohareb E, Yingst S, Zayed A, Rossi CA, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1940-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110061
AMA Mustafa ML, Ayazi E, Mohareb E, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1940-1941. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110061.
APA Mustafa, M. L., Ayazi, E., Mohareb, E., Yingst, S., Zayed, A., Rossi, C. A....Leslie, T. (2011). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1940-1941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110061.

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Women, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa [PDF - 185 KB - 4 pages]
M. R. O’Donnell et al.

To determine whether women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) were more likely than men to have extensively drug-resistant TB, we reviewed 4,514 adults admitted during 2003–2008 for drug-resistant TB. Female sex independently predicted extensively drug-resistant TB, even after we controlled for HIV infection. This association needs further study.

EID O’Donnell MR, Zelnick J, Werner L, Master I, Loveday M, Horsburgh CR, et al. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Women, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1942-1945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110105
AMA O’Donnell MR, Zelnick J, Werner L, et al. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Women, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1942-1945. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110105.
APA O’Donnell, M. R., Zelnick, J., Werner, L., Master, I., Loveday, M., Horsburgh, C. R....Padayatchi, N. (2011). Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Women, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1942-1945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110105.

Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients, Maryland and Connecticut, USA, 2002–2007 [PDF - 321 KB - 4 pages]
J. M. Hirshon et al.

Clostridium difficile, the most commonly recognized diarrheagenic pathogen among hospitalized persons, can cause outpatient diarrhea. Of 1,091 outpatients with diarrhea, we found 43 (3.9%) who were positive for C. difficile toxin. Only 7 had no recognized risk factors, and 3 had neither risk factors nor co-infection with another enteric pathogen.

EID Hirshon JM, Thompson AD, Limbago BM, McDonald LC, Bonkosky M, Heimer R, et al. Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients, Maryland and Connecticut, USA, 2002–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1946-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110069
AMA Hirshon JM, Thompson AD, Limbago BM, et al. Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients, Maryland and Connecticut, USA, 2002–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1946-1949. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110069.
APA Hirshon, J. M., Thompson, A. D., Limbago, B. M., McDonald, L. C., Bonkosky, M., Heimer, R....Braden, C. R. (2011). Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients, Maryland and Connecticut, USA, 2002–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1946-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110069.

CTX-M-15–producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as Cause of Travelers’ Diarrhea [PDF - 322 KB - 4 pages]
E. Guiral et al.

Travelers’ diarrhea is a major public health problem. From patients in whom diarrhea developed after travel to India, 5 enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains carrying β-lactamase CTX-M-15 were identified; 3 belonged to clonal complex sequence type 38. This β-lactamase contributes to the multidrug resistance of enteroaggregative E. coli, thereby limiting therapeutic alternatives.

EID Guiral E, Mendez-Arancibia E, Soto SM, Salvador P, González-López J, Gascón J, et al. CTX-M-15–producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as Cause of Travelers’ Diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1950-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110022
AMA Guiral E, Mendez-Arancibia E, Soto SM, et al. CTX-M-15–producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as Cause of Travelers’ Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1950-1953. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110022.
APA Guiral, E., Mendez-Arancibia, E., Soto, S. M., Salvador, P., González-López, J., Gascón, J....Vila, J. (2011). CTX-M-15–producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as Cause of Travelers’ Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1950-1953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110022.

Placental Transmission of Human Parvovirus 4 in Newborns with Hydrops, Taiwan [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chen et al.

In studying the epidemiology of parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in Taiwan, we detected DNA in plasma of 3 mothers and their newborns with hydrops. In 1 additional case, only the mother had PARV4 DNA. Our findings demonstrate that PARV4 can be transmitted through the placenta.

EID Chen M, Yang S, Hung C. Placental Transmission of Human Parvovirus 4 in Newborns with Hydrops, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1954-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101841
AMA Chen M, Yang S, Hung C. Placental Transmission of Human Parvovirus 4 in Newborns with Hydrops, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1954-1956. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101841.
APA Chen, M., Yang, S., & Hung, C. (2011). Placental Transmission of Human Parvovirus 4 in Newborns with Hydrops, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1954-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101841.
Letters

Similarity of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains from Italy and Germany [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
G. Scavia et al.
EID Scavia G, Morabito S, Tozzoli R, Michelacci V, Marziano ML, Minelli F, et al. Similarity of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains from Italy and Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1957-1958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.111072
AMA Scavia G, Morabito S, Tozzoli R, et al. Similarity of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains from Italy and Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1957-1958. doi:10.3201/eid1710.111072.
APA Scavia, G., Morabito, S., Tozzoli, R., Michelacci, V., Marziano, M. L., Minelli, F....Caprioli, A. (2011). Similarity of Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains from Italy and Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1957-1958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.111072.

