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Issue Cover for Volume 21, Number 1—January 2015

Volume 21, Number 1—January 2015

[PDF - 58.20 MB - 203 pages]

Synopses

Tularemia in Children, Turkey, September 2009–November 2012 [PDF - 854 KB - 7 pages]
H. Tezer et al.

Tularemia, a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, is found throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere. It is not well known and is often misdiagnosed in children. Our aim with this study was to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for 100 children with tularemia in Turkey. The mean patient age was 10.1 ± 3.5 years (range 3–18 years), and most (63%) patients were male. The most common physical signs and laboratory findings were cervical lymphadenopathy (92%) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (89%). Treatment response was higher and rate of relapse lower for children 5–10 years of age than for those in other age groups. Associated with treatment failure were female sex, treatment delay of ≥16 days, and use of doxycycline. Tularemia is endemic to Turkey, and the number of cases has been increasing among children as well as adults.

EID Tezer H, Ozkaya-Parlakay A, Aykan H, Erkocoglu M, Gülhan B, Demir A, et al. Tularemia in Children, Turkey, September 2009–November 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131127
AMA Tezer H, Ozkaya-Parlakay A, Aykan H, et al. Tularemia in Children, Turkey, September 2009–November 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):1-7. doi:10.3201/eid2101.131127.
APA Tezer, H., Ozkaya-Parlakay, A., Aykan, H., Erkocoglu, M., Gülhan, B., Demir, A....Kilic, S. (2015). Tularemia in Children, Turkey, September 2009–November 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131127.

Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011 [PDF - 965 KB - 8 pages]
V. Richard et al.

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies.

EID Richard V, Riehm JM, Herindrainy P, Soanandrasana R, Ratsitoharina M, Rakotomanana F, et al. Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):8-15. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131828
AMA Richard V, Riehm JM, Herindrainy P, et al. Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):8-15. doi:10.3201/eid2101.131828.
APA Richard, V., Riehm, J. M., Herindrainy, P., Soanandrasana, R., Ratsitoharina, M., Rakotomanana, F....Rajerison, M. (2015). Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 8-15. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131828.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012 [PDF - 999 KB - 7 pages]
K. J. Kugeler et al.

We summarize the characteristics of 1,006 cases of human plague occurring in the United States over 113 years, beginning with the first documented case in 1900. Three distinct eras can be identified on the basis of the frequency, nature, and geographic distribution of cases. During 1900–1925, outbreaks were common but were restricted to populous port cities. During 1926–1964, the geographic range of disease expanded rapidly, while the total number of reported cases fell. During 1965–2012, sporadic cases occurred annually, primarily in the rural Southwest. Clinical and demographic features of human illness have shifted over time as the disease has moved from crowded cities to the rural West. These shifts reflect changes in the populations at risk, the advent of antibiotics, and improved detection of more clinically indistinct forms of infection. Overall, the emergence of human plague in the United States parallels observed patterns of introduction of exotic plants and animals.

EID Kugeler KJ, Staples J, Hinckley A, Gage KL, Mead PS. Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):16-22. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140564
AMA Kugeler KJ, Staples J, Hinckley A, et al. Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):16-22. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140564.
APA Kugeler, K. J., Staples, J., Hinckley, A., Gage, K. L., & Mead, P. S. (2015). Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 16-22. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140564.

Health Care Response to CCHF in US Soldier and Nosocomial Transmission to Health Care Providers, Germany, 2009 [PDF - 1001 KB - 9 pages]
N. G. Conger et al.

In 2009, a lethal case of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), acquired by a US soldier in Afghanistan, was treated at a medical center in Germany and resulted in nosocomial transmission to 2 health care providers (HCPs). After his arrival at the medical center (day 6 of illness) by aeromedical evacuation, the patient required repetitive bronchoscopies to control severe pulmonary hemorrhage and renal and hepatic dialysis for hepatorenal failure. After showing clinical improvement, the patient died suddenly on day 11 of illness from cerebellar tonsil herniation caused by cerebral/cerebellar edema. The 2 infected HCPs were among 16 HCPs who received ribavirin postexposure prophylaxis. The infected HCPs had mild or no CCHF symptoms. Transmission may have occurred during bag-valve-mask ventilation, breaches in personal protective equipment during resuscitations, or bronchoscopies generating infectious aerosols. This case highlights the critical care and infection control challenges presented by severe CCHF cases, including the need for experience with ribavirin treatment and postexposure prophylaxis.

EID Conger NG, Paolino KM, Osborn EC, Rusnak JM, Günther S, Pool J, et al. Health Care Response to CCHF in US Soldier and Nosocomial Transmission to Health Care Providers, Germany, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):23-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141413
AMA Conger NG, Paolino KM, Osborn EC, et al. Health Care Response to CCHF in US Soldier and Nosocomial Transmission to Health Care Providers, Germany, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):23-31. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141413.
APA Conger, N. G., Paolino, K. M., Osborn, E. C., Rusnak, J. M., Günther, S., Pool, J....Kortepeter, M. G. (2015). Health Care Response to CCHF in US Soldier and Nosocomial Transmission to Health Care Providers, Germany, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 23-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141413.
Research

Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012 [PDF - 1.76 MB - 8 pages]
A. Desvars et al.

The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers.

