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Issue Cover for Volume 19, Number 10—October 2013

Volume 19, Number 10—October 2013

[PDF - 10.76 MB - 167 pages]

Synopses

Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding [PDF - 394 KB - 6 pages]
F. F. Norman and R. López-Vélez

Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission are recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered.

EID Norman FF, López-Vélez R. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1561-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130203
AMA Norman FF, López-Vélez R. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1561-1566. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130203.
APA Norman, F. F., & López-Vélez, R. (2013). Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1561-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130203.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Increased Incidence of Invasive Fusariosis with Cutaneous Portal of Entry, Brazil [PDF - 561 KB - 6 pages]
M. Nucci et al.

Invasive fusariosis (IF) is an infection with Fusarium spp. fungi that primarily affects patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. A cutaneous portal of entry is occasionally reported. We reviewed all cases of IF in Brazil during 2000–2010, divided into 2 periods: 2000–2005 (period 1) and 2006–2010 (period 2). We calculated incidence rates of IF and of superficial infections with Fusarium spp. fungi identified in patients at a dermatology outpatient unit. IF incidence for periods 1 and 2 was 0.86 cases versus 10.23 cases per 1,000 admissions (p<0.001), respectively; superficial fusarial infection incidence was 7.23 versus 16.26 positive cultures per 1,000 superficial cultures (p<0.001), respectively. Of 21 cases of IF, 14 showed a primary cutaneous portal of entry. Further studies are needed to identify reservoirs of these fungi in the community and to implement preventive measures for patients at risk.

EID Nucci M, Varon AG, Garnica M, Akiti T, Barreiros G, Trope B, et al. Increased Incidence of Invasive Fusariosis with Cutaneous Portal of Entry, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1567-1572. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.120847
AMA Nucci M, Varon AG, Garnica M, et al. Increased Incidence of Invasive Fusariosis with Cutaneous Portal of Entry, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1567-1572. doi:10.3201/eid1910.120847.
APA Nucci, M., Varon, A. G., Garnica, M., Akiti, T., Barreiros, G., Trope, B....Nouér, S. A. (2013). Increased Incidence of Invasive Fusariosis with Cutaneous Portal of Entry, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1567-1572. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.120847.

Genetic Recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis Virulent Subtype IbA10G2 [PDF - 657 KB - 10 pages]
N. Li et al.

Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.

EID Li N, Xiao L, Cama VA, Ortega Y, Gilman RH, Guo M, et al. Genetic Recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis Virulent Subtype IbA10G2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1573-1582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121361
AMA Li N, Xiao L, Cama VA, et al. Genetic Recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis Virulent Subtype IbA10G2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1573-1582. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121361.
APA Li, N., Xiao, L., Cama, V. A., Ortega, Y., Gilman, R. H., Guo, M....Feng, Y. (2013). Genetic Recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis Virulent Subtype IbA10G2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1573-1582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121361.

Emergence of Vaccine-derived Polioviruses, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004–2011 [PDF - 665 KB - 7 pages]
N. Gumede et al.

Polioviruses isolated from 70 acute flaccid paralysis patients from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during 2004–2011 were characterized and found to be vaccine-derived type 2 polioviruses (VDPV2s). Partial genomic sequencing of the isolates revealed nucleotide sequence divergence of up to 3.5% in the viral protein 1 capsid region of the viral genome relative to the Sabin vaccine strain. Genetic analysis identified at least 7 circulating lineages localized to specific geographic regions. Multiple independent events of VDPV2 emergence occurred throughout DRC during this 7-year period. During 2010–2011, VDPV2 circulation in eastern DRC occurred in an area distinct from that of wild poliovirus circulation, whereas VDPV2 circulation in the southwestern part of DRC (in Kasai Occidental) occurred within the larger region of wild poliovirus circulation.

EID Gumede N, Lentsoane O, Burns CC, Pallansch M, de Gourville E, Yogolelo R, et al. Emergence of Vaccine-derived Polioviruses, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1583-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130028
AMA Gumede N, Lentsoane O, Burns CC, et al. Emergence of Vaccine-derived Polioviruses, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1583-1589. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130028.
APA Gumede, N., Lentsoane, O., Burns, C. C., Pallansch, M., de Gourville, E., Yogolelo, R....Venter, M. (2013). Emergence of Vaccine-derived Polioviruses, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1583-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130028.