Complicated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Pregnancy, Taiwan [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
W. Huang et al.
EID Huang W, Hsu Y, Kuo T, Wu W, Chuang J. Complicated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Pregnancy, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1958-1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101608
AMA Huang W, Hsu Y, Kuo T, et al. Complicated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Pregnancy, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1958-1960. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101608.
APA Huang, W., Hsu, Y., Kuo, T., Wu, W., & Chuang, J. (2011). Complicated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Pregnancy, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1958-1960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101608.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) in Children’s Hospital, Australia [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
G. Khandaker et al.
EID Khandaker G, Lester-Smith D, Zurynski Y, Elliott EJ, Booy R. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) in Children’s Hospital, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1960-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101670
AMA Khandaker G, Lester-Smith D, Zurynski Y, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) in Children’s Hospital, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1960-1962. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101670.
APA Khandaker, G., Lester-Smith, D., Zurynski, Y., Elliott, E. J., & Booy, R. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) in Children’s Hospital, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1960-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101670.

Global Health Security in an Era of Global Health Threats [PDF - 150 KB - 2 pages]
S. B. Cáceres
EID Cáceres SB. Global Health Security in an Era of Global Health Threats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1962-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101656
AMA Cáceres SB. Global Health Security in an Era of Global Health Threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1962-1963. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101656.
APA Cáceres, S. B. (2011). Global Health Security in an Era of Global Health Threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1962-1963. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101656.

Use of Workplace Absenteeism Surveillance Data for Outbreak Detection [PDF - 184 KB - 2 pages]
B. Paterson et al.
EID Paterson B, Caddis R, Durrheim D. Use of Workplace Absenteeism Surveillance Data for Outbreak Detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110202
AMA Paterson B, Caddis R, Durrheim D. Use of Workplace Absenteeism Surveillance Data for Outbreak Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1963-1964. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110202.
APA Paterson, B., Caddis, R., & Durrheim, D. (2011). Use of Workplace Absenteeism Surveillance Data for Outbreak Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110202.

Zoonotic Ascariasis, United Kingdom [PDF - 200 KB - 3 pages]
R. P. Bendall et al.
EID Bendall RP, Barlow M, Betson M, Stothard JR, Nejsum P. Zoonotic Ascariasis, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1964-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101826
AMA Bendall RP, Barlow M, Betson M, et al. Zoonotic Ascariasis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1964-1966. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101826.
APA Bendall, R. P., Barlow, M., Betson, M., Stothard, J. R., & Nejsum, P. (2011). Zoonotic Ascariasis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1964-1966. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101826.

Minority K65R Variants and Early Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1–infected Eritrean Immigrant [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
V. Bansal et al.
EID Bansal V, Metzner KJ, Niederöst B, Leemann C, Böni J, Günthard HF, et al. Minority K65R Variants and Early Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1–infected Eritrean Immigrant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1966-1968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110592
AMA Bansal V, Metzner KJ, Niederöst B, et al. Minority K65R Variants and Early Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1–infected Eritrean Immigrant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1966-1968. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110592.
APA Bansal, V., Metzner, K. J., Niederöst, B., Leemann, C., Böni, J., Günthard, H. F....Fehr, J. S. (2011). Minority K65R Variants and Early Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1–infected Eritrean Immigrant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1966-1968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110592.

Livestock-associated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection in Woman, Colombia [PDF - 152 KB - 2 pages]
J. N. Jiménez et al.
EID Jiménez JN, Vélez LA, Mediavilla JR, Ocampo AM, Vanegas JM, Rodríguez EA, et al. Livestock-associated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection in Woman, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1970-1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110638
AMA Jiménez JN, Vélez LA, Mediavilla JR, et al. Livestock-associated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection in Woman, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1970-1971. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110638.
APA Jiménez, J. N., Vélez, L. A., Mediavilla, J. R., Ocampo, A. M., Vanegas, J. M., Rodríguez, E. A....Correa, M. M. (2011). Livestock-associated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection in Woman, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1970-1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110638.

Granulicatella adiacens and Early-Onset Sepsis in Neonate [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
M. J. Bizzarro et al.
EID Bizzarro MJ, Callan DA, Farrel PA, Dembry L, Gallagher PG. Granulicatella adiacens and Early-Onset Sepsis in Neonate. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1971-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101967
AMA Bizzarro MJ, Callan DA, Farrel PA, et al. Granulicatella adiacens and Early-Onset Sepsis in Neonate. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1971-1973. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101967.
APA Bizzarro, M. J., Callan, D. A., Farrel, P. A., Dembry, L., & Gallagher, P. G. (2011). Granulicatella adiacens and Early-Onset Sepsis in Neonate. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1971-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101967.

