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Issue Cover for Volume 22, Number 2—February 2016

Volume 22, Number 2—February 2016

[PDF - 9.00 MB - 204 pages]

Perspective

Ebola and Its Control in Liberia, 2014–2015 [PDF - 525 KB - 9 pages]
T. G. Nyenswah et al.

The severe epidemic of Ebola virus disease in Liberia started in March 2014. On May 9, 2015, the World Health Organization declared Liberia free of Ebola, 42 days after safe burial of the last known case-patient. However, another 6 cases occurred during June–July; on September 3, 2015, the country was again declared free of Ebola. Liberia had by then reported 10,672 cases of Ebola and 4,808 deaths, 37.0% and 42.6%, respectively, of the 28,103 cases and 11,290 deaths reported from the 3 countries that were heavily affected at that time. Essential components of the response included government leadership and sense of urgency, coordinated international assistance, sound technical work, flexibility guided by epidemiologic data, transparency and effective communication, and efforts by communities themselves. Priorities after the epidemic include surveillance in case of resurgence, restoration of health services, infection control in healthcare settings, and strengthening of basic public health systems.

EID Nyenswah TG, Kateh F, Bawo L, Massaquoi M, Gbanyan M, Fallah M, et al. Ebola and Its Control in Liberia, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):169-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151456
AMA Nyenswah TG, Kateh F, Bawo L, et al. Ebola and Its Control in Liberia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):169-177. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151456.
APA Nyenswah, T. G., Kateh, F., Bawo, L., Massaquoi, M., Gbanyan, M., Fallah, M....De Cock, K. M. (2016). Ebola and Its Control in Liberia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 169-177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151456.
Synopses

Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015 [PDF - 524 KB - 6 pages]
A. Rico et al.

In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea.

EID Rico A, Brody D, Coronado F, Rondy M, Fiebig L, Carcelen A, et al. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):178-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151304
AMA Rico A, Brody D, Coronado F, et al. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):178-183. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151304.
APA Rico, A., Brody, D., Coronado, F., Rondy, M., Fiebig, L., Carcelen, A....Dahl, B. A. (2016). Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 178-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151304.

Hospital Preparations for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Patients and Experience Gained from Admission of an Ebola Patient [PDF - 1.01 MB - 8 pages]
J. Haverkort et al.

The Major Incident Hospital of the University Medical Centre of Utrecht has a longstanding history of preparing for the management of highly pathogenic and infectious organisms. An assessment of the hospital’s preparations for an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever and its experience during admission of a patient with Ebola virus disease showed that the use of the buddy system, frequent training, and information sessions for staff and their relatives greatly increased the sense of safety and motivation among staff. Differing procedures among ambulance services limited the number of services used for transporting patients. Waste management was the greatest concern, and destruction of waste had to be outsourced. The admission of an Ebola patient proceeded without incident but led to considerable demands on staff. The maximum time allowed for wearing personal protective equipment was 45 minutes to ensure safety, and an additional 20 minutes was needed for recovery.

EID Haverkort J, Minderhoud A, Wind J, Leenen L, Hoepelman A, Ellerbroek PM. Hospital Preparations for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Patients and Experience Gained from Admission of an Ebola Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):184-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151393
AMA Haverkort J, Minderhoud A, Wind J, et al. Hospital Preparations for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Patients and Experience Gained from Admission of an Ebola Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):184-191. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151393.
APA Haverkort, J., Minderhoud, A., Wind, J., Leenen, L., Hoepelman, A., & Ellerbroek, P. M. (2016). Hospital Preparations for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Patients and Experience Gained from Admission of an Ebola Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 184-191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151393.
Research

Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India [PDF - 772 KB - 9 pages]
L. Arya et al.

Trematodes are recognized as a group of emerging parasites in tropical countries. We identified a trematode as a cause of ocular granulomas that developed in children who bathed in ponds or rivers in South India. DNA was isolated from patients’ surgically excised granulomas and from the trematode cercariae (larvae) released by the snail Melanoides tuberculata in water in which the children bathed. Real-time and conventional PCRs were performed that targeted ribosomal DNA regions spanning the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S sequences of this trematode. The PCR-amplified products were subjected to bidirectional sequencing. Analysis of sequences for the granuloma samples and the trematode cercariae showed maximum sequence similarity with Procerovum varium (family Heterophyidae). Our results confirmed the etiology of the ocular infection, implicating snail vectors as environmental risk factors for ocular parasitosis.