Coccidioidomycosis-associated Hospitalizations, California, USA, 2000–2011 [PDF - 469 KB - 8 pages]
G. Sondermeyer et al.

In the past decade, state-specific increases in the number of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis have been observed in areas of California and Arizona where the disease is endemic. Although most coccidioidomycosis is asymptomatic or mild, infection can lead to severe pulmonary or disseminated disease requiring hospitalization and costly disease management. To determine the epidemiology of cases and toll of coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations in California, we reviewed hospital discharge data for 2000–2011. During this period, there were 25,217 coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations for 15,747 patients and >$2 billion US in total hospital charges. Annual initial hospitalization rates increased from 2.3 initial hospitalizations/100,000 population in 2000 to 5.0 initial hospitalizations/100,000 population in 2011. During this period, initial hospitalization rates were higher for men than women, African Americans and Hispanics than Whites, and older persons than younger persons. In California, the increasing health- and cost-related effects of coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations are a major public health challenge.

EID Sondermeyer G, Lee L, Gilliss D, Tabnak F, Vugia D. Coccidioidomycosis-associated Hospitalizations, California, USA, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1590-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130427
AMA Sondermeyer G, Lee L, Gilliss D, et al. Coccidioidomycosis-associated Hospitalizations, California, USA, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1590-1598. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130427.
APA Sondermeyer, G., Lee, L., Gilliss, D., Tabnak, F., & Vugia, D. (2013). Coccidioidomycosis-associated Hospitalizations, California, USA, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1590-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130427.

Immunogenic Mycobacterium africanum Strains Associated with Ongoing Transmission in The Gambia [PDF - 458 KB - 7 pages]
F. Gehre et al.

In West Africa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains co-circulate with M. africanum, and both pathogens cause pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. Given recent findings that M. tuberculosis T-cell epitopes are hyperconserved, we hypothesized that more immunogenic strains have increased capacity to spread within the human host population. We investigated the relationship between the composition of the mycobacterial population in The Gambia, as measured by spoligotype analysis, and the immunogenicity of these strains as measured by purified protein derivative–induced interferon-γ release in ELISPOT assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found a positive correlation between strains with superior spreading capacity and their relative immunogenicity. Although our observation is true for M. tuberculosis and M. africanum strains, the association was especially pronounced in 1 M. africanum sublineage, characterized by spoligotype shared international type 181, which is responsible for 20% of all tuberculosis cases in the region and therefore poses a major public health threat in The Gambia.

EID Gehre F, Antonio M, Otu JK, Sallah N, Secka O, Faal T, et al. Immunogenic Mycobacterium africanum Strains Associated with Ongoing Transmission in The Gambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1599-1605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121023
AMA Gehre F, Antonio M, Otu JK, et al. Immunogenic Mycobacterium africanum Strains Associated with Ongoing Transmission in The Gambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1599-1605. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121023.
APA Gehre, F., Antonio, M., Otu, J. K., Sallah, N., Secka, O., Faal, T....de Jong, B. C. (2013). Immunogenic Mycobacterium africanum Strains Associated with Ongoing Transmission in The Gambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1599-1605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121023.

Plasmodium vivax Malaria during Pregnancy, Bolivia [PDF - 386 KB - 7 pages]
L. Brutus et al.

Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax–infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

EID Brutus L, Santalla J, Schneider D, Avila J, Deloron P. Plasmodium vivax Malaria during Pregnancy, Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1606-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130308
AMA Brutus L, Santalla J, Schneider D, et al. Plasmodium vivax Malaria during Pregnancy, Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1606-1612. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130308.
APA Brutus, L., Santalla, J., Schneider, D., Avila, J., & Deloron, P. (2013). Plasmodium vivax Malaria during Pregnancy, Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1606-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130308.

Antibody Responses against Pneumocystis jirovecii in Health Care Workers Over Time [PDF - 649 KB - 8 pages]
S. Fong et al.

In a previous cross-sectional study, we showed that clinical staff working in a hospital had significantly higher antibody levels than nonclinical staff to Pneumocystis jirovecii. We conducted a longitudinal study, described here, to determine whether occupation and self-reported exposure to a patient with P. jirovecii pneumonia were associated with antibody levels to P. jirovecii over time. Baseline and quarterly serum specimens were collected and analyzed by using an ELISA that targeted different variants of the Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein (MsgA, MsgB, MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9). Clinical staff had significantly higher estimated geometric mean antibody levels against MsgC1 and MsgC8 than did nonclinical staff over time. Significant differences were observed when we compared the change in antibody levels to the different MsgC variants for staff who were and were not exposed to P. jirovecii pneumonia–infected patients. MsgC variants may serve as indicators of exposure to P. jirovecii in immunocompetent persons.