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis with Severe Manifestations, Missouri, USA [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
S. Folk et al.
EID Folk S, Steinbecker S, Windmeyer J, MacNeil A, Campbell S, Rollin PE. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis with Severe Manifestations, Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1973-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110911
AMA Folk S, Steinbecker S, Windmeyer J, et al. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis with Severe Manifestations, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1973-1974. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110911.
APA Folk, S., Steinbecker, S., Windmeyer, J., MacNeil, A., Campbell, S., & Rollin, P. E. (2011). Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis with Severe Manifestations, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1973-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110911.

Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix mexicana, Portugal [PDF - 178 KB - 2 pages]
N. M. Dias et al.
EID Dias NM, Oliveira MM, Portela MA, Santos C, Zancope-Oliveira RM, Lima N. Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix mexicana, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1975-1976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110737
AMA Dias NM, Oliveira MM, Portela MA, et al. Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix mexicana, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1975-1976. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110737.
APA Dias, N. M., Oliveira, M. M., Portela, M. A., Santos, C., Zancope-Oliveira, R. M., & Lima, N. (2011). Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix mexicana, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1975-1976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110737.

Swinepox Virus Outbreak, Brazil, 2011 [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
M. L. Medaglia et al.
EID Medaglia ML, Pereira Ad, Freitas TR, Damaso CR. Swinepox Virus Outbreak, Brazil, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1976-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110549
AMA Medaglia ML, Pereira Ad, Freitas TR, et al. Swinepox Virus Outbreak, Brazil, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1976-1978. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110549.
APA Medaglia, M. L., Pereira, A. d., Freitas, T. R., & Damaso, C. R. (2011). Swinepox Virus Outbreak, Brazil, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1976-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110549.

Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China [PDF - 160 KB - 2 pages]
D. B. Elmore
EID Elmore DB. Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1978-1979. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110719
AMA Elmore DB. Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1978-1979. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110719.
APA Elmore, D. B. (2011). Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1978-1979. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110719.

Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil [PDF - 197 KB - 3 pages]
P. O. Acosta et al.
EID Acosta PO, Maito RM, Granja F, Cordeiro Jd, Siqueira T, Cardoso MN, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1979-1981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110776
AMA Acosta PO, Maito RM, Granja F, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1979-1981. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110776.
APA Acosta, P. O., Maito, R. M., Granja, F., Cordeiro, J. d., Siqueira, T., Cardoso, M. N....Naveca, F. G. (2011). Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1979-1981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110776.

Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany [PDF - 273 KB - 3 pages]
R. Johne et al.
EID Johne R, Heckel G, Dremsek P, Plenge-Bönig A, Kindler E, Maresch C, et al. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1981-1982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101399
AMA Johne R, Heckel G, Dremsek P, et al. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1981-1982. doi:10.3201/eid1710.101399.
APA Johne, R., Heckel, G., Dremsek, P., Plenge-Bönig, A., Kindler, E., Maresch, C....Cui, L. (2011). Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1981-1982. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.101399.

Diagnosis of Rickettsioses from Eschar Swab Samples, Algeria [PDF - 157 KB - 2 pages]
N. Mouffok et al.
EID Mouffok N, Socolovschi C, Renvoisé A, Parola P, Raoult D. Diagnosis of Rickettsioses from Eschar Swab Samples, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1968-1969. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110332
AMA Mouffok N, Socolovschi C, Renvoisé A, et al. Diagnosis of Rickettsioses from Eschar Swab Samples, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1968-1969. doi:10.3201/eid1710.110332.
APA Mouffok, N., Socolovschi, C., Renvoisé, A., Parola, P., & Raoult, D. (2011). Diagnosis of Rickettsioses from Eschar Swab Samples, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1968-1969. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.110332.
Books and Media

Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis [PDF - 176 KB - 1 page]
J. B. Patel
EID Patel JB. Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.111066
AMA Patel JB. Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1984. doi:10.3201/eid1710.111066.
APA Patel, J. B. (2011). Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.111066.
About the Cover

Much have I travel’d in the realms of gold [PDF - 195 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Much have I travel’d in the realms of gold. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1985-1986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.ac1710
AMA Potter P. Much have I travel’d in the realms of gold. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1985-1986. doi:10.3201/eid1710.ac1710.
APA Potter, P. (2011). Much have I travel’d in the realms of gold. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1985-1986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.ac1710.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Plasmodium knowlesi [PDF - 130 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Plasmodium knowlesi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.et1710
AMA Etymologia: Plasmodium knowlesi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(10):1815. doi:10.3201/eid1710.et1710.
APA (2011). Etymologia: Plasmodium knowlesi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(10), 1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1710.et1710.
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Page updated: September 12, 2018
Page reviewed: September 12, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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