EID Desvars A, Furberg M, Hjertqvist M, Vidman L, Sjöstedt A, Rydén P, et al. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):32-39. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140916
AMA Desvars A, Furberg M, Hjertqvist M, et al. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):32-39. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140916.
APA Desvars, A., Furberg, M., Hjertqvist, M., Vidman, L., Sjöstedt, A., Rydén, P....Johansson, A. (2015). Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 32-39. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140916.

Clinical, Environmental, and Serologic Surveillance Studies of Melioidosis in Gabon, 2012–2013 [PDF - 2.28 MB - 8 pages]
W. Wiersinga et al.

Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental gram-negative bacillus, is the causative agent of melioidosis and a bio-threat agent. Reports of B. pseudomallei isolation from soil and animals in East and West Africa suggest that melioidosis might be more widely distributed than previously thought. Because it has been found in equatorial areas with tropical climates, we hypothesized that B. pseudomallei could exist in Gabon. During 2012–2013, we conducted a seroprevalance study in which we set up microbiology facilities at a large clinical referral center and prospectively screened all febrile patients by conducting blood cultures and testing for B. pseudomallei and related species; we also determined whether B. pseudomallei could be isolated from soil. We discovered a novel B. pseudomallei sequence type that caused lethal septic shock and identified B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis in the environment. Our data suggest that melioidosis is emerging in Central Africa but is unrecognized because of the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities.

EID Wiersinga W, Birnie E, Weehuizen T, Alabi AS, Huson M, in ’t Veld R, et al. Clinical, Environmental, and Serologic Surveillance Studies of Melioidosis in Gabon, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):40-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140762
AMA Wiersinga W, Birnie E, Weehuizen T, et al. Clinical, Environmental, and Serologic Surveillance Studies of Melioidosis in Gabon, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):40-47. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140762.
APA Wiersinga, W., Birnie, E., Weehuizen, T., Alabi, A. S., Huson, M., in ’t Veld, R....Grobusch, M. P. (2015). Clinical, Environmental, and Serologic Surveillance Studies of Melioidosis in Gabon, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 40-47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140762.

Protocol for Metagenomic Virus Detection in Clinical Specimens [PDF - 3.25 MB - 10 pages]
C. Kohl et al.

Sixty percent of emerging viruses have a zoonotic origin, making transmission from animals a major threat to public health. Prompt identification and analysis of these pathogens are indispensable to taking action toward prevention and protection of the affected population. We quantifiably compared classical and modern approaches of virus purification and enrichment in theory and experiments. Eventually, we established an unbiased protocol for detection of known and novel emerging viruses from organ tissues (tissue-based universal virus detection for viral metagenomics [TUViD-VM]). The final TUViD-VM protocol was extensively validated by using real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing. We could increase the amount of detectable virus nucleic acids and improved the detection of viruses <75,000-fold compared with other tested approaches. This TUViD-VM protocol can be used in metagenomic and virome studies to increase the likelihood of detecting viruses from any biological source.

EID Kohl C, Brinkmann A, Dabrowski PW, Radonić A, Nitsche A, Kurth A. Protocol for Metagenomic Virus Detection in Clinical Specimens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):48-57. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140766
AMA Kohl C, Brinkmann A, Dabrowski PW, et al. Protocol for Metagenomic Virus Detection in Clinical Specimens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):48-57. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140766.
APA Kohl, C., Brinkmann, A., Dabrowski, P. W., Radonić, A., Nitsche, A., & Kurth, A. (2015). Protocol for Metagenomic Virus Detection in Clinical Specimens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 48-57. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140766.

Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains [PDF - 548 KB - 6 pages]
J. L. Morris et al.

The death rate for neurologic melioidosis is high. Whether certain Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are more likely than other strains to cause central nervous system infection and whether route of infection influences the neurotropic threat remain unclear. Therefore, we compared the virulence and dissemination of Australian clinical isolates collected during October 1989–October 2012 from patients with neurologic and nonneurologic melioidosis after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of mice in an experimental model. We did not observe neurotropism as a unique characteristic of isolates from patients with neurologic melioidosis. Rather, a distinct subset of B. pseudomallei strains appear to have heightened pathogenic potential for rapid dissemination to multiple tissues, including the central nervous system, irrespective of the infection route. This finding has valuable public health ramifications for initiating appropriate and timely therapy after exposure to systemically invasive B. pseudomallei strains. Increasing understanding of B. pseudomallei pathology and its influencing factors will further reduce illness and death from this disease.

EID Morris JL, Fane A, Rush CM, Govan BL, Mayo M, Currie BJ, et al. Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):58-63. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131570
AMA Morris JL, Fane A, Rush CM, et al. Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):58-63. doi:10.3201/eid2101.131570.
APA Morris, J. L., Fane, A., Rush, C. M., Govan, B. L., Mayo, M., Currie, B. J....Ketheesan, N. (2015). Neurotropic Threat Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 58-63. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131570.

Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Patients with Scrub Typhus in 3 Regions of India [PDF - 696 KB - 6 pages]
G. M. Varghese et al.

Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness that is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region, is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which displays high levels of antigenic variation. We conducted an investigation to identify the circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in 3 scrub typhus–endemic geographic regions of India: South India, Northern India, and Northeast India. Eschar samples collected during September 2010–August 2012 from patients with scrub typhus were subjected to 56-kDa type-specific PCR and sequencing to identify their genotypes. Kato-like strains predominated (61.5%), especially in the South and Northeast, followed by Karp-like strains (27.7%) and Gilliam and Ikeda strains (2.3% each). Neimeng-65 genotype strains were also observed in the Northeast. Clarifying the genotypic diversity of O. tsutsugamushi in India enhances knowledge of the regional diversity among circulating strains and provides potential resources for future region-specific diagnostic studies and vaccine development.

EID Varghese GM, Janardhanan J, Mahajan SK, Tariang D, Trowbridge P, Prakash J, et al. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Patients with Scrub Typhus in 3 Regions of India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):64-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140580
AMA Varghese GM, Janardhanan J, Mahajan SK, et al. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Patients with Scrub Typhus in 3 Regions of India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):64-69. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140580.
APA Varghese, G. M., Janardhanan, J., Mahajan, S. K., Tariang, D., Trowbridge, P., Prakash, J....Abraham, O. (2015). Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Patients with Scrub Typhus in 3 Regions of India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 64-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140580.

Rates and Risk Factors for Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011 [PDF - 508 KB - 6 pages]
C. Wheeler et al.

In California, coccidioidomycosis is a disease acquired by inhaling spores of Coccidioides immitis, a fungus found in certain arid regions, including the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, where 8 state prisons are located. During 2011, we reviewed coccidioidomycosis rates at 2 of the prisons that consistently report >80% of California’s inmate cases and determined inmate risk factors for primary, severe (defined as pulmonary coccidioidomycosis requiring >10 hospital days), and disseminated coccidioidomycosis (defined by hospital discharge International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision code). Inmates of African American ethnicity who were >40 years of age were at significantly higher risk for primary coccidioidomycosis than their white counterparts (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% CI 1.5–2.8). Diabetes was a risk factor for severe pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, and black race a risk factor for disseminated disease. These findings contributed to a court decision mandating exclusion of black inmates and inmates with diabetes from the 2 California prisons with the highest rates of coccidioidomycosis.

EID Wheeler C, Lucas KD, Mohle-Boetani JC. Rates and Risk Factors for Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):70-75. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140836
AMA Wheeler C, Lucas KD, Mohle-Boetani JC. Rates and Risk Factors for Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):70-75. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140836.
APA Wheeler, C., Lucas, K. D., & Mohle-Boetani, J. C. (2015). Rates and Risk Factors for Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 70-75. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140836.

Medscape CME Activity
Clinical Course and Long-Term Outcome of Hantavirus-Associated Nephropathia Epidemica, Germany [PDF - 763 KB - 8 pages]
J. Latus et al.

Human infection with Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Central Europe, causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a disease characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. To determine the clinical phenotype of hantavirus-infected patients and their long-term outcome and humoral immunity to PUUV, we conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 patients in Germany with clinically and serologically confirmed hantavirus-associated NE during 2001–2012. Prominent clinical findings during acute NE were fever and back/limb pain, and 88% of the patients had acute kidney injury. At follow-up (7–35 mo), all patients had detectable hantavirus-specific IgG; 8.5% had persistent IgM; 25% had hematuria; 23% had hypertension (new diagnosis for 67%); and 7% had proteinuria. NE-associated hypertension and proteinuria do not appear to have long-term consequences, but NE-associated hematuria may. All patients in this study had hantavirus-specific IgG up to years after the infection.

EID Latus J, Schwab M, Tacconelli E, Pieper F, Wegener D, Dippon J, et al. Clinical Course and Long-Term Outcome of Hantavirus-Associated Nephropathia Epidemica, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):76-83. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140861
AMA Latus J, Schwab M, Tacconelli E, et al. Clinical Course and Long-Term Outcome of Hantavirus-Associated Nephropathia Epidemica, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):76-83. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140861.
APA Latus, J., Schwab, M., Tacconelli, E., Pieper, F., Wegener, D., Dippon, J....Braun, N. (2015). Clinical Course and Long-Term Outcome of Hantavirus-Associated Nephropathia Epidemica, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 76-83. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140861.
Dispatches

Detection of Zika Virus in Urine [PDF - 351 KB - 3 pages]
A. Gourinat et al.

We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

EID Gourinat A, O’Connor O, Calvez E, Goarant C, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M. Detection of Zika Virus in Urine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):84-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140894
AMA Gourinat A, O’Connor O, Calvez E, et al. Detection of Zika Virus in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):84-86. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140894.
APA Gourinat, A., O’Connor, O., Calvez, E., Goarant, C., & Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M. (2015). Detection of Zika Virus in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 84-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140894.

Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Identifying Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Clinical Samples [PDF - 539 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Chen et al.

To determine sensitivity of rapid diagnostic tests for detecting influenza A(H7N9) virus, we compared rapid tests with PCR results and tested different types of clinical samples. Usefulness of seasonal influenza rapid tests for A(H7N9) virus infections is limited because of their low sensitivity for detecting virus in upper respiratory tract specimens.

EID Chen Y, Wang D, Zheng S, Li J, Chen W, Cui D, et al. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Identifying Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Clinical Samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):87-90. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140247
AMA Chen Y, Wang D, Zheng S, et al. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Identifying Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Clinical Samples. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):87-90. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140247.
APA Chen, Y., Wang, D., Zheng, S., Li, J., Chen, W., Cui, D....Shang, H. (2015). Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Identifying Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Clinical Samples. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 87-90. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140247.