EID Fong S, Daly KR, Tipirneni R, Jarlsberg LG, Djawe K, Koch JV, et al. Antibody Responses against Pneumocystis jirovecii in Health Care Workers Over Time. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1613-1620. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121836
AMA Fong S, Daly KR, Tipirneni R, et al. Antibody Responses against Pneumocystis jirovecii in Health Care Workers Over Time. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1613-1620. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121836.
APA Fong, S., Daly, K. R., Tipirneni, R., Jarlsberg, L. G., Djawe, K., Koch, J. V....Huang, L. (2013). Antibody Responses against Pneumocystis jirovecii in Health Care Workers Over Time. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1613-1620. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121836.

Medscape CME Activity
Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Multiple States Outside the US Pacific Northwest [PDF - 891 KB - 7 pages]
J. R. Harris et al.

Clonal VGII subtypes (outbreak strains) of Cryptococcus gattii have caused an outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest since 2004. Outbreak-associated infections occur equally in male and female patients (median age 56 years) and usually cause pulmonary disease in persons with underlying medical conditions. Since 2009, a total of 25 C. gattii infections, 23 (92%) caused by non–outbreak strain C. gattii, have been reported from 8 non–Pacific Northwest states. Sixteen (64%) patients were previously healthy, and 21 (84%) were male; median age was 43 years (range 15–83 years). Ten patients who provided information reported no past-year travel to areas where C. gattii is known to be endemic. Nineteen (76%) patients had central nervous system infections; 6 (24%) died. C. gattii infection in persons without exposure to known disease-endemic areas suggests possible endemicity in the United States outside the outbreak-affected region; these infections appear to differ in clinical and demographic characteristics from outbreak-associated C. gattii. Clinicians outside the outbreak-affected areas should be aware of locally acquired C. gattii infection and its varied signs and symptoms.

EID Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Sondermeyer G, Vugia DJ, Crist MB, D’Angelo M, et al. Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Multiple States Outside the US Pacific Northwest. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1621-1627. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130441
AMA Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Sondermeyer G, et al. Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Multiple States Outside the US Pacific Northwest. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1621-1627. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130441.
APA Harris, J. R., Lockhart, S. R., Sondermeyer, G., Vugia, D. J., Crist, M. B., D’Angelo, M....Park, B. J. (2013). Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Multiple States Outside the US Pacific Northwest. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1621-1627. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130441.
Dispatches

Rickettsia slovaca Infection in Humans, Portugal [PDF - 307 KB - 3 pages]
R. de Sousa et al.

Fifteen years after the initial detection of Rickettsia slovaca in ticks in Portugal, 3 autochthonous cases of R. slovaca infection were diagnosed in humans. All patients had an eschar on the scalp and lymphadenopathy; 2 patients had facial edema. R. slovaca infection was confirmed by serologic testing, culture, and PCR.

EID de Sousa R, Pereira B, Nazareth C, Cabral S, Ventura C, Crespo P, et al. Rickettsia slovaca Infection in Humans, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1627-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130376
AMA de Sousa R, Pereira B, Nazareth C, et al. Rickettsia slovaca Infection in Humans, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1627-1629. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130376.
APA de Sousa, R., Pereira, B., Nazareth, C., Cabral, S., Ventura, C., Crespo, P....da Cunha, S. (2013). Rickettsia slovaca Infection in Humans, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1627-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130376.

Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses with H9N2-PB1 Gene in Poultry, Bangladesh [PDF - 798 KB - 5 pages]
I. Monne et al.

Bangladesh has reported a high number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (H5N1) in poultry. We identified a natural reassortant HPAI (H5N1) virus containing a H9N2-PB1 gene in poultry in Bangladesh. Our findings highlight the risks for prolonged co-circulation of avian influenza viruses and the need to monitor their evolution.

