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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 7—July 2014

Volume 20, Number 7—July 2014

[PDF - 9.05 MB - 183 pages]

Synopses

Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945–2011 [PDF - 687 KB - 8 pages]
C. R. Lane et al.

In England and Wales, the emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis resulted in the largest and most persistent epidemic of foodborne infection attributable to a single subtype of any pathogen since systematic national microbiological surveillance was established. We reviewed 67 years of surveillance data to examine the features, underlying causes, and overall effects of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. The epidemic was associated with the consumption of contaminated chicken meat and eggs, and a decline in the number of infections began after the adoption of vaccination and other measures in production and distribution of chicken meat and eggs. We estimate that >525,000 persons became ill during the course of the epidemic, which caused a total of 6,750,000 days of illness, 27,000 hospitalizations, and 2,000 deaths. Measures undertaken to control the epidemic have resulted in a major reduction in foodborne disease in England and Wales.

EID Lane CR, LeBaigue S, Esan OB, Awofisyo AA, Adams NL, Fisher I, et al. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1097-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.121850
AMA Lane CR, LeBaigue S, Esan OB, et al. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1097-1104. doi:10.3201/eid2007.121850.
APA Lane, C. R., LeBaigue, S., Esan, O. B., Awofisyo, A. A., Adams, N. L., Fisher, I....Adak, G. K. (2014). Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1097-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.121850.

Medscape CME Activity
Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK [PDF - 449 KB - 8 pages]
A. Abbara et al.

Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012–13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community.

EID Abbara A, Brooks T, Taylor GP, Nolan M, Donaldson H, Manikon M, et al. Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1115-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131764
AMA Abbara A, Brooks T, Taylor GP, et al. Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1115-1122. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131764.
APA Abbara, A., Brooks, T., Taylor, G. P., Nolan, M., Donaldson, H., Manikon, M....Holmes, A. (2014). Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1115-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131764.

Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Outcomes of Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans [PDF - 768 KB - 10 pages]
V. Huong et al.

Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term “streptococcus suis.” The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.

EID Huong V, Ha N, Huy N, Horby P, Nghia H, Thiem V, et al. Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Outcomes of Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1105-1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131594
AMA Huong V, Ha N, Huy N, et al. Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Outcomes of Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1105-1114. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131594.
APA Huong, V., Ha, N., Huy, N., Horby, P., Nghia, H., Thiem, V....Hirayama, K. (2014). Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Outcomes of Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1105-1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131594.
Research

Independent Lineages of Highly Sulfadoxine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Haplotypes, Eastern Africa [PDF - 629 KB - 9 pages]
S. M. Taylor et al.

Sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum undermines malaria prevention with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Parasites with a highly resistant mutant dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) haplotype have recently emerged in eastern Africa; they negated preventive benefits of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and might exacerbate placental malaria. We explored emerging lineages of dhps mutant haplotypes in Malawi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Tanzania by using analyses of genetic microsatellites flanking the dhps locus. In Malawi, a triple-mutant dhps SGEG (mutant amino acids are underlined) haplotype emerged in 2010 that was closely related to pre-existing double-mutant SGEA haplotypes, suggesting local origination in Malawi. When we compared mutant strains with parasites from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania by multiple independent analyses, we found that SGEG parasites were partitioned into separate lineages by country. These findings support a model of local origination of SGEG dhps haplotypes, rather than geographic diffusion, and have implications for investigations of emergence and effects of parasite drug resistance.

EID Taylor SM, Antonia AL, Harrington WE, Goheen MM, Mwapasa V, Chaluluka E, et al. Independent Lineages of Highly Sulfadoxine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Haplotypes, Eastern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1140-1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131720
AMA Taylor SM, Antonia AL, Harrington WE, et al. Independent Lineages of Highly Sulfadoxine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Haplotypes, Eastern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1140-1148. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131720.
APA Taylor, S. M., Antonia, A. L., Harrington, W. E., Goheen, M. M., Mwapasa, V., Chaluluka, E....Meshnick, S. R. (2014). Independent Lineages of Highly Sulfadoxine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Haplotypes, Eastern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1140-1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131720.

Norovirus Epidemiology in Community and Health Care Settings and Association with Patient Age, Denmark [PDF - 610 KB - 9 pages]
K. T. Franck et al.

Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks. In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ≥60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to NoV infection might depend on patient age and infecting NoV genotype. Cohort studies are warranted to test this hypothesis.