EID Arya L, Rathinam SR, Lalitha P, Kim UR, Ghatani S, Tandon V. Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):192-200. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150051
AMA Arya L, Rathinam SR, Lalitha P, et al. Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):192-200. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150051.
APA Arya, L., Rathinam, S. R., Lalitha, P., Kim, U. R., Ghatani, S., & Tandon, V. (2016). Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 192-200. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150051.

Association between Landscape Factors and Spatial Patterns of Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Sabah, Malaysia [PDF - 551 KB - 9 pages]
K. M. Fornace et al.

The zoonotic malaria species Plasmodium knowlesi has become the main cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Deforestation and associated environmental and population changes have been hypothesized as main drivers of this apparent emergence. We gathered village-level data for P. knowlesi incidence for the districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu in Sabah state, Malaysia, for 2008–2012. We adjusted malaria records from routine reporting systems to reflect the diagnostic uncertainty of microscopy for P. knowlesi. We also developed negative binomial spatial autoregressive models to assess potential associations between P. knowlesi incidence and environmental variables derived from satellite-based remote-sensing data. Marked spatial heterogeneity in P. knowlesi incidence was observed, and village-level numbers of P. knowlesi cases were positively associated with forest cover and historical forest loss in surrounding areas. These results suggest the likelihood that deforestation and associated environmental changes are key drivers in P. knowlesi transmission in these areas.

EID Fornace KM, Abidin T, Alexander N, Brock P, Grigg MJ, Murphy A, et al. Association between Landscape Factors and Spatial Patterns of Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Sabah, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):201-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150656
AMA Fornace KM, Abidin T, Alexander N, et al. Association between Landscape Factors and Spatial Patterns of Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Sabah, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):201-209. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150656.
APA Fornace, K. M., Abidin, T., Alexander, N., Brock, P., Grigg, M. J., Murphy, A....Cox, J. (2016). Association between Landscape Factors and Spatial Patterns of Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Sabah, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 201-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150656.

Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program, Guinea [PDF - 564 KB - 7 pages]
R. Van den Bergh et al.

Rapid diagnostic methods are essential in control of Ebola outbreaks and lead to timely isolation of cases and improved epidemiologic surveillance. Diagnosis during Ebola outbreaks in West Africa has relied on PCR performed in laboratories outside this region. Because time between sampling and PCR results can be considerable, we assessed the feasibility and added value of using the Xpert Ebola Assay in an Ebola control program in Guinea. A total of 218 samples were collected during diagnosis, treatment, and convalescence of patients. Median time for obtaining results was reduced from 334 min to 165 min. Twenty-six samples were positive for Ebola virus. Xpert cycle thresholds were consistently lower, and 8 (31%) samples were negative by routine PCR. Several logistic and safety issues were identified. We suggest that implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay under programmatic conditions is feasible and represents a major advance in diagnosis of Ebola virus disease without apparent loss of assay sensitivity.

EID Van den Bergh R, Chaillet P, Sow M, Amand M, van Vyve C, Jonckheere S, et al. Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program, Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):210-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151238
AMA Van den Bergh R, Chaillet P, Sow M, et al. Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):210-216. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151238.
APA Van den Bergh, R., Chaillet, P., Sow, M., Amand, M., van Vyve, C., Jonckheere, S....Antierens, A. (2016). Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 210-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151238.

Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival [PDF - 578 KB - 7 pages]
S. J. Crowe et al.

To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus–positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus–positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations.

EID Crowe SJ, Maenner MJ, Kuah S, Erickson B, Coffee M, Knust B, et al. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):217-223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151250
AMA Crowe SJ, Maenner MJ, Kuah S, et al. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):217-223. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151250.
APA Crowe, S. J., Maenner, M. J., Kuah, S., Erickson, B., Coffee, M., Knust, B....Towner, J. S. (2016). Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 217-223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151250.

Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya [PDF - 812 KB - 9 pages]
A. C. Seale et al.

To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998–2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type–specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence.

EID Seale AC, Davies MR, Anampiu K, Morpeth SC, Nyongesa S, Mwarumba S, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):224-232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151358
AMA Seale AC, Davies MR, Anampiu K, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):224-232. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151358.
APA Seale, A. C., Davies, M. R., Anampiu, K., Morpeth, S. C., Nyongesa, S., Mwarumba, S....Berkley, J. A. (2016). Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 224-232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151358.

Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera [PDF - 602 KB - 9 pages]
C. George et al.

The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013–2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds of hand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients.

EID George C, Monira S, Sack DA, Rashid M, Saif-Ur-Rahman K, Mahmud T, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):233-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151175
AMA George C, Monira S, Sack DA, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):233-241. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151175.
APA George, C., Monira, S., Sack, D. A., Rashid, M., Saif-Ur-Rahman, K., Mahmud, T....Alam, M. (2016). Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 233-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151175.

Medscape CME Activity
Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA [PDF - 496 KB - 5 pages]
J. Matthias et al.

In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis.

EID Matthias J, Pritchard P, Martin SW, Dusek C, Cathey E, D’Alessio R, et al. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):242-246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150325
AMA Matthias J, Pritchard P, Martin SW, et al. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):242-246. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150325.
APA Matthias, J., Pritchard, P., Martin, S. W., Dusek, C., Cathey, E., D’Alessio, R....Kirsch, M. (2016). Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 242-246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150325.

Medscape CME Activity
Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan [PDF - 606 KB - 8 pages]
T. Wajima et al.

We collected β-hemolytic streptococci (1,611 isolates) from patients with invasive streptococcal infections in Japan during April 2010–March 2013. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was most common (n = 693); 99% of patients with SDSE infections were elderly (mean age 75 years, SD ±15 years). We aimed to clarify molecular and epidemiologic characteristics of SDSE isolates and features of patient infections. Bacteremia with no identified focus of origin and cellulitis were the most prevalent manifestations; otherwise, clinical manifestations resembled those of S. pyogenes infections. Clinical manifestations also differed by patient’s age. SDSE isolates were classified into 34 emm types; stG6792 was most prevalent (27.1%), followed by stG485 and stG245. Mortality rates did not differ according to emm types. Multilocus sequence typing identified 46 sequence types and 12 novel types. Types possessing macrolide- and quinolone-resistance genes were 18.4% and 2.6%, respectively; none showed β-lactam resistance. Among aging populations, invasive SDSE infections are an increasing risk.

EID Wajima T, Morozumi M, Hanada S, Sunaoshi K, Chiba N, Iwata S, et al. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):247-254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.141732
AMA Wajima T, Morozumi M, Hanada S, et al. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):247-254. doi:10.3201/eid2202.141732.
APA Wajima, T., Morozumi, M., Hanada, S., Sunaoshi, K., Chiba, N., Iwata, S....Ubukata, K. (2016). Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 247-254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.141732.

Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October–December 2009 [PDF - 411 KB - 6 pages]
R. A. Bitar

Lacking population-specific data, activity of seasonal and pandemic influenza is usually tracked by counting the number of diagnoses and visits to medical facilities above a baseline. This type of data does not address the delivery of services in a specific population. To provide population-specific data, this retrospective study of patients with influenza-like illness, influenza, and pneumonia among members of a Kaiser Permanente health plan in San Diego, California, USA, during October–December 2009 was initiated. Population data included the number of outpatients accessing healthcare; the number of patients diagnosed with pneumonia; antimicrobial therapy administered; number of patients hospitalized with influenza, influenza-like illness, or pneumonia; level of care provided; and number of patients requiring specialized treatments (e.g., oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors). The rate of admissions specific to weeks and predictions of 2 epidemiologic models shows the strengths and weaknesses of those tools. Data collected in this study may improve planning for influenza pandemics.

EID Bitar RA. Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October–December 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):255-260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150618
AMA Bitar RA. Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October–December 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):255-260. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150618.
APA Bitar, R. A. (2016). Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October–December 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 255-260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150618.