EID Monne I, Yamage M, Dauphin G, Claes F, Ahmed G, Giasuddin M, et al. Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses with H9N2-PB1 Gene in Poultry, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1630-1634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130534
AMA Monne I, Yamage M, Dauphin G, et al. Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses with H9N2-PB1 Gene in Poultry, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1630-1634. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130534.
APA Monne, I., Yamage, M., Dauphin, G., Claes, F., Ahmed, G., Giasuddin, M....Cattoli, G. (2013). Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses with H9N2-PB1 Gene in Poultry, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1630-1634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130534.

Evolution of Influenza A Virus H7 and N9 Subtypes, Eastern Asia [PDF - 821 KB - 4 pages]
C. Lebarbenchon et al.

Influenza A viruses are a threat to poultry and human health. We investigated evolution of influenza A virus H7 and N9 subtypes in wild and domestic birds. Influenza A(H7N9) virus probably emerged after a long silent circulation in live poultry markets in eastern Asia.

EID Lebarbenchon C, Brown JD, Stallknecht DE. Evolution of Influenza A Virus H7 and N9 Subtypes, Eastern Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1635-1638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130609
AMA Lebarbenchon C, Brown JD, Stallknecht DE. Evolution of Influenza A Virus H7 and N9 Subtypes, Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1635-1638. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130609.
APA Lebarbenchon, C., Brown, J. D., & Stallknecht, D. E. (2013). Evolution of Influenza A Virus H7 and N9 Subtypes, Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1635-1638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130609.

Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia [PDF - 1.27 MB - 3 pages]
L. Einsiedel et al.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is endemic to central Australia among Indigenous Australians. However, virologic and clinical aspects of infection remain poorly understood. No attempt has been made to control transmission to indigenous children. We report 3 fatal cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Australo-Melanesian subtype c.

EID Einsiedel L, Cassar O, Bardy P, Kearney D, Gessain A. Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1639-1641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130105
AMA Einsiedel L, Cassar O, Bardy P, et al. Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1639-1641. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130105.
APA Einsiedel, L., Cassar, O., Bardy, P., Kearney, D., & Gessain, A. (2013). Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1639-1641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130105.

Transition in the Cause of Fever from Malaria to Dengue, Northwestern Ecuador, 1990–2011 [PDF - 479 KB - 4 pages]
S. G. Cifuentes et al.

In tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. However by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern Ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. This finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue.

EID Cifuentes SG, Trostle J, Trueba G, Milbrath M, Baldeón ME, Coloma J, et al. Transition in the Cause of Fever from Malaria to Dengue, Northwestern Ecuador, 1990–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1642-1645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130137
AMA Cifuentes SG, Trostle J, Trueba G, et al. Transition in the Cause of Fever from Malaria to Dengue, Northwestern Ecuador, 1990–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1642-1645. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130137.
APA Cifuentes, S. G., Trostle, J., Trueba, G., Milbrath, M., Baldeón, M. E., Coloma, J....Eisenberg, J. (2013). Transition in the Cause of Fever from Malaria to Dengue, Northwestern Ecuador, 1990–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1642-1645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130137.

Use of Primary Care Data for Detecting Impetigo Trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010 [PDF - 372 KB - 3 pages]
L. J. Shallcross et al.

Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995–2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases.

EID Shallcross LJ, Petersen I, Rosenthal J, Johnson AM, Freemantle N, Hayward AC. Use of Primary Care Data for Detecting Impetigo Trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1646-1648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130433
AMA Shallcross LJ, Petersen I, Rosenthal J, et al. Use of Primary Care Data for Detecting Impetigo Trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1646-1648. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130433.
APA Shallcross, L. J., Petersen, I., Rosenthal, J., Johnson, A. M., Freemantle, N., & Hayward, A. C. (2013). Use of Primary Care Data for Detecting Impetigo Trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1646-1648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130433.

Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation [PDF - 331 KB - 4 pages]
S. Zhdanova et al.

Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies.

EID Zhdanova S, Heysell SK, Ogarkov O, Boyarinova G, Alexeeva G, Pholwat S, et al. Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1649-1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121108
AMA Zhdanova S, Heysell SK, Ogarkov O, et al. Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1649-1652. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121108.
APA Zhdanova, S., Heysell, S. K., Ogarkov, O., Boyarinova, G., Alexeeva, G., Pholwat, S....Savilov, E. (2013). Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1649-1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121108.

Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood [PDF - 354 KB - 3 pages]
B. Feodoroff et al.

Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum.