Acute Blastocystis-Associated Appendicular Peritonitis in a Child, Casablanca, Morocco [PDF - 417 KB - 4 pages]
E. Fréalle et al.

Despite increasing reports that Blastocystis infection is associated with digestive symptoms, its pathogenicity remains controversial. We report appendicular peritonitis in a 9-year-old girl returning to France from Morocco. Only Blastocystis parasites were detected in stools, appendix, peritoneal liquid, and recto-uterine pouch. Simultaneous gastroenteritis in 26 members of the child’s family suggested an outbreak.

EID Fréalle E, El Safadi D, Cian A, Aubry E, Certad G, Osman M, et al. Acute Blastocystis-Associated Appendicular Peritonitis in a Child, Casablanca, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):91-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140544
AMA Fréalle E, El Safadi D, Cian A, et al. Acute Blastocystis-Associated Appendicular Peritonitis in a Child, Casablanca, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):91-94. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140544.
APA Fréalle, E., El Safadi, D., Cian, A., Aubry, E., Certad, G., Osman, M....Viscogliosi, E. (2015). Acute Blastocystis-Associated Appendicular Peritonitis in a Child, Casablanca, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 91-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140544.

Characterization of a Multidrug-Resistant, Novel Bacteroides Genomospecies [PDF - 540 KB - 4 pages]
S. J. Salipante et al.

Metronidazole- and carbapenem-resistant Bacteroides fragilis are rare in the United States. We isolated a multidrug-resistant anaerobe from the bloodstream and intraabdominal abscesses of a patient who had traveled to India. Whole-genome sequencing identified the organism as a novel Bacteroides genomospecies. Physicians should be aware of the possibility for concomitant carbapenem- and metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides infections.

EID Salipante SJ, Kalapila A, Pottinger PS, Hoogestraat DR, Cummings L, Duchin JS, et al. Characterization of a Multidrug-Resistant, Novel Bacteroides Genomospecies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):95-98. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140662
AMA Salipante SJ, Kalapila A, Pottinger PS, et al. Characterization of a Multidrug-Resistant, Novel Bacteroides Genomospecies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):95-98. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140662.
APA Salipante, S. J., Kalapila, A., Pottinger, P. S., Hoogestraat, D. R., Cummings, L., Duchin, J. S....Butler-Wu, S. M. (2015). Characterization of a Multidrug-Resistant, Novel Bacteroides Genomospecies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 95-98. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140662.

Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela [PDF - 490 KB - 4 pages]
A. J. Auguste et al.

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

EID Auguste AJ, Lemey P, Bergren NA, Giambalvo D, Moncada M, Morón D, et al. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):99-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140814
AMA Auguste AJ, Lemey P, Bergren NA, et al. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):99-102. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140814.
APA Auguste, A. J., Lemey, P., Bergren, N. A., Giambalvo, D., Moncada, M., Morón, D....Vasilakis, N. (2015). Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 99-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140814.

WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome [PDF - 410 KB - 4 pages]
E. A. Siebrasse et al.

We detected WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from lungs transplanted into a recipient with Job syndrome by using immunoassays specific for the WUPyV viral protein 1. Co-staining for an epithelial cell marker identified most WUPyV viral protein 1–positive cells as respiratory epithelial cells.

EID Siebrasse EA, Pastrana DV, Nguyen NL, Wang A, Roth MJ, Holland SM, et al. WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):103-106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140855
AMA Siebrasse EA, Pastrana DV, Nguyen NL, et al. WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):103-106. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140855.
APA Siebrasse, E. A., Pastrana, D. V., Nguyen, N. L., Wang, A., Roth, M. J., Holland, S. M....Wang, D. (2015). WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 103-106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140855.

Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011 [PDF - 559 KB - 4 pages]
H. Wilking et al.

To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008–2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed.

EID Wilking H, Fingerle V, Klier C, Thamm M, Stark K. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):107-110. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140009
AMA Wilking H, Fingerle V, Klier C, et al. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):107-110. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140009.
APA Wilking, H., Fingerle, V., Klier, C., Thamm, M., & Stark, K. (2015). Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 107-110. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140009.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda [PDF - 607 KB - 4 pages]
M. Dhikusooka et al.

After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

EID Dhikusooka M, Tjørnehøj K, Ayebazibwe C, Namatovu A, Ruhweza S, Siegismund H, et al. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):111-114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140995
AMA Dhikusooka M, Tjørnehøj K, Ayebazibwe C, et al. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):111-114. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140995.
APA Dhikusooka, M., Tjørnehøj, K., Ayebazibwe, C., Namatovu, A., Ruhweza, S., Siegismund, H....Belsham, G. J. (2015). Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 111-114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140995.

Continuing Effectiveness of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Chad, 2013 [PDF - 499 KB - 4 pages]
K. Gamougam et al.

In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted.

EID Gamougam K, Daugla DM, Toralta J, Ngadoua C, Fermon F, Page A, et al. Continuing Effectiveness of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Chad, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):115-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140256
AMA Gamougam K, Daugla DM, Toralta J, et al. Continuing Effectiveness of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Chad, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):115-118. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140256.
APA Gamougam, K., Daugla, D. M., Toralta, J., Ngadoua, C., Fermon, F., Page, A....Greenwood, B. M. (2015). Continuing Effectiveness of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Chad, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 115-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140256.