Epidemiology of Serotype 1 Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, South Africa, 2003–2013 [PDF - 665 KB - 10 pages]
C. von Mollendorf et al.

In South Africa, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced in April 2009 and replaced with 13-valent PCV in April 2011. We describe the epidemiology of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae disease during the pre- and post-PCV eras (2003–2013). Using laboratory-based invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance, we calculated annual incidences, identified IPD clusters, and determined serotype 1–associated factors. Of 46,483 IPD cases, 4,544 (10%) were caused by serotype 1. Two clusters of serotype 1 infection were detected during 2003–2004 and 2008–2012, but incidence decreased after 2011. Among children <5 years of age, those who had non–serotype 1 IPD had shorter hospital stays, fewer cases of penicillin-nonsusceptible disease, and lower HIV prevalence and in-hospital death rates than did those with serotype 1 IPD; similar factors were noted for older patients. Serotype 1 IPD had distinctive clinical features in South Africa, and annual incidences fluctuated, with decreases noted after the introduction of PCV13.

EID von Mollendorf C, Tempia S, Cohen C, Meiring S, de Gouveia L, Quan V, et al. Epidemiology of Serotype 1 Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, South Africa, 2003–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):261-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150967
AMA von Mollendorf C, Tempia S, Cohen C, et al. Epidemiology of Serotype 1 Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, South Africa, 2003–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):261-270. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150967.
APA von Mollendorf, C., Tempia, S., Cohen, C., Meiring, S., de Gouveia, L., Quan, V....von Gottberg, A. (2016). Epidemiology of Serotype 1 Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, South Africa, 2003–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 261-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150967.
Dispatches

Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil [PDF - 364 KB - 3 pages]
M. G. Peres et al.

During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV.

EID Peres MG, Barros CB, Appolinário CM, Antunes J, Mioni M, Bacchiega TS, et al. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):271-273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.140747
AMA Peres MG, Barros CB, Appolinário CM, et al. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):271-273. doi:10.3201/eid2202.140747.
APA Peres, M. G., Barros, C. B., Appolinário, C. M., Antunes, J., Mioni, M., Bacchiega, T. S....Megid, J. (2016). Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 271-273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.140747.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Zibo City, China, 2006–2014 [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wang et al.

Analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases in Zibo City, China, during 2006–2014 showed that it occurred year-round. Peaks in spring and fall/winter were caused by Hantaan and Seoul viruses, respectively. Rodent hosts were the striped field mouse for Hantaan virus and the brown rat and house mouse for Seoul virus.

EID Wang L, Wang T, Cui F, Zhai S, Zhang L, Yang S, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Zibo City, China, 2006–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):274-276. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151516
AMA Wang L, Wang T, Cui F, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Zibo City, China, 2006–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):274-276. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151516.
APA Wang, L., Wang, T., Cui, F., Zhai, S., Zhang, L., Yang, S....Yu, X. (2016). Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Zibo City, China, 2006–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 274-276. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151516.

African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa [PDF - 553 KB - 4 pages]
A. Caron et al.

We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas.

EID Caron A, Cornelis D, Foggin C, Hofmeyr M, de Garine-Wichatitsky M. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):277-280. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.140864
AMA Caron A, Cornelis D, Foggin C, et al. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):277-280. doi:10.3201/eid2202.140864.
APA Caron, A., Cornelis, D., Foggin, C., Hofmeyr, M., & de Garine-Wichatitsky, M. (2016). African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 277-280. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.140864.

Anaplasmataceae-Specific PCR for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Guidance for Symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in Immunocompetent Host [PDF - 405 KB - 4 pages]
M. Schwameis et al.

Candidatus Neoehrlichia is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a tickborne pathogen. We report a case of symptomatic neoehrlichiosis in an immunocompetent Austria resident who had recently returned from travel in Tanzania. The use of Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR to determine the duration of antimicrobial therapy seems reasonable to avert recrudescence.