EID Feodoroff B, de Haan C, Ellström P, Sarna S, Hänninen M, Rautelin H. Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1653-1655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121537
AMA Feodoroff B, de Haan C, Ellström P, et al. Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1653-1655. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121537.
APA Feodoroff, B., de Haan, C., Ellström, P., Sarna, S., Hänninen, M., & Rautelin, H. (2013). Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1653-1655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121537.

Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain [PDF - 481 KB - 4 pages]
M. I. Morosini et al.

The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions.

EID Morosini MI, Quereda C, Gil H, Anda P, Núñez-Murga M, Cantón R, et al. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1656-1659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121785
AMA Morosini MI, Quereda C, Gil H, et al. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1656-1659. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121785.
APA Morosini, M. I., Quereda, C., Gil, H., Anda, P., Núñez-Murga, M., Cantón, R....López-Vélez, R. (2013). Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1656-1659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121785.

Declining Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Nurses, Hong Kong, 2006–2012 [PDF - 511 KB - 4 pages]
S. Lee et al.

Seasonal influenza vaccination of nurses in Hong Kong fell from 57% in 2005 to 24% in 2012, paralleling concern for adverse reactions associated with vaccination. Decreased acceptance of vaccination was most prominent among nurses who had less work experience and more frequent contact with patients.

EID Lee S, Wong N, Lee S. Declining Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Nurses, Hong Kong, 2006–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1660-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130195
AMA Lee S, Wong N, Lee S. Declining Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Nurses, Hong Kong, 2006–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1660-1663. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130195.
APA Lee, S., Wong, N., & Lee, S. (2013). Declining Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Nurses, Hong Kong, 2006–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1660-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130195.

Hepatitis E Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA, 2009–2010 [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
R. Mahajan et al.

Data about prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in persons who inject drugs are limited. Among 18–40-year-old persons who inject drugs in California, USA, prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus was 2.7%. This prevalence was associated with age but not with homelessness, incarceration, or high-risk sexual behavior.

EID Mahajan R, Collier MG, Kamili S, Drobeniuc J, Cuevas-Mota J, Garfein RS, et al. Hepatitis E Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1664-1666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130630
AMA Mahajan R, Collier MG, Kamili S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1664-1666. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130630.
APA Mahajan, R., Collier, M. G., Kamili, S., Drobeniuc, J., Cuevas-Mota, J., Garfein, R. S....Teshale, E. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1664-1666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130630.

Persistent Human Cosavirus Infection in Lung Transplant Recipient, Italy [PDF - 402 KB - 3 pages]
G. Campanini et al.

Human cosavirus is a novel picornavirus recently identified in feces from children in southern Asia. We report infection with human cosavirus in a patient in the Mediterranean area. The patient was an adult double lung transplant recipient who had chronic diarrhea associated with persistent infection with human cosavirus.

EID Campanini G, Rovida F, Meloni F, Cascina A, Ciccocioppo R, Piralla A, et al. Persistent Human Cosavirus Infection in Lung Transplant Recipient, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1667-1669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130352
AMA Campanini G, Rovida F, Meloni F, et al. Persistent Human Cosavirus Infection in Lung Transplant Recipient, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1667-1669. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130352.
APA Campanini, G., Rovida, F., Meloni, F., Cascina, A., Ciccocioppo, R., Piralla, A....Baldanti, F. (2013). Persistent Human Cosavirus Infection in Lung Transplant Recipient, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1667-1669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130352.

New Clonal Strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India [PDF - 727 KB - 4 pages]
A. Chowdhary et al.

A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

EID Chowdhary A, Sharma C, Duggal S, Agarwal K, Prakash A, Singh P, et al. New Clonal Strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1670-1673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130393
AMA Chowdhary A, Sharma C, Duggal S, et al. New Clonal Strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1670-1673. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130393.
APA Chowdhary, A., Sharma, C., Duggal, S., Agarwal, K., Prakash, A., Singh, P....Meis, J. F. (2013). New Clonal Strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1670-1673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130393.

Subclinical Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in Human, Vietnam [PDF - 474 KB - 4 pages]
M. Le et al.

Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern Vietnam.

EID Le M, Horby P, Fox A, Nguyen H, Le Nguyen H, Hoang P, et al. Subclinical Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in Human, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1674-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130730
AMA Le M, Horby P, Fox A, et al. Subclinical Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in Human, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1674-1677. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130730.
APA Le, M., Horby, P., Fox, A., Nguyen, H., Le Nguyen, H., Hoang, P....Wertheim, H. (2013). Subclinical Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in Human, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1674-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130730.