Increased Outbreaks Associated with Nonpasteurized Milk, United States, 2007–2012 [PDF - 528 KB - 4 pages]
E. A. Mungai et al.

The number of US outbreaks caused by nonpasteurized milk increased from 30 during 2007–2009 to 51 during 2010–2012. Most outbreaks were caused by Campylobacter spp. (77%) and by nonpasteurized milk purchased from states in which nonpasteurized milk sale was legal (81%). Regulations to prevent distribution of nonpasteurized milk should be enforced.

EID Mungai EA, Behravesh C, Gould L. Increased Outbreaks Associated with Nonpasteurized Milk, United States, 2007–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):119-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140447
AMA Mungai EA, Behravesh C, Gould L. Increased Outbreaks Associated with Nonpasteurized Milk, United States, 2007–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):119-122. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140447.
APA Mungai, E. A., Behravesh, C., & Gould, L. (2015). Increased Outbreaks Associated with Nonpasteurized Milk, United States, 2007–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 119-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140447.

Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India [PDF - 429 KB - 4 pages]
V. K. Saxena et al.

We have identified circulation of 3 genogroups of enterovirus (EV) A71 in India. A new genogroup (proposed designation G) was discovered during this study. We isolated genogroups D and G in wide geographic areas but detected subgenogroup C1 only in 1 focus in western India. A systematic nationwide search for EV-A71 is warranted.

EID Saxena VK, Sane S, Nadkarni SS, Sharma DK, Deshpande JM. Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):123-126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140743
AMA Saxena VK, Sane S, Nadkarni SS, et al. Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):123-126. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140743.
APA Saxena, V. K., Sane, S., Nadkarni, S. S., Sharma, D. K., & Deshpande, J. M. (2015). Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 123-126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140743.

Use of Treponema pallidum PCR in Testing of Ulcers for Diagnosis of Primary Syphilis [PDF - 360 KB - 3 pages]
A. Gayet-Ageron et al.

Treponema pallidum PCR (Tp-PCR) has been noted as a valid method for diagnosing syphilis. We compared Tp-PCR to a combination of darkfield microscopy (DFM), the reference method, and serologic testing in a cohort of 273 patients from France and Switzerland and found the diagnostic accuracy of Tp-PCR was higher than that for DFM.

EID Gayet-Ageron A, Sednaoui P, Lautenschlager S, Ferry T, Toutous-Trellu L, Cavassini M, et al. Use of Treponema pallidum PCR in Testing of Ulcers for Diagnosis of Primary Syphilis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):127-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140790
AMA Gayet-Ageron A, Sednaoui P, Lautenschlager S, et al. Use of Treponema pallidum PCR in Testing of Ulcers for Diagnosis of Primary Syphilis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):127-129. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140790.
APA Gayet-Ageron, A., Sednaoui, P., Lautenschlager, S., Ferry, T., Toutous-Trellu, L., Cavassini, M....Perneger, T. (2015). Use of Treponema pallidum PCR in Testing of Ulcers for Diagnosis of Primary Syphilis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 127-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140790.

Fatal Legionellosis after Water Birth, Texas, USA, 2014 [PDF - 438 KB - 3 pages]
E. Fritschel et al.

In 2014, a fatal infection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 occurred in a neonate after a water birth. The death highlighted the need for infection control education, client awareness, and standardization of cleaning procedures in Texas midwife facilities.

EID Fritschel E, Sanyal K, Threadgill H, Cervantes DT. Fatal Legionellosis after Water Birth, Texas, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):130-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140846
AMA Fritschel E, Sanyal K, Threadgill H, et al. Fatal Legionellosis after Water Birth, Texas, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):130-132. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140846.
APA Fritschel, E., Sanyal, K., Threadgill, H., & Cervantes, D. T. (2015). Fatal Legionellosis after Water Birth, Texas, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 130-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140846.

Tularemia among Free-Ranging Mice without Infection of Exposed Humans, Switzerland, 2012 [PDF - 368 KB - 3 pages]
F. C. Origgi et al.

The animals primarily infected by Francisella tularensis are rapidly consumed by scavengers, hindering ecologic investigation of the bacterium. We describe a 2012 natural tularemia epizootic among house mice in Switzerland and the assessment of infection of exposed humans. The humans were not infected, but the epizootic coincided with increased reports of human cases in the area.

EID Origgi FC, König B, Lindholm AK, Mayor D, Pilo P. Tularemia among Free-Ranging Mice without Infection of Exposed Humans, Switzerland, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):133-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140906
AMA Origgi FC, König B, Lindholm AK, et al. Tularemia among Free-Ranging Mice without Infection of Exposed Humans, Switzerland, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):133-135. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140906.
APA Origgi, F. C., König, B., Lindholm, A. K., Mayor, D., & Pilo, P. (2015). Tularemia among Free-Ranging Mice without Infection of Exposed Humans, Switzerland, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 133-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140906.

Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14 [PDF - 569 KB - 6 pages]
M. Okomo-Adhiambo et al.

We report characteristics of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and patients infected with these viruses in the United States. During 2013–14, fifty-nine (1.2%) of 4,968 analyzed US influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses had the H275Y oseltamivir resistance–conferring neuraminidase substitution. Our results emphasize the need for local surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility among circulating influenza viruses.