EID Schwameis M, Auer J, Mitteregger D, Simonitsch-Klupp I, Ramharter M, Burgmann H, et al. Anaplasmataceae-Specific PCR for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Guidance for Symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in Immunocompetent Host. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):281-284. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.141762
AMA Schwameis M, Auer J, Mitteregger D, et al. Anaplasmataceae-Specific PCR for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Guidance for Symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in Immunocompetent Host. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):281-284. doi:10.3201/eid2202.141762.
APA Schwameis, M., Auer, J., Mitteregger, D., Simonitsch-Klupp, I., Ramharter, M., Burgmann, H....Lagler, H. (2016). Anaplasmataceae-Specific PCR for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Guidance for Symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in Immunocompetent Host. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 281-284. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.141762.

Candidatus Coxiella massiliensis Infection [PDF - 1017 KB - 4 pages]
E. Angelakis et al.

Bacteria genetically related to Coxiella burnetii have been found in ticks. Using molecular techniques, we detected Coxiella-like bacteria, here named Candidatus Coxiella massiliensis, in skin biopsy samples and ticks removed from patients with an eschar. This organism may be a common agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite.

EID Angelakis E, Mediannikov O, Jos S, Berenger J, Parola P, Raoult D. Candidatus Coxiella massiliensis Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):285-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150106
AMA Angelakis E, Mediannikov O, Jos S, et al. Candidatus Coxiella massiliensis Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):285-288. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150106.
APA Angelakis, E., Mediannikov, O., Jos, S., Berenger, J., Parola, P., & Raoult, D. (2016). Candidatus Coxiella massiliensis Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 285-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150106.

Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo [PDF - 311 KB - 3 pages]
R. J. Fischer et al.

On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

EID Fischer RJ, Judson SD, Miazgowicz K, Bushmaker T, Munster VJ. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):289-291. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151278
AMA Fischer RJ, Judson SD, Miazgowicz K, et al. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):289-291. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151278.
APA Fischer, R. J., Judson, S. D., Miazgowicz, K., Bushmaker, T., & Munster, V. J. (2016). Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 289-291. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151278.

Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions [PDF - 439 KB - 3 pages]
F. Janvier et al.

We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa’s environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly.

EID Janvier F, Delaune D, Poyot T, Valade E, Mérens A, Rollin PE, et al. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):292-294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151395
AMA Janvier F, Delaune D, Poyot T, et al. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):292-294. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151395.
APA Janvier, F., Delaune, D., Poyot, T., Valade, E., Mérens, A., Rollin, P. E....Foissaud, V. (2016). Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 292-294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151395.

Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease [PDF - 290 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Chancellor et al.

We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus–related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease–related uveitis during convalescence.

EID Chancellor JR, Padmanabhan SP, Greenough TC, Sacra R, Ellison RT, Madoff LC, et al. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):295-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151416
AMA Chancellor JR, Padmanabhan SP, Greenough TC, et al. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):295-297. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151416.
APA Chancellor, J. R., Padmanabhan, S. P., Greenough, T. C., Sacra, R., Ellison, R. T., Madoff, L. C....Cerón, O. M. (2016). Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 295-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151416.

Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015 [PDF - 426 KB - 4 pages]
A. Lucchini et al.

During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

EID Lucchini A, Lipani F, Costa C, Scarvaglieri M, Balbiano R, Carosella S, et al. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):298-301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151768
AMA Lucchini A, Lipani F, Costa C, et al. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):298-301. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151768.
APA Lucchini, A., Lipani, F., Costa, C., Scarvaglieri, M., Balbiano, R., Carosella, S....Di Perri, G. (2016). Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 298-301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151768.

Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus [PDF - 533 KB - 4 pages]
S. Mazzariol et al.

During 2011–2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006–2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales.

EID Mazzariol S, Centelleghe C, Beffagna G, Povinelli M, Terracciano G, Cocumelli C, et al. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):302-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150882
AMA Mazzariol S, Centelleghe C, Beffagna G, et al. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):302-305. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150882.
APA Mazzariol, S., Centelleghe, C., Beffagna, G., Povinelli, M., Terracciano, G., Cocumelli, C....Di Guardo, G. (2016). Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 302-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150882.

Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [PDF - 339 KB - 3 pages]
D. Dalcin et al.

Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis.

EID Dalcin D, Rothstein A, Spinato J, Escott N, Kus JV. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):306-308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151183
AMA Dalcin D, Rothstein A, Spinato J, et al. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):306-308. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151183.
APA Dalcin, D., Rothstein, A., Spinato, J., Escott, N., & Kus, J. V. (2016). Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 306-308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151183.

Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
S. Ladhani et al.

Serum samples from children immunized with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine demonstrated potent serum bactericidal antibody activity against the hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W strain circulating in England. The recent introduction of this vaccine into the United Kingdom national immunization program should also help protect infants against this endemic strain.

EID Ladhani S, Giuliani M, Biolchi A, Pizza M, Beebeejaun K, Lucidarme J, et al. Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):309-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150369
AMA Ladhani S, Giuliani M, Biolchi A, et al. Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):309-311. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150369.
APA Ladhani, S., Giuliani, M., Biolchi, A., Pizza, M., Beebeejaun, K., Lucidarme, J....Borrow, R. (2016). Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 309-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150369.

Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA [PDF - 416 KB - 4 pages]
E. A. Mitchell et al.

To describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in Texas, USA, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008–2014 for Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia spp. Thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial DNA from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested.

EID Mitchell EA, Williamson P, Billingsley PM, Seals JP, Ferguson EE, Allen MS. Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):312-315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150469
AMA Mitchell EA, Williamson P, Billingsley PM, et al. Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):312-315. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150469.
APA Mitchell, E. A., Williamson, P., Billingsley, P. M., Seals, J. P., Ferguson, E. E., & Allen, M. S. (2016). Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 312-315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150469.

High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer [PDF - 480 KB - 3 pages]
S. Han et al.

We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen.

EID Han S, Hickling GJ, Tsao JI. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):316-318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151218
AMA Han S, Hickling GJ, Tsao JI. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):316-318. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151218.
APA Han, S., Hickling, G. J., & Tsao, J. I. (2016). High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 316-318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151218.

Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin [PDF - 371 KB - 4 pages]
M. M. Williams et al.

A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin–deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.

EID Williams MM, Sen K, Weigand MR, Skoff TH, Cunningham VA, Halse TA, et al. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):319-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151332
AMA Williams MM, Sen K, Weigand MR, et al. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):319-322. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151332.
APA Williams, M. M., Sen, K., Weigand, M. R., Skoff, T. H., Cunningham, V. A., Halse, T. A....Tondella, M. (2016). Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 319-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151332.

The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak [PDF - 483 KB - 4 pages]
E. de Wit et al.

Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

EID de Wit E, Falzarano D, Onyango C, Rosenke K, Marzi A, Ochieng M, et al. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):323-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151656
AMA de Wit E, Falzarano D, Onyango C, et al. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):323-326. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151656.
APA de Wit, E., Falzarano, D., Onyango, C., Rosenke, K., Marzi, A., Ochieng, M....Munster, V. J. (2016). The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 323-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151656.

Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015 [PDF - 416 KB - 4 pages]
M. Seong et al.

During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins.

EID Seong M, Kim S, Corman V, Kim T, Cho S, Kim M, et al. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):327-330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151700
AMA Seong M, Kim S, Corman V, et al. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):327-330. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151700.
APA Seong, M., Kim, S., Corman, V., Kim, T., Cho, S., Kim, M....Park, S. (2016). Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 327-330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151700.

Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool [PDF - 501 KB - 4 pages]
T. Hoenen et al.

Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak.

EID Hoenen T, Groseth A, Rosenke K, Fischer RJ, Hoenen A, Judson SD, et al. Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):331-334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151796
AMA Hoenen T, Groseth A, Rosenke K, et al. Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):331-334. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151796.
APA Hoenen, T., Groseth, A., Rosenke, K., Fischer, R. J., Hoenen, A., Judson, S. D....Feldmann, H. (2016). Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 331-334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151796.
Letters

Acute Colitis Caused by Helicobacter trogontum in Immunocompetent Patient [PDF - 330 KB - 2 pages]
F. Dutasta et al.
EID Dutasta F, Samaha E, Carayol N, Masse J, Bourillon C, Richaud C, et al. Acute Colitis Caused by Helicobacter trogontum in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):335-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150287
AMA Dutasta F, Samaha E, Carayol N, et al. Acute Colitis Caused by Helicobacter trogontum in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):335-336. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150287.
APA Dutasta, F., Samaha, E., Carayol, N., Masse, J., Bourillon, C., Richaud, C....Podglajen, I. (2016). Acute Colitis Caused by Helicobacter trogontum in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 335-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150287.