Human Infections with New Subspecies of Campylobacter fetus [PDF - 367 KB - 3 pages]
M. E. Patrick et al.

Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is a newly proposed subspecies of C. fetus with markers of reptile origin. We summarize epidemiologic information for 9 humans infected with this bacterium. All cases were in men, most of whom were of Asian origin. Infection might have been related to exposure to Asian foods or reptiles.

EID Patrick ME, Gilbert MJ, Blaser MJ, Tauxe RV, Wagenaar JA, Fitzgerald C. Human Infections with New Subspecies of Campylobacter fetus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1678-1680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130883
AMA Patrick ME, Gilbert MJ, Blaser MJ, et al. Human Infections with New Subspecies of Campylobacter fetus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1678-1680. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130883.
APA Patrick, M. E., Gilbert, M. J., Blaser, M. J., Tauxe, R. V., Wagenaar, J. A., & Fitzgerald, C. (2013). Human Infections with New Subspecies of Campylobacter fetus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1678-1680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130883.

Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Bhutan, 2012 [PDF - 465 KB - 4 pages]
S. Wangchuk et al.

In 2012, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was reported for the first time in Bhutan. IgM ELISA results were positive for 36/210 patient samples; PCR was positive for 32/81. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that Bhutan CHIKV belongs to the East/Central/South African genotype. Appropriate responses to future outbreaks require a system of surveillance and improved laboratory capacity.

EID Wangchuk S, Chinnawirotpisan P, Dorji T, Tobgay T, Dorji T, Yoon I, et al. Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Bhutan, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1681-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130453
AMA Wangchuk S, Chinnawirotpisan P, Dorji T, et al. Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Bhutan, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1681-1684. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130453.
APA Wangchuk, S., Chinnawirotpisan, P., Dorji, T., Tobgay, T., Dorji, T., Yoon, I....Fernandez, S. (2013). Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Bhutan, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1681-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130453.

Safe Pseudovirus-based Assay for Neutralization Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus [PDF - 369 KB - 2 pages]
C. Qiu et al.

Serologic studies are urgently needed to assist in understanding an outbreak of influenza A(H7N9) virus. However, a biosafety level 3 laboratory is required for conventional serologic assays with live lethal virus. We describe a safe pseudovirus–based neutralization assay with preliminary assessment using subtype H7N9–infected samples and controls.

EID Qiu C, Huang Y, Zhang A, Tian D, Wan Y, Zhang X, et al. Safe Pseudovirus-based Assay for Neutralization Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1685-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130728
AMA Qiu C, Huang Y, Zhang A, et al. Safe Pseudovirus-based Assay for Neutralization Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1685-1687. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130728.
APA Qiu, C., Huang, Y., Zhang, A., Tian, D., Wan, Y., Zhang, X....Xu, J. (2013). Safe Pseudovirus-based Assay for Neutralization Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1685-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130728.
Commentaries

Think Fungus—Prevention and Control of Fungal Infections [PDF - 744 KB - 2 pages]
M. E. Brandt and B. J. Park
EID Brandt ME, Park BJ. Think Fungus—Prevention and Control of Fungal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1688-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.131092
AMA Brandt ME, Park BJ. Think Fungus—Prevention and Control of Fungal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1688-1689. doi:10.3201/eid1910.131092.
APA Brandt, M. E., & Park, B. J. (2013). Think Fungus—Prevention and Control of Fungal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1688-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.131092.
Letters

Leptotrichia trevisanii Sepsis after Bone Marrow Transplantation [PDF - 247 KB - 2 pages]
J. M. Schrimsher et al.
EID Schrimsher JM, McGuirk JP, Hinthorn DR. Leptotrichia trevisanii Sepsis after Bone Marrow Transplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1690-1691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121048
AMA Schrimsher JM, McGuirk JP, Hinthorn DR. Leptotrichia trevisanii Sepsis after Bone Marrow Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1690-1691. doi:10.3201/eid1910.121048.
APA Schrimsher, J. M., McGuirk, J. P., & Hinthorn, D. R. (2013). Leptotrichia trevisanii Sepsis after Bone Marrow Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1690-1691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.121048.