EID Franck KT, Fonager J, Ersbøll AK, Böttiger B. Norovirus Epidemiology in Community and Health Care Settings and Association with Patient Age, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1123-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130781
AMA Franck KT, Fonager J, Ersbøll AK, et al. Norovirus Epidemiology in Community and Health Care Settings and Association with Patient Age, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1123-1131. doi:10.3201/eid2007.130781.
APA Franck, K. T., Fonager, J., Ersbøll, A. K., & Böttiger, B. (2014). Norovirus Epidemiology in Community and Health Care Settings and Association with Patient Age, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1123-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130781.

Population-Based Analysis of Invasive Fungal Infections, France, 2001–2010 [PDF - 447 KB - 7 pages]
D. Bitar et al.

To determine the epidemiology and trends of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in France, we analyzed incidence, risk factors, and in-hospital death rates related to the most frequent IFIs registered in the national hospital discharge database during 2001–2010. The identified 35,876 IFI cases included candidemia (43.4%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (26.1%), invasive aspergillosis (IA, 23.9%), cryptococcosis (5.2%), and mucormycosis (1.5%). The overall incidence was 5.9/100,000 cases/year and the mortality rate was 27.6%; both increased over the period (+1.5%, +2.9%/year, respectively). Incidences substantially increased for candidemia, IA, and mucormycosis. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia incidence decreased among AIDS patients (−14.3%/year) but increased in non-HIV–infected patients (+13.3%/year). Candidemia and IA incidence was increased among patients with hematologic malignancies (>+4%/year) and those with chronic renal failure (>+10%/year). In-hospital deaths substantially increased in some groups, e.g., in those with hematologic malignancies. IFIs occur among a broad spectrum of non–HIV-infected patients and should be a major public health priority.

EID Bitar D, Lortholary O, Le Strat Y, Nicolau J, Coignard B, Tattevin P, et al. Population-Based Analysis of Invasive Fungal Infections, France, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1163-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140087
AMA Bitar D, Lortholary O, Le Strat Y, et al. Population-Based Analysis of Invasive Fungal Infections, France, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1163-1169. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140087.
APA Bitar, D., Lortholary, O., Le Strat, Y., Nicolau, J., Coignard, B., Tattevin, P....Dromer, F. (2014). Population-Based Analysis of Invasive Fungal Infections, France, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1163-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140087.

Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections [PDF - 409 KB - 6 pages]
M. E. Falagas et al.

We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case–control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%–44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, −3% and −4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable.

EID Falagas ME, Tansarli GS, Karageorgopoulos DE, Vardakas KZ. Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1170-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.121004
AMA Falagas ME, Tansarli GS, Karageorgopoulos DE, et al. Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1170-1175. doi:10.3201/eid2007.121004.
APA Falagas, M. E., Tansarli, G. S., Karageorgopoulos, D. E., & Vardakas, K. Z. (2014). Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1170-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.121004.

Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato Seroreactivity and Seroprevalence in the Northeastern United States [PDF - 1.00 MB - 8 pages]
P. J. Krause et al.

Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, a relapsing fever Borrelia sp., is transmitted by the same ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi (the Lyme disease pathogen) and occurs in all Lyme disease–endemic areas of the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of IgG against B. miyamotoi sensu lato in the northeastern United States and assess whether serum from B. miyamotoi sensu lato–infected persons is reactive to B. burgdorferi antigens, we tested archived serum samples from area residents during 1991–2012. Of 639 samples from healthy persons, 25 were positive for B. miyamotoi sensu lato and 60 for B. burgdorferi. Samples from ≈10% of B. miyamotoi sensu lato–seropositive persons without a recent history of Lyme disease were seropositive for B. burgdorferi. Our resultsA suggest thatA human B. miyamotoiA sensu latoA infection may be common in southern New England and that B. burgdorferi antibody testing is not an effective surrogate for detecting B. miyamotoi sensu lato infection.

EID Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, Barbour AG, Platonov AE, Brancato J, et al. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato Seroreactivity and Seroprevalence in the Northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1183-1190. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131587
AMA Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, et al. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato Seroreactivity and Seroprevalence in the Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1183-1190. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131587.
APA Krause, P. J., Narasimhan, S., Wormser, G. P., Barbour, A. G., Platonov, A. E., Brancato, J....Fish, D. (2014). Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato Seroreactivity and Seroprevalence in the Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1183-1190. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131587.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Influenza Virus Types and Subtypes in South Africa, 2009–2012 [PDF - 546 KB - 8 pages]
A. L. Cohen et al.