EID Okomo-Adhiambo M, Fry A, Su S, Nguyen HT, Elal A, Negron E, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):136-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141006
AMA Okomo-Adhiambo M, Fry A, Su S, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):136-141. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141006.
APA Okomo-Adhiambo, M., Fry, A., Su, S., Nguyen, H. T., Elal, A., Negron, E....Gubareva, L. (2015). Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 136-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141006.

Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014 [PDF - 565 KB - 4 pages]
T. William et al.

Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally.

EID William T, Thevarajah B, Lee S, Suleiman M, Jeffree M, Menon J, et al. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):142-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141092
AMA William T, Thevarajah B, Lee S, et al. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):142-145. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141092.
APA William, T., Thevarajah, B., Lee, S., Suleiman, M., Jeffree, M., Menon, J....Yeo, T. (2015). Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 142-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141092.

Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014
S. Kiran et al.

We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013–April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed.

EID Kiran S, Pasi A, Kumar S, Kasabi GS, Gujjarappa P, Shrivastava A, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):146-149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141227
AMA Kiran S, Pasi A, Kumar S, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):146-149. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141227.
APA Kiran, S., Pasi, A., Kumar, S., Kasabi, G. S., Gujjarappa, P., Shrivastava, A....Murhekar, M. V. (2015). Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 146-149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141227.

Hospital-Associated Transmission of Brucella melitensis outside the Laboratory [PDF - 449 KB - 3 pages]
C. Lowe et al.

Brucella melitensis was identified in an aspirate obtained from a patient’s hip joint during a procedure at a hospital in Canada. We conducted an investigation into possible exposures among hospital workers; 1 worker who assisted with the procedure tested positive for B. melitensis. Aerosol-generating procedures performed outside the laboratory may facilitate transmission of this bacterium.

EID Lowe C, Showler AJ, Perera S, McIntyre S, Qureshi R, Patel SN, et al. Hospital-Associated Transmission of Brucella melitensis outside the Laboratory. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):150-152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141247
AMA Lowe C, Showler AJ, Perera S, et al. Hospital-Associated Transmission of Brucella melitensis outside the Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):150-152. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141247.
APA Lowe, C., Showler, A. J., Perera, S., McIntyre, S., Qureshi, R., Patel, S. N....Muller, M. P. (2015). Hospital-Associated Transmission of Brucella melitensis outside the Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 150-152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141247.

Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany [PDF - 378 KB - 3 pages]
P. Otto et al.

In November 2012, a group of 7 persons who participated in a hare hunt in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, acquired tularemia. Two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were cultivated from human and hare biopsy material. Both isolates belonged to the FTN002–00 genetic subclade (derived for single nucleotide polymorphisms B.10 and B.18), thus indicating likely hare-to-human transmission.

EID Otto P, Kohlmann R, Müller W, Julich S, Geis G, Gatermann SG, et al. Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):153-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131837
AMA Otto P, Kohlmann R, Müller W, et al. Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):153-155. doi:10.3201/eid2101.131837.
APA Otto, P., Kohlmann, R., Müller, W., Julich, S., Geis, G., Gatermann, S. G....Tomaso, H. (2015). Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 153-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.131837.

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs [PDF - 390 KB - 3 pages]
K. Gruszynski et al.

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure.

EID Gruszynski K, Young A, Levine SJ, Garvin JP, Brown S, Turner L, et al. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):156-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140640
AMA Gruszynski K, Young A, Levine SJ, et al. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):156-158. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140640.
APA Gruszynski, K., Young, A., Levine, S. J., Garvin, J. P., Brown, S., Turner, L....Beall, B. (2015). Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 156-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140640.

Association of Melioidosis Incidence with Rainfall and Humidity, Singapore, 2003–2012 [PDF - 1.11 MB - 4 pages]
X. Liu et al.

Soil has been considered the natural reservoir for the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which causes melioidosis. We examined 550 melioidosis cases that occurred during a 10-year period in the highly urbanized city of Singapore, where soil exposure is rare, and found that rainfall and humidity levels were associated with disease incidence.

EID Liu X, Pang L, Sim S, Goh K, Ravikumar S, Win M, et al. Association of Melioidosis Incidence with Rainfall and Humidity, Singapore, 2003–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):159-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140042
AMA Liu X, Pang L, Sim S, et al. Association of Melioidosis Incidence with Rainfall and Humidity, Singapore, 2003–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):159-162. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140042.
APA Liu, X., Pang, L., Sim, S., Goh, K., Ravikumar, S., Win, M....Chai, L. (2015). Association of Melioidosis Incidence with Rainfall and Humidity, Singapore, 2003–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 159-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140042.
Letters

Noninvasive Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis Tapeworm in Urban Area, Estonia [PDF - 342 KB - 2 pages]
L. Laurimaa et al.
EID Laurimaa L, Davison J, Plumer L, Süld K, Oja R, Moks E, et al. Noninvasive Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis Tapeworm in Urban Area, Estonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):163-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140136
AMA Laurimaa L, Davison J, Plumer L, et al. Noninvasive Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis Tapeworm in Urban Area, Estonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):163-164. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140136.
APA Laurimaa, L., Davison, J., Plumer, L., Süld, K., Oja, R., Moks, E....Saarma, U. (2015). Noninvasive Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis Tapeworm in Urban Area, Estonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 163-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140136.