Clinical Profile of Children with Norovirus Disease in Rotavirus Vaccine Era [PDF - 287 KB - 3 pages]
M. E. Wikswo et al.
EID Wikswo ME, Desai R, Edwards KM, Staat M, Szilagyi PG, Weinberg GA, et al. Clinical Profile of Children with Norovirus Disease in Rotavirus Vaccine Era. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1691-1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130448
AMA Wikswo ME, Desai R, Edwards KM, et al. Clinical Profile of Children with Norovirus Disease in Rotavirus Vaccine Era. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1691-1693. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130448.
APA Wikswo, M. E., Desai, R., Edwards, K. M., Staat, M., Szilagyi, P. G., Weinberg, G. A....Hall, A. J. (2013). Clinical Profile of Children with Norovirus Disease in Rotavirus Vaccine Era. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1691-1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130448.

Leprosy in Pregnant Woman, United States [PDF - 251 KB - 2 pages]
A. C. Gimovsky and C. J. Macri
EID Gimovsky AC, Macri CJ. Leprosy in Pregnant Woman, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1693-1694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130463
AMA Gimovsky AC, Macri CJ. Leprosy in Pregnant Woman, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1693-1694. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130463.
APA Gimovsky, A. C., & Macri, C. J. (2013). Leprosy in Pregnant Woman, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1693-1694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130463.

Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Septic Shock after Aspiration Pneumonia, France [PDF - 256 KB - 2 pages]
A. Le Floch et al.
EID Le Floch A, Cassir N, Hraiech S, Guervilly C, Papazian L, Rolain J. Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Septic Shock after Aspiration Pneumonia, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1694-1695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130608
AMA Le Floch A, Cassir N, Hraiech S, et al. Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Septic Shock after Aspiration Pneumonia, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1694-1695. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130608.
APA Le Floch, A., Cassir, N., Hraiech, S., Guervilly, C., Papazian, L., & Rolain, J. (2013). Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Septic Shock after Aspiration Pneumonia, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1694-1695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130608.

Mycobacterium iranicum Infection in HIV-infected Patient, Iran [PDF - 246 KB - 2 pages]
A. Hashemi-Shahraki et al.
EID Hashemi-Shahraki A, Heidarieh P, Azarpira S, Shojaei H, Hashemzadeh M, Tortoli E. Mycobacterium iranicum Infection in HIV-infected Patient, Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1696-1697. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130658
AMA Hashemi-Shahraki A, Heidarieh P, Azarpira S, et al. Mycobacterium iranicum Infection in HIV-infected Patient, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1696-1697. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130658.
APA Hashemi-Shahraki, A., Heidarieh, P., Azarpira, S., Shojaei, H., Hashemzadeh, M., & Tortoli, E. (2013). Mycobacterium iranicum Infection in HIV-infected Patient, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1696-1697. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130658.

Close Relative of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bat, South Africa [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
N. Ithete et al.
EID Ithete N, Stoffberg S, Corman V, Cottontail VM, Richards L, Schoeman M, et al. Close Relative of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bat, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1697-1699. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130946
AMA Ithete N, Stoffberg S, Corman V, et al. Close Relative of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bat, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1697-1699. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130946.
APA Ithete, N., Stoffberg, S., Corman, V., Cottontail, V. M., Richards, L., Schoeman, M....Preiser, W. (2013). Close Relative of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bat, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1697-1699. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130946.

Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteremia [PDF - 288 KB - 3 pages]
F. Alhashash et al.
EID Alhashash F, Weston V, Diggle M, McNally A. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1699-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130309
AMA Alhashash F, Weston V, Diggle M, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1699-1701. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130309.
APA Alhashash, F., Weston, V., Diggle, M., & McNally, A. (2013). Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1699-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130309.

Transmission of Schmallenberg Virus during Winter, Germany [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
K. Wernike et al.
EID Wernike K, Kohn M, Conraths FJ, Werner D, Kameke D, Hechinger S, et al. Transmission of Schmallenberg Virus during Winter, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1701-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130622
AMA Wernike K, Kohn M, Conraths FJ, et al. Transmission of Schmallenberg Virus during Winter, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1701-1703. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130622.
APA Wernike, K., Kohn, M., Conraths, F. J., Werner, D., Kameke, D., Hechinger, S....Beer, M. (2013). Transmission of Schmallenberg Virus during Winter, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1701-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130622.