To determine clinical and epidemiologic differences between influenza caused by different virus types and subtypes, we identified patients and tested specimens. Patients were children and adults hospitalized with confirmed influenza and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) identified through active, prospective, hospital-based surveillance from 2009–2012 in South Africa. Respiratory specimens were tested, typed, and subtyped for influenza virus by PCR. Of 16,005 SARI patients tested, 1,239 (8%) were positive for influenza virus. Patient age and co-infections varied according to virus type and subtype, but disease severity did not. Case-patients with influenza B were more likely than patients with influenza A to be HIV infected. A higher proportion of case-patients infected during the first wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic were 5–24 years of age (19%) than were patients infected during the second wave (9%). Although clinical differences exist, treatment recommendations do not differ according to subtype; prevention through vaccination is recommended.

EID Cohen AL, Hellferscee O, Pretorius M, Treurnicht F, Walaza S, Madhi S, et al. Epidemiology of Influenza Virus Types and Subtypes in South Africa, 2009–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1149-1156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131869
AMA Cohen AL, Hellferscee O, Pretorius M, et al. Epidemiology of Influenza Virus Types and Subtypes in South Africa, 2009–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1149-1156. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131869.
APA Cohen, A. L., Hellferscee, O., Pretorius, M., Treurnicht, F., Walaza, S., Madhi, S....Cohen, C. (2014). Epidemiology of Influenza Virus Types and Subtypes in South Africa, 2009–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1149-1156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131869.

Staphylococcus aureus Infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011 [PDF - 556 KB - 6 pages]
D. A. Williamson et al.

The incidence rate for invasive and noninvasive Staphylococcus aureus infections in New Zealand is among the highest reported in the developed world. Using nationally collated hospital discharge data, we analyzed the epidemiology of serious S. aureus infections in New Zealand during 2000–2011. During this period, incidence of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections increased significantly while incidence of staphylococcal sepsis and pneumonia remained stable. We observed marked ethnic and sociodemographic inequality across all S. aureus infections; incidence rates for all forms of S. aureus infections were highest among Māori and Pacific Peoples and among patients residing in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation. The increased incidence of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections, coupled with the demographic disparities, is of considerable concern. Future work should aim to reduce this disturbing national trend.

EID Williamson DA, Zhang J, Ritchie SR, Roberts SA, Fraser JD, Baker MG. Staphylococcus aureus Infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1157-1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131923
AMA Williamson DA, Zhang J, Ritchie SR, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1157-1162. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131923.
APA Williamson, D. A., Zhang, J., Ritchie, S. R., Roberts, S. A., Fraser, J. D., & Baker, M. G. (2014). Staphylococcus aureus Infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1157-1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131923.

Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone [PDF - 391 KB - 7 pages]
R. J. Schoepp et al.

Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever–hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Liberia. Each year, suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500–700 samples to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Sierra Leone. Generally only 30%–40% of samples tested are positive for Lassa virus (LASV) antigen and/or LASV-specific IgM; thus, 60%–70% of these patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had IgM to dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

EID Schoepp RJ, Rossi CA, Khan SH, Goba A, Fair JN. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1176-1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131265
AMA Schoepp RJ, Rossi CA, Khan SH, et al. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1176-1182. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131265.
APA Schoepp, R. J., Rossi, C. A., Khan, S. H., Goba, A., & Fair, J. N. (2014). Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1176-1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131265.

Changes in Capsule and Drug Resistance of Pneumococci after Introduction of PCV7, Japan, 2010–2013 [PDF - 607 KB - 8 pages]
N. Chiba et al.

We aimed to clarify changes in serotypes and genotypes mediating β-lactam and macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Japanese children who had invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into Japan; 341 participating general hospitals conducted IPD surveillance during April 2010–March 2013. A total of 300 pneumococcal isolates were collected in 2010, 146 in 2011, and 156 in 2012. The proportion of vaccine serotypes in infectious isolates decreased from 73.3% to 54.8% to 14.7% during the 3 years. Among vaccine serotype strains, genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains also declined each year. Among nonvaccine serotype strains, 19A, 15A, 15B, 15C, and 24 increased in 2012. Increases were noted especially in genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates of serotypes 15A and 35B, as well as macrolide resistance mediated by the erm(B) gene in 15A, 15B, 15C, and 24.

EID Chiba N, Morozumi M, Shouji M, Wajima T, Iwata S, Ubukata K. Changes in Capsule and Drug Resistance of Pneumococci after Introduction of PCV7, Japan, 2010–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1132-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131485
AMA Chiba N, Morozumi M, Shouji M, et al. Changes in Capsule and Drug Resistance of Pneumococci after Introduction of PCV7, Japan, 2010–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1132-1139. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131485.
APA Chiba, N., Morozumi, M., Shouji, M., Wajima, T., Iwata, S., & Ubukata, K. (2014). Changes in Capsule and Drug Resistance of Pneumococci after Introduction of PCV7, Japan, 2010–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1132-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131485.
Dispatches

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with Reduced Susceptibilities to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins [PDF - 310 KB - 3 pages]
D. Nguyen et al.