Severe Delayed Hemolysis Associated with Regulated Parenteral Antimalarial Drug [PDF - 286 KB - 3 pages]
J. Lee et al.
EID Lee J, Krajden S, Graham C, Boggild AK, Pavenski K, Keystone JS, et al. Severe Delayed Hemolysis Associated with Regulated Parenteral Antimalarial Drug. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):164-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140147
AMA Lee J, Krajden S, Graham C, et al. Severe Delayed Hemolysis Associated with Regulated Parenteral Antimalarial Drug. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):164-166. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140147.
APA Lee, J., Krajden, S., Graham, C., Boggild, A. K., Pavenski, K., Keystone, J. S....Kain, K. C. (2015). Severe Delayed Hemolysis Associated with Regulated Parenteral Antimalarial Drug. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 164-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140147.

Burkholderia pseudomallei Sequence Type 562 in China and Australia [PDF - 375 KB - 3 pages]
H. Chen et al.
EID Chen H, Xia L, Zhu X, Li W, Du X, Wu D, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Sequence Type 562 in China and Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140156
AMA Chen H, Xia L, Zhu X, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Sequence Type 562 in China and Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):166-168. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140156.
APA Chen, H., Xia, L., Zhu, X., Li, W., Du, X., Wu, D....Zheng, X. (2015). Burkholderia pseudomallei Sequence Type 562 in China and Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140156.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Escherichia coli O8:H19 and Shiga Toxin 2f Gene [PDF - 279 KB - 2 pages]
I. Friesema et al.
EID Friesema I, Keijzer-Veen MG, Koppejan M, Schipper HS, van Griethuysen AJ, Heck M, et al. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Escherichia coli O8:H19 and Shiga Toxin 2f Gene. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):168-169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140515
AMA Friesema I, Keijzer-Veen MG, Koppejan M, et al. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Escherichia coli O8:H19 and Shiga Toxin 2f Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):168-169. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140515.
APA Friesema, I., Keijzer-Veen, M. G., Koppejan, M., Schipper, H. S., van Griethuysen, A. J., Heck, M....van Pelt, W. (2015). Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Escherichia coli O8:H19 and Shiga Toxin 2f Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 168-169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140515.

Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti [PDF - 280 KB - 2 pages]
S. Rebaudet and R. Piarroux
EID Rebaudet S, Piarroux R. Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):169-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140627
AMA Rebaudet S, Piarroux R. Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):169-170. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140627.
APA Rebaudet, S., & Piarroux, R. (2015). Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 169-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140627.

Reservoir Host Expansion of Hantavirus, China [PDF - 298 KB - 2 pages]
L. Fang et al.
EID Fang L, Zhao L, Wen H, Zhang Z, Liu J, He S, et al. Reservoir Host Expansion of Hantavirus, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):170-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140960
AMA Fang L, Zhao L, Wen H, et al. Reservoir Host Expansion of Hantavirus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):170-171. doi:10.3201/eid2101.140960.
APA Fang, L., Zhao, L., Wen, H., Zhang, Z., Liu, J., He, S....Yu, X. (2015). Reservoir Host Expansion of Hantavirus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 170-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.140960.

Endophthalmitis Outbreak Associated with Repackaged Bevacizumab [PDF - 346 KB - 3 pages]
L. S. Edison et al.
EID Edison LS, Dishman HO, Tobin-D’Angelo M, Allen C, Guh AY, Drenzek CL. Endophthalmitis Outbreak Associated with Repackaged Bevacizumab. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):171-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141040
AMA Edison LS, Dishman HO, Tobin-D’Angelo M, et al. Endophthalmitis Outbreak Associated with Repackaged Bevacizumab. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):171-173. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141040.
APA Edison, L. S., Dishman, H. O., Tobin-D’Angelo, M., Allen, C., Guh, A. Y., & Drenzek, C. L. (2015). Endophthalmitis Outbreak Associated with Repackaged Bevacizumab. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 171-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141040.

Diverse Francisella tularensis Strains and Oropharyngeal Tularemia, Turkey [PDF - 337 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Özsürekci et al.
EID Özsürekci Y, Birdsell DN, Çelik M, Karadağ-Öncel E, Johansson A, Forsman M, et al. Diverse Francisella tularensis Strains and Oropharyngeal Tularemia, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):173-175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141087
AMA Özsürekci Y, Birdsell DN, Çelik M, et al. Diverse Francisella tularensis Strains and Oropharyngeal Tularemia, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):173-175. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141087.
APA Özsürekci, Y., Birdsell, D. N., Çelik, M., Karadağ-Öncel, E., Johansson, A., Forsman, M....Wagner, D. M. (2015). Diverse Francisella tularensis Strains and Oropharyngeal Tularemia, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 173-175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141087.

Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa to Germany [PDF - 358 KB - 3 pages]
I. Eckerle et al.
EID Eckerle I, Kapaun A, Junghanss T, Schnitzler P, Park S, Jänisch T. Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa to Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):175-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141145
AMA Eckerle I, Kapaun A, Junghanss T, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa to Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):175-177. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141145.
APA Eckerle, I., Kapaun, A., Junghanss, T., Schnitzler, P., Park, S., & Jänisch, T. (2015). Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa to Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 175-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141145.