Recurrent Bordetella holmesii Bacteremia and Nasal Carriage in a Patient Receiving Rituximab [PDF - 286 KB - 3 pages]
L. Nguyen et al.
EID Nguyen L, Epelboin L, Gabarre J, Lecso M, Guillot S, Bricaire F, et al. Recurrent Bordetella holmesii Bacteremia and Nasal Carriage in a Patient Receiving Rituximab. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1703-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130345
AMA Nguyen L, Epelboin L, Gabarre J, et al. Recurrent Bordetella holmesii Bacteremia and Nasal Carriage in a Patient Receiving Rituximab. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1703-1705. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130345.
APA Nguyen, L., Epelboin, L., Gabarre, J., Lecso, M., Guillot, S., Bricaire, F....Guiso, N. (2013). Recurrent Bordetella holmesii Bacteremia and Nasal Carriage in a Patient Receiving Rituximab. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1703-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130345.

Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Ticks, Uganda and Nigeria [PDF - 301 KB - 3 pages]
V. Lorusso et al.
EID Lorusso V, Gruszka K, Majekodunmi A, Igweh A, Welburn SC, Picozzi K. Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Ticks, Uganda and Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1705-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130389
AMA Lorusso V, Gruszka K, Majekodunmi A, et al. Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Ticks, Uganda and Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1705-1707. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130389.
APA Lorusso, V., Gruszka, K., Majekodunmi, A., Igweh, A., Welburn, S. C., & Picozzi, K. (2013). Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Ticks, Uganda and Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1705-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130389.

Ongoing Measles Outbreak in Orthodox Jewish Community, London, UK [PDF - 613 KB - 3 pages]
V. Baugh et al.
EID Baugh V, Figueroa J, Bosanquet J, Kemsley P, Addiman S, Turbitt D. Ongoing Measles Outbreak in Orthodox Jewish Community, London, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1707-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130258
AMA Baugh V, Figueroa J, Bosanquet J, et al. Ongoing Measles Outbreak in Orthodox Jewish Community, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1707-1709. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130258.
APA Baugh, V., Figueroa, J., Bosanquet, J., Kemsley, P., Addiman, S., & Turbitt, D. (2013). Ongoing Measles Outbreak in Orthodox Jewish Community, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1707-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130258.

Human Infection with Eurasian Avian-like Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, China [PDF - 301 KB - 3 pages]
D. Wang et al.
EID Wang D, Qi S, Li X, Guo J, Tan M, Han G, et al. Human Infection with Eurasian Avian-like Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1709-1711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130420
AMA Wang D, Qi S, Li X, et al. Human Infection with Eurasian Avian-like Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1709-1711. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130420.
APA Wang, D., Qi, S., Li, X., Guo, J., Tan, M., Han, G....Shu, Y. (2013). Human Infection with Eurasian Avian-like Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1709-1711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130420.

Novel Bat Coronaviruses, Brazil and Mexico [PDF - 315 KB - 3 pages]
L. Góes et al.
EID Góes L, Ruvalcaba S, Campos A, Queiroz L, de Carvalho C, Jerez J, et al. Novel Bat Coronaviruses, Brazil and Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1711-1713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130525
AMA Góes L, Ruvalcaba S, Campos A, et al. Novel Bat Coronaviruses, Brazil and Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1711-1713. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130525.
APA Góes, L., Ruvalcaba, S., Campos, A., Queiroz, L., de Carvalho, C., Jerez, J....Dominguez, S. R. (2013). Novel Bat Coronaviruses, Brazil and Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1711-1713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130525.

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 Bengal Strains Carrying ctxB, Bangladesh [PDF - 434 KB - 3 pages]
S. M. Rashed et al.
EID Rashed SM, Iqbal A, Mannan SB, Islam T, Rashid M, Johura F, et al. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 Bengal Strains Carrying ctxBET, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1713-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130626
AMA Rashed SM, Iqbal A, Mannan SB, et al. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 Bengal Strains Carrying ctxBET, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1713-1715. doi:10.3201/eid1910.130626.
APA Rashed, S. M., Iqbal, A., Mannan, S. B., Islam, T., Rashid, M., Johura, F....Alam, M. (2013). Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 Bengal Strains Carrying ctxBET, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1713-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.130626.
About the Cover

The Ecology of Wrath [PDF - 247 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Ecology of Wrath. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(10):1716-1717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.ac1910
AMA Potter P. The Ecology of Wrath. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(10):1716-1717. doi:10.3201/eid1910.ac1910.
APA Potter, P. (2013). The Ecology of Wrath. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1716-1717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1910.ac1910.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Chagas Disease
Page created: February 03, 2014
Page updated: February 03, 2014
Page reviewed: February 03, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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