Accuracy of Dengue Reporting by National Surveillance System, Brazil [PDF - 384 KB - 4 pages]
M. Silva et al.
EID Silva M, Rodrigues MS, Paploski I, Kikuti M, Kasper AM, Cruz JS, et al. Accuracy of Dengue Reporting by National Surveillance System, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):336-339. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150495
AMA Silva M, Rodrigues MS, Paploski I, et al. Accuracy of Dengue Reporting by National Surveillance System, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):336-339. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150495.
APA Silva, M., Rodrigues, M. S., Paploski, I., Kikuti, M., Kasper, A. M., Cruz, J. S....Ribeiro, G. S. (2016). Accuracy of Dengue Reporting by National Surveillance System, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 336-339. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150495.

Aberrant Ascaris suum Nematode Infection in Cattle, Missouri, USA [PDF - 328 KB - 2 pages]
H. L. Taylor et al.
EID Taylor HL, Spagnoli ST, Calcutt MJ, Kim D. Aberrant Ascaris suum Nematode Infection in Cattle, Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):339-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150686
AMA Taylor HL, Spagnoli ST, Calcutt MJ, et al. Aberrant Ascaris suum Nematode Infection in Cattle, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):339-340. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150686.
APA Taylor, H. L., Spagnoli, S. T., Calcutt, M. J., & Kim, D. (2016). Aberrant Ascaris suum Nematode Infection in Cattle, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 339-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150686.

Vectorborne Infections, Mali [PDF - 322 KB - 3 pages]
D. Safronetz et al.
EID Safronetz D, Sacko M, Sogoba N, Rosenke K, Martellaro C, Traoré SF, et al. Vectorborne Infections, Mali. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):340-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150688
AMA Safronetz D, Sacko M, Sogoba N, et al. Vectorborne Infections, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):340-342. doi:10.3201/eid2202.150688.
APA Safronetz, D., Sacko, M., Sogoba, N., Rosenke, K., Martellaro, C., Traoré, S. F....Traoré, M. S. (2016). Vectorborne Infections, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 340-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.150688.

Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles [PDF - 347 KB - 2 pages]
M. Rebelo et al.
EID Rebelo M, Grenho R, Orban A, Hänscheid T. Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):343-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151203
AMA Rebelo M, Grenho R, Orban A, et al. Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):343-344. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151203.
APA Rebelo, M., Grenho, R., Orban, A., & Hänscheid, T. (2016). Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 343-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151203.

Malaria in French Guiana Linked to Illegal Gold Mining [PDF - 353 KB - 3 pages]
V. Pommier de Santi et al.
EID Pommier de Santi V, Dia A, Adde A, Hyvert G, Galant J, Mazevet M, et al. Malaria in French Guiana Linked to Illegal Gold Mining. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151292
AMA Pommier de Santi V, Dia A, Adde A, et al. Malaria in French Guiana Linked to Illegal Gold Mining. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):344-346. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151292.
APA Pommier de Santi, V., Dia, A., Adde, A., Hyvert, G., Galant, J., Mazevet, M....Briolant, S. (2016). Malaria in French Guiana Linked to Illegal Gold Mining. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151292.