The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is an increasing public health threat. Using Etest and multiantigen sequence typing, we detected sequence type 1407, which is associated with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in 4 major populated regions in California, USA, in 2012.

EID Nguyen D, Gose S, Castro L, Chung K, Bernstein K, Samuel M, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with Reduced Susceptibilities to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1211-1213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131396
AMA Nguyen D, Gose S, Castro L, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with Reduced Susceptibilities to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1211-1213. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131396.
APA Nguyen, D., Gose, S., Castro, L., Chung, K., Bernstein, K., Samuel, M....Pandori, M. (2014). Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with Reduced Susceptibilities to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1211-1213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131396.

Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam [PDF - 404 KB - 4 pages]
N. Van Hong et al.

Resistance to artemisinin derivatives, the most potent antimalarial drugs currently used, has emerged in Southeast Asia and threatens to spread to Africa. We report a case of malaria in a man who returned to Vietnam after 3 years in Angola that did not respond to intravenous artesunate and clindamycin or an oral artemisinin-based combination.

EID Van Hong N, Amambua-Ngwa A, Tuan N, Cuong D, Giang N, Van Dung N, et al. Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1207-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140155
AMA Van Hong N, Amambua-Ngwa A, Tuan N, et al. Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1207-1210. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140155.
APA Van Hong, N., Amambua-Ngwa, A., Tuan, N., Cuong, D., Giang, N., Van Dung, N....Erhart, A. (2014). Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1207-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140155.

Diversity of Francisella tularensis Subsp. holarctica Lineages, China [PDF - 617 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Wang et al.

We analyzed 10 isolates of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica from China and assigned them to known clades by using canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We found 4 diverse subtypes, including 3 from the most basal lineage, biovar japonica. This result indicates unprecedented levels of diversity from a single region and suggests new models for emergence.

EID Wang Y, Peng Y, Hai R, Xia L, Li H, Zhang Z, et al. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Subsp. holarctica Lineages, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1191-1194. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130931
AMA Wang Y, Peng Y, Hai R, et al. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Subsp. holarctica Lineages, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1191-1194. doi:10.3201/eid2007.130931.
APA Wang, Y., Peng, Y., Hai, R., Xia, L., Li, H., Zhang, Z....Keim, P. (2014). Diversity of Francisella tularensis Subsp. holarctica Lineages, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1191-1194. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130931.

Rates of Influenza-like Illness and Winter School Breaks, Chile, 2004–2010 [PDF - 528 KB - 5 pages]
G. Chowell et al.

To determine effects of school breaks on influenza virus transmission in the Southern Hemisphere, we analyzed 2004–2010 influenza-like–illness surveillance data from Chile. Winter breaks were significantly associated with a two-thirds temporary incidence reduction among schoolchildren, which supports use of school closure to temporarily reduce illness, especially among schoolchildren, in the Southern Hemisphere.

EID Chowell G, Towers S, Viboud C, Fuentes R, Sotomayor V. Rates of Influenza-like Illness and Winter School Breaks, Chile, 2004–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1195-1199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130967
AMA Chowell G, Towers S, Viboud C, et al. Rates of Influenza-like Illness and Winter School Breaks, Chile, 2004–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1195-1199. doi:10.3201/eid2007.130967.
APA Chowell, G., Towers, S., Viboud, C., Fuentes, R., & Sotomayor, V. (2014). Rates of Influenza-like Illness and Winter School Breaks, Chile, 2004–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1195-1199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130967.

Highly Pathogenic Fowlpox Virus in Cutaneously Infected Chickens, China [PDF - 279 KB - 3 pages]
K. Zhao et al.

We investigated an acute outbreak of the cutaneous form of fowlpox among chickens in China in November 2009. Using pathologic and virologic methods, we identified a novel type of fowlpox virus that carried an integrated genomic sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus. This highly pathogenic virus could lead to severe ecologic effects and economic losses.

EID Zhao K, He W, Xie S, Song D, Lu H, Pan W, et al. Highly Pathogenic Fowlpox Virus in Cutaneously Infected Chickens, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1200-1202. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131118
AMA Zhao K, He W, Xie S, et al. Highly Pathogenic Fowlpox Virus in Cutaneously Infected Chickens, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1200-1202. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131118.
APA Zhao, K., He, W., Xie, S., Song, D., Lu, H., Pan, W....Gao, F. (2014). Highly Pathogenic Fowlpox Virus in Cutaneously Infected Chickens, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1200-1202. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131118.