Community-Acquired Invasive GAS Disease among Native Americans, Arizona, USA, Winter 2013 [PDF - 292 KB - 3 pages]
A. M. Harris et al.
EID Harris AM, Yazzie D, Antone-Nez R, Dinè-Chacon G, Kinlacheeny J, Foley D, et al. Community-Acquired Invasive GAS Disease among Native Americans, Arizona, USA, Winter 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):177-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141148
AMA Harris AM, Yazzie D, Antone-Nez R, et al. Community-Acquired Invasive GAS Disease among Native Americans, Arizona, USA, Winter 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):177-179. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141148.
APA Harris, A. M., Yazzie, D., Antone-Nez, R., Dinè-Chacon, G., Kinlacheeny, J., Foley, D....Langley, G. (2015). Community-Acquired Invasive GAS Disease among Native Americans, Arizona, USA, Winter 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 177-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141148.

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak in Gaming Centers, Singapore, 2012 [PDF - 247 KB - 2 pages]
C. Chee et al.
EID Chee C, Gan S, Ong RT, Sng L, Wong CW, Cutter J, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak in Gaming Centers, Singapore, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):179-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141159
AMA Chee C, Gan S, Ong RT, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak in Gaming Centers, Singapore, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):179-180. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141159.
APA Chee, C., Gan, S., Ong, R. T., Sng, L., Wong, C. W., Cutter, J....Wang, Y. (2015). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak in Gaming Centers, Singapore, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 179-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141159.

Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids [PDF - 303 KB - 2 pages]
B. Meyer et al.
EID Meyer B, García-Bocanegra I, Wernery U, Wernery R, Sieberg A, Müller MA, et al. Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):181-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141342
AMA Meyer B, García-Bocanegra I, Wernery U, et al. Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):181-182. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141342.
APA Meyer, B., García-Bocanegra, I., Wernery, U., Wernery, R., Sieberg, A., Müller, M. A....Eckerle, I. (2015). Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 181-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141342.

Autochthonous Dengue Fever Imported to England from Japan, 2014 [PDF - 276 KB - 3 pages]
G. Kojima
EID Kojima G. Autochthonous Dengue Fever Imported to England from Japan, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):182-184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141581
AMA Kojima G. Autochthonous Dengue Fever Imported to England from Japan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):182-184. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141581.
APA Kojima, G. (2015). Autochthonous Dengue Fever Imported to England from Japan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 182-184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141581.

Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 from St. Louis, Missouri, USA [PDF - 475 KB - 3 pages]
K. M. Wylie et al.
EID Wylie KM, Wylie TN, Orvedahl A, Buller RS, Herter BN, Magrini V, et al. Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 from St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):184-186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141605
AMA Wylie KM, Wylie TN, Orvedahl A, et al. Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 from St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):184-186. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141605.
APA Wylie, K. M., Wylie, T. N., Orvedahl, A., Buller, R. S., Herter, B. N., Magrini, V....Storch, G. A. (2015). Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 from St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 184-186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141605.

Prisoners Treated for Hepatitis C with Protease Inhibitor, New York, USA, 2012 [PDF - 411 KB - 3 pages]
H. Moorjani et al.
EID Moorjani H, Koenigsmann C, Kim M, Spaulding AC. Prisoners Treated for Hepatitis C with Protease Inhibitor, New York, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):186-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141025
AMA Moorjani H, Koenigsmann C, Kim M, et al. Prisoners Treated for Hepatitis C with Protease Inhibitor, New York, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):186-188. doi:10.3201/eid2101.141025.
APA Moorjani, H., Koenigsmann, C., Kim, M., & Spaulding, A. C. (2015). Prisoners Treated for Hepatitis C with Protease Inhibitor, New York, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 186-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.141025.
About the Cover

Delicacy and Durability: The Microbiological Sublime [PDF - 410 KB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Delicacy and Durability: The Microbiological Sublime. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):190-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.ac2101
AMA Breedlove B. Delicacy and Durability: The Microbiological Sublime. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):190-191. doi:10.3201/eid2101.ac2101.
APA Breedlove, B. (2015). Delicacy and Durability: The Microbiological Sublime. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 190-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.ac2101.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Glanders [PDF - 252 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Glanders. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.et2101
AMA Etymologia: Glanders. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):47. doi:10.3201/eid2101.et2101.
APA (2015). Etymologia: Glanders. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 47. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.et2101.
Online Reports

Workshop on Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Southeast Asia
S. Chea et al.

The South East Asia Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network convened subject matter experts at a workshop to make consensus recommendations for study design of a clinical trial for use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD is a highly contagious emerging infection among children in the region, a small proportion of whom develop neurologic and cardiopulmonary complications with high case-fatality rates. The use of IVIg for treatment of severe disease is widespread and a part of local, national, and international guidelines, but no clinical evidence warrants the use of this drug, which is expensive and has potentially serious side effects. During a 2-day workshop in March 2014, a group of HFMD experts reviewed the current evidence related to use of IVIg in HFMD and discussed potential study design, feasibility, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, primary and secondary endpoints, and subsidiary studies for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Corrections

Correction: Vol. 20, No. 3 [PDF - 287 KB - 1 page]
Page created: May 05, 2015
Page updated: May 05, 2015
Page reviewed: May 05, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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