Importation of Fosfomycin Resistance fosA3 Gene to Europe [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
A. C. Mendes et al.
EID Mendes AC, Rodrigues C, Pires J, Amorim J, Ramos M, Novais Â, et al. Importation of Fosfomycin Resistance fosA3 Gene to Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):346-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151301
AMA Mendes AC, Rodrigues C, Pires J, et al. Importation of Fosfomycin Resistance fosA3 Gene to Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):346-348. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151301.
APA Mendes, A. C., Rodrigues, C., Pires, J., Amorim, J., Ramos, M., Novais, Â....Peixe, L. (2016). Importation of Fosfomycin Resistance fosA3 Gene to Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 346-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151301.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Monoclonal P1 Type 2c Outbreak, Russia, 2013 [PDF - 335 KB - 3 pages]
I. Edelstein et al.
EID Edelstein I, Rachina S, Touati A, Kozlov R, Henin N, Bébéar C, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Monoclonal P1 Type 2c Outbreak, Russia, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):348-350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151349
AMA Edelstein I, Rachina S, Touati A, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Monoclonal P1 Type 2c Outbreak, Russia, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):348-350. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151349.
APA Edelstein, I., Rachina, S., Touati, A., Kozlov, R., Henin, N., Bébéar, C....Pereyre, S. (2016). Mycoplasma pneumoniae Monoclonal P1 Type 2c Outbreak, Russia, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 348-350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151349.

Initial Costs of Ebola Treatment Centers in the United States [PDF - 312 KB - 3 pages]
J. J. Herstein et al.
EID Herstein JJ, Biddinger PD, Kraft CS, Saiman L, Gibbs SG, Smith PW, et al. Initial Costs of Ebola Treatment Centers in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):350-352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151431
AMA Herstein JJ, Biddinger PD, Kraft CS, et al. Initial Costs of Ebola Treatment Centers in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):350-352. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151431.
APA Herstein, J. J., Biddinger, P. D., Kraft, C. S., Saiman, L., Gibbs, S. G., Smith, P. W....Lowe, J. J. (2016). Initial Costs of Ebola Treatment Centers in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 350-352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151431.

Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy [PDF - 374 KB - 3 pages]
C. Chiapponi et al.
EID Chiapponi C, Faccini S, De Mattia A, Baioni L, Barbieri I, Rosignoli C, et al. Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):352-354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151439
AMA Chiapponi C, Faccini S, De Mattia A, et al. Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):352-354. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151439.
APA Chiapponi, C., Faccini, S., De Mattia, A., Baioni, L., Barbieri, I., Rosignoli, C....Foni, E. (2016). Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 352-354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151439.

AP92-like Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks, Algeria [PDF - 453 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kautman et al.
EID Kautman M, Tiar G, Papa A, Široký P. AP92-like Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):354-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151528
AMA Kautman M, Tiar G, Papa A, et al. AP92-like Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):354-356. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151528.
APA Kautman, M., Tiar, G., Papa, A., & Široký, P. (2016). AP92-like Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 354-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151528.

Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles [PDF - 270 KB - 1 page]
E. Lukianova-Hleb et al.
EID Lukianova-Hleb E, Bezek S, Szigeti R, Khodarev A, Kelley T, Hurrell A, et al. Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151829
AMA Lukianova-Hleb E, Bezek S, Szigeti R, et al. Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):344. doi:10.3201/eid2202.151829.
APA Lukianova-Hleb, E., Bezek, S., Szigeti, R., Khodarev, A., Kelley, T., Hurrell, A....Lapotko, D. (2016). Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.151829.
About the Cover

Responding to Ebola through Visual Poetry [PDF - 492 KB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Responding to Ebola through Visual Poetry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):357-358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.ac2202
AMA Breedlove B. Responding to Ebola through Visual Poetry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):357-358. doi:10.3201/eid2202.ac2202.
APA Breedlove, B. (2016). Responding to Ebola through Visual Poetry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 357-358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.ac2202.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Hemozoin [PDF - 341 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Hemozoin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):343. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.et2202
AMA Etymologia: Hemozoin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):343. doi:10.3201/eid2202.et2202.
APA (2016). Etymologia: Hemozoin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 343. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.et2202.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 22, No. 1 [PDF - 276 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 22, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.c12202
AMA Correction: Vol. 22, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(2):356. doi:10.3201/eid2202.c12202.
APA (2016). Correction: Vol. 22, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(2), 356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2202.c12202.
Page created: January 25, 2016
Page updated: January 25, 2016
Page reviewed: January 25, 2016
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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