New Viruses in Idiopathic Human Diarrhea Cases, the Netherlands [PDF - 856 KB - 5 pages]
S. L. Smits et al.

Emerging viral infections can be identified by using a viral metagenomics approach for clinical human material. Diarrhea samples of patients with unexplained gastroenteritis from the Netherlands were analyzed by using viral metagenomics. Novel circular DNA viruses, bufaviruses, and genogroup III picobirnaviruses were identified. These data expand our knowledge of the human virome.

EID Smits SL, Schapendonk C, van Beek J, Vennema H, Schürch AC, Schipper D, et al. New Viruses in Idiopathic Human Diarrhea Cases, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1218-1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140190
AMA Smits SL, Schapendonk C, van Beek J, et al. New Viruses in Idiopathic Human Diarrhea Cases, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1218-1222. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140190.
APA Smits, S. L., Schapendonk, C., van Beek, J., Vennema, H., Schürch, A. C., Schipper, D....Koopmans, M. P. (2014). New Viruses in Idiopathic Human Diarrhea Cases, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1218-1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140190.

MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camel Herd, Saudi Arabia [PDF - 952 KB - 4 pages]
M. G. Hemida et al.

A prospective study of a dromedary camel herd during the 2013–14 calving season showed Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of calves and adults. Virus was isolated from the nose and feces but more frequently from the nose. Preexisting neutralizing antibody did not appear to protect against infection.

EID Hemida MG, Chu D, Poon L, Perera R, Alhammadi MA, Ng H, et al. MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camel Herd, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1231-1234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140571
AMA Hemida MG, Chu D, Poon L, et al. MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camel Herd, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1231-1234. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140571.
APA Hemida, M. G., Chu, D., Poon, L., Perera, R., Alhammadi, M. A., Ng, H....Peiris, M. (2014). MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camel Herd, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1231-1234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140571.

Cefotaxime-Resistant Salmonella enterica in Travelers Returning from Thailand to Finland [PDF - 361 KB - 4 pages]
M. Gunell et al.

During 1993–2011, cefotaxime resistance among Salmonella enterica isolates from patients in Finland increased substantially. Most of these infections originated in Thailand; many were qnr positive and belonged to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica monophasic serovar 4,[5],12:i:-. Although cefotaxime-resistant salmonellae mainly originate in discrete geographic areas, they represent a global threat.

EID Gunell M, Aulu L, Jalava J, Lukinmaa-Åberg S, Österblad M, Ollgren J, et al. Cefotaxime-Resistant Salmonella enterica in Travelers Returning from Thailand to Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1214-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131744
AMA Gunell M, Aulu L, Jalava J, et al. Cefotaxime-Resistant Salmonella enterica in Travelers Returning from Thailand to Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1214-1217. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131744.
APA Gunell, M., Aulu, L., Jalava, J., Lukinmaa-Åberg, S., Österblad, M., Ollgren, J....Hakanen, A. J. (2014). Cefotaxime-Resistant Salmonella enterica in Travelers Returning from Thailand to Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1214-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131744.

Outbreak-Related Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains Similar to US Strains, South Korea, 2013 [PDF - 553 KB - 4 pages]
S. Lee and C. Lee

In late 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection recurred in South Korea. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates from the outbreaks were most closely related to emergent US strains of PEDV. These US strain–like PEDV variants are prevalent in South Korea and responsible for recent outbreaks in the country.

EID Lee S, Lee C. Outbreak-Related Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains Similar to US Strains, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1223-1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140294
AMA Lee S, Lee C. Outbreak-Related Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains Similar to US Strains, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1223-1226. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140294.
APA Lee, S., & Lee, C. (2014). Outbreak-Related Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains Similar to US Strains, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1223-1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140294.

Detection and Genetic Characterization of Deltacoronavirus in Pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014 [PDF - 525 KB - 4 pages]
L. Wang et al.

In Ohio, United States, in early 2014, a deltacoronavirus was detected in feces and intestine samples from pigs with diarrheal disease. The complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the virus confirmed that the virus is closely related to a porcine deltacoronavirus (porcine coronavirus HKU15) reported in Hong Kong in 2012.

EID Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Deltacoronavirus in Pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1227-1230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140296
AMA Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Deltacoronavirus in Pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1227-1230. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140296.
APA Wang, L., Byrum, B., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Detection and Genetic Characterization of Deltacoronavirus in Pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1227-1230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140296.

Widespread Rotavirus H in Commercially Raised Pigs, United States [PDF - 357 KB - 4 pages]
D. Marthaler et al.

We investigated the presence in US pigs of rotavirus H (RVH), identified in pigs in Japan and Brazil. From 204 samples collected during 2006–2009, we identified RVH in 15% of fecal samples from 10 US states, suggesting that RVH has circulated in the United States since 2002, but probably longer.

EID Marthaler D, Rossow K, Culhane M, Goyal S, Collins J, Matthijnssens J, et al. Widespread Rotavirus H in Commercially Raised Pigs, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1203-1206. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140034
AMA Marthaler D, Rossow K, Culhane M, et al. Widespread Rotavirus H in Commercially Raised Pigs, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1203-1206. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140034.
APA Marthaler, D., Rossow, K., Culhane, M., Goyal, S., Collins, J., Matthijnssens, J....Ciarlet, M. (2014). Widespread Rotavirus H in Commercially Raised Pigs, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1203-1206. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140034.
Letters

Genome Analysis of Mayaro Virus Imported to Germany from French Guiana [PDF - 286 KB - 3 pages]
B. Friedrich-Jänicke et al.
EID Friedrich-Jänicke B, Emmerich P, Tappe D, Günther S, Cadar D, Schmidt-Chanasit J. Genome Analysis of Mayaro Virus Imported to Germany from French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1255-1257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140043
AMA Friedrich-Jänicke B, Emmerich P, Tappe D, et al. Genome Analysis of Mayaro Virus Imported to Germany from French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1255-1257. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140043.
APA Friedrich-Jänicke, B., Emmerich, P., Tappe, D., Günther, S., Cadar, D., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2014). Genome Analysis of Mayaro Virus Imported to Germany from French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1255-1257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140043.

Carbapenemase-producing Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized Abroad, France [PDF - 323 KB - 3 pages]
F. Compain et al.
EID Compain F, Decré D, Frazier I, Ramahefasolo A, Lavollay M, Carbonnelle E, et al. Carbapenemase-producing Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized Abroad, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1246-1248. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131638
AMA Compain F, Decré D, Frazier I, et al. Carbapenemase-producing Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized Abroad, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1246-1248. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131638.
APA Compain, F., Decré, D., Frazier, I., Ramahefasolo, A., Lavollay, M., Carbonnelle, E....Podglajen, I. (2014). Carbapenemase-producing Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized Abroad, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1246-1248. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131638.

Socioeconomic Status and Campylobacteriosis, Connecticut, USA, 1999–2009 [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]
K. Bemis et al.
EID Bemis K, Marcus R, Hadler JL. Socioeconomic Status and Campylobacteriosis, Connecticut, USA, 1999–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1240-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131333
AMA Bemis K, Marcus R, Hadler JL. Socioeconomic Status and Campylobacteriosis, Connecticut, USA, 1999–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1240-1242. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131333.
APA Bemis, K., Marcus, R., & Hadler, J. L. (2014). Socioeconomic Status and Campylobacteriosis, Connecticut, USA, 1999–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1240-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131333.

Legionnaires’ Disease Caused by Legionella pneumophila Serogroups 5 and 10, China [PDF - 422 KB - 2 pages]
Q. Zhang et al.
EID Zhang Q, Zhou H, Chen R, Qin T, Ren H, Liu B, et al. Legionnaires’ Disease Caused by Legionella pneumophila Serogroups 5 and 10, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1242-1243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131343
AMA Zhang Q, Zhou H, Chen R, et al. Legionnaires’ Disease Caused by Legionella pneumophila Serogroups 5 and 10, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1242-1243. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131343.
APA Zhang, Q., Zhou, H., Chen, R., Qin, T., Ren, H., Liu, B....Zhou, W. (2014). Legionnaires’ Disease Caused by Legionella pneumophila Serogroups 5 and 10, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1242-1243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131343.

Stability of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Milk [PDF - 296 KB - 2 pages]
N. van Doremalen et al.
EID van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Karesh WB, Munster VJ. Stability of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Milk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1263-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140500
AMA van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Karesh WB, et al. Stability of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Milk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1263-1264. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140500.
APA van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Karesh, W. B., & Munster, V. J. (2014). Stability of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Milk. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1263-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140500.

Zoonotic Filariasis Caused by Novel Brugia sp. Nematode, United States, 2011 [PDF - 479 KB - 3 pages]
A. Paniz-Mondolfi et al.
EID Paniz-Mondolfi A, Gárate T, Stavropoulos C, Fan W, González L, Eberhard M, et al. Zoonotic Filariasis Caused by Novel Brugia sp. Nematode, United States, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1248-1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131654
AMA Paniz-Mondolfi A, Gárate T, Stavropoulos C, et al. Zoonotic Filariasis Caused by Novel Brugia sp. Nematode, United States, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1248-1250. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131654.
APA Paniz-Mondolfi, A., Gárate, T., Stavropoulos, C., Fan, W., González, L., Eberhard, M....Sordillo, E. (2014). Zoonotic Filariasis Caused by Novel Brugia sp. Nematode, United States, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1248-1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131654.

Rotavirus Epidemiology in Bangui, Central African Republic, 2008 [PDF - 315 KB - 2 pages]
I. Gouandijka-Vasilache et al.
EID Gouandijka-Vasilache I, Manirakiza A, Gody J, Banga-Mingo V, Kongombe O, Esona MD, et al. Rotavirus Epidemiology in Bangui, Central African Republic, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1254-1255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131839
AMA Gouandijka-Vasilache I, Manirakiza A, Gody J, et al. Rotavirus Epidemiology in Bangui, Central African Republic, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1254-1255. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131839.
APA Gouandijka-Vasilache, I., Manirakiza, A., Gody, J., Banga-Mingo, V., Kongombe, O., Esona, M. D....Waku-Kouomou, D. (2014). Rotavirus Epidemiology in Bangui, Central African Republic, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1254-1255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131839.

MERS–Related Betacoronavirus in Vespertilio superans Bats, China [PDF - 345 KB - 3 pages]
L. Yang et al.
EID Yang L, Wu Z, Ren X, Yang F, Zhang J, He G, et al. MERS–Related Betacoronavirus in Vespertilio superans Bats, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1260-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140318
AMA Yang L, Wu Z, Ren X, et al. MERS–Related Betacoronavirus in Vespertilio superans Bats, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1260-1262. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140318.
APA Yang, L., Wu, Z., Ren, X., Yang, F., Zhang, J., He, G....Jin, Q. (2014). MERS–Related Betacoronavirus in Vespertilio superans Bats, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1260-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140318.

Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hematologic Malignancies [PDF - 285 KB - 2 pages]
L. Pagano et al.
EID Pagano L, Caira M, Trecarichi E, Spanu T, Di Blasi R, Sica S, et al. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hematologic Malignancies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1235-1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130094
AMA Pagano L, Caira M, Trecarichi E, et al. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hematologic Malignancies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1235-1236. doi:10.3201/eid2007.130094.
APA Pagano, L., Caira, M., Trecarichi, E., Spanu, T., Di Blasi, R., Sica, S....Tumbarello, M. (2014). Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hematologic Malignancies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1235-1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.130094.

Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Sequence Type 11, Anhui Province, China, 2011–2013 [PDF - 343 KB - 3 pages]
S. Hu et al.
EID Hu S, Zhang W, Li F, Hu Z, Ma E, Zheng T, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Sequence Type 11, Anhui Province, China, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1236-1238. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131138
AMA Hu S, Zhang W, Li F, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Sequence Type 11, Anhui Province, China, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1236-1238. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131138.
APA Hu, S., Zhang, W., Li, F., Hu, Z., Ma, E., Zheng, T....Xu, J. (2014). Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Sequence Type 11, Anhui Province, China, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1236-1238. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131138.

Early Public Response to Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangzhou, China, May 30–June 7, 2013 [PDF - 299 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yuan et al.
EID Yuan J, Liao Q, Lau E, Yang Z, Wei X, Chen J, et al. Early Public Response to Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangzhou, China, May 30–June 7, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1238-1240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131155
AMA Yuan J, Liao Q, Lau E, et al. Early Public Response to Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangzhou, China, May 30–June 7, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1238-1240. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131155.
APA Yuan, J., Liao, Q., Lau, E., Yang, Z., Wei, X., Chen, J....Cowling, B. J. (2014). Early Public Response to Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangzhou, China, May 30–June 7, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1238-1240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131155.

Human Exposure to Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, the Netherlands [PDF - 384 KB - 2 pages]
M. Fonville et al.
EID Fonville M, Friesema I, Hengeveld PD, Docters van Leeuwen A, Jahfari S, Harms MG, et al. Human Exposure to Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1244-1246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131525
AMA Fonville M, Friesema I, Hengeveld PD, et al. Human Exposure to Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1244-1246. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131525.
APA Fonville, M., Friesema, I., Hengeveld, P. D., Docters van Leeuwen, A., Jahfari, S., Harms, M. G....van den Wijngaard, C. C. (2014). Human Exposure to Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1244-1246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131525.

Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food, 2014 [PDF - 318 KB - 2 pages]
J. E. Rubin et al.
EID Rubin JE, Ekanayake S, Fernando C. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1264-1265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140534
AMA Rubin JE, Ekanayake S, Fernando C. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1264-1265. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140534.
APA Rubin, J. E., Ekanayake, S., & Fernando, C. (2014). Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1264-1265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140534.

Prevalence and Drug Resistance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Northern China, 2008–2011 [PDF - 321 KB - 2 pages]
X. Wang et al.
EID Wang X, Li H, Jiang G, Zhao L, Ma Y, Javid B, et al. Prevalence and Drug Resistance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Northern China, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1252-1253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131801
AMA Wang X, Li H, Jiang G, et al. Prevalence and Drug Resistance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Northern China, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1252-1253. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131801.
APA Wang, X., Li, H., Jiang, G., Zhao, L., Ma, Y., Javid, B....Huang, H. (2014). Prevalence and Drug Resistance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Northern China, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1252-1253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131801.

Diphtheria-like Disease Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain [PDF - 345 KB - 2 pages]
V. Sangal et al.
EID Sangal V, Nieminen L, Weinhardt B, Raeside J, Tucker NP, Florea C, et al. Diphtheria-like Disease Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1257-1258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140216
AMA Sangal V, Nieminen L, Weinhardt B, et al. Diphtheria-like Disease Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1257-1258. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140216.
APA Sangal, V., Nieminen, L., Weinhardt, B., Raeside, J., Tucker, N. P., Florea, C....Hoskisson, P. A. (2014). Diphtheria-like Disease Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1257-1258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140216.

Death of Woman with Peripartum Influenza B Virus Infection and Necrotizing Pneumonia [PDF - 344 KB - 3 pages]
J. L. Rein et al.
EID Rein JL, Etra AM, Patel JJ, Stein JL, Rivers AL, Gershengorn HB, et al. Death of Woman with Peripartum Influenza B Virus Infection and Necrotizing Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1258-1260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140230
AMA Rein JL, Etra AM, Patel JJ, et al. Death of Woman with Peripartum Influenza B Virus Infection and Necrotizing Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1258-1260. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140230.
APA Rein, J. L., Etra, A. M., Patel, J. J., Stein, J. L., Rivers, A. L., Gershengorn, H. B....Koshy, S. C. (2014). Death of Woman with Peripartum Influenza B Virus Infection and Necrotizing Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1258-1260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140230.

Candida auris–Associated Candidemia, South Africa [PDF - 341 KB - 2 pages]
R. E. Magobo et al.
EID Magobo RE, Corcoran C, Seetharam S, Govender NP. Candida auris–Associated Candidemia, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1250-1251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131765
AMA Magobo RE, Corcoran C, Seetharam S, et al. Candida auris–Associated Candidemia, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1250-1251. doi:10.3201/eid2007.131765.
APA Magobo, R. E., Corcoran, C., Seetharam, S., & Govender, N. P. (2014). Candida auris–Associated Candidemia, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1250-1251. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131765.
Books and Media

Chlamydial Infection: A Clinical and Public Health Perspective [PDF - 293 KB - 1 page]
G. Greub
EID Greub G. Chlamydial Infection: A Clinical and Public Health Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140490
AMA Greub G. Chlamydial Infection: A Clinical and Public Health Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1266. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140490.
APA Greub, G. (2014). Chlamydial Infection: A Clinical and Public Health Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140490.
About the Cover

After the Resistance: The Alamo Today [PDF - 312 KB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and M. L. Cohen
EID Breedlove B, Cohen ML. After the Resistance: The Alamo Today. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1268-1269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.ac2007
AMA Breedlove B, Cohen ML. After the Resistance: The Alamo Today. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1268-1269. doi:10.3201/eid2007.ac2007.
APA Breedlove, B., & Cohen, M. L. (2014). After the Resistance: The Alamo Today. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1268-1269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.ac2007.
Etymologia

Artemisinin [PDF - 232 KB - 1 page]
EID Artemisinin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.et2007
AMA Artemisinin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1217. doi:10.3201/eid2007.et2007.
APA (2014). Artemisinin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.et2007.
Conference Summaries

New Insights from the 7th World Melioidosis Congress 2013
H. P. Schweizer et al.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 19, No. 3 [PDF - 293 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 19, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(7):1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.c22007
AMA Correction: Vol. 19, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(7):1266. doi:10.3201/eid2007.c22007.
APA (2014). Correction: Vol. 19, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 1266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.c22007.
Page created: June 23, 2014
Page updated: June 23, 2014
Page reviewed: June 23, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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