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Volume 27, Number 5—May 2021

Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 of Cell Lines and Substrates Commonly Used to Diagnose and Isolate Influenza and Other Viruses

Li Wang, Xiaoyu Fan, Gaston Bonenfant, Dan Cui, Jaber Hossain, Nannan Jiang, Gloria Larson, Michael Currier, Jimma Liddell, Malania Wilson, Azaibi Tamin, Jennifer Harcourt, Jessica Ciomperlik-Patton, Hong Pang, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Ray Campagnoli, Pei-Yong Shi, John Barnes, Natalie J. Thornburg, David E. Wentworth, and Bin ZhouComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (L. Wang, X. Fan, J. Hossain, M. Currier, M. Wilson, A. Tamin, J. Harcourt, J. Ciomperlik-Patton, H. Pang, N. Dybdahl-Sissoko, R. Campagnoli, J. Barnes, N.J. Thornburg, D.E. Wentworth, B. Zhou); Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (G. Bonenfant, N. Jiang, G. Larson); Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (D. Cui, J. Liddell); University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA (P.-Y. Shi)

Main Article

Table 1

Overview of commercial cell lines used in study of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 of cell lines and substrates used to diagnose and isolate influenza and other viruses*

Cell line Organism Tissue Type/
morphology Virus susceptibility profile† SARS-CoV-1 susceptible
(references) SARS-CoV-2 susceptible
Vero African green monkey Kidney Epithelial AdV, coxsackie B, measles, mumps, rotavirus, rubella, influenza Yes (32,38) Yes
Vero 76 African green monkey Kidney Epithelial AdV, coxsackie B, measles, mumps, poliovirus, rotavirus, rubella, West Nile Virus Yes (39) Yes
BGMK African green monkey Kidney Epithelial coxsackie B, poliovirus Yes (32) Yes
CV-1 African green monkey Kidney Fibroblast measles, mumps, rotavirus Yes (32) No
LLC-MK2 Rhesus macaque Kidney Epithelial enterovirus, myxovirus and poxvirus groups, poliovirus type 1, rhinovirus Yes (32) Yes
RhMK Rhesus macaque Kidney Epithelial enteroviruses, influenza, parainfluenza Yes (35) Yes
A549 Human Lung Epithelial AdV, influenza, measles, mumps, parainfluenza, poliovirus, RSV, rotavirus No (32,34,35); Yes (40) No
HEL Human Lung Fibroblast AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, poliovirus, rhinovirus No (32,35) No
HeLa Human Cervix Epithelial AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, poliovirus, rhinovirus No (32) No
HeLa 229 Human Cervix Epithelial AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, poliovirus, rhinovirus Unknown No
HEp2 Human Cervix Epithelial AdV, coxsackie B, HSV, measles, parainfluenza, poliovirus, RSV No (32) No
MRC-5 Human Lung Fibroblast AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, influenza, mumps, poliovirus, rhinovirus No (35) No
MRHF Human Foreskin Fibroblast AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, mumps, poliovirus, rhinovirus Unknown No
NCI-H292 Human Lung Epithelial AdV, HSV, influenza A, measles virus, RSV, rhinoviruses, vaccinia virus No (34,37,40) No
RD Human Muscle Spindle;
multinucleated AdV, echovirus, HSV, poliovirus No (32,36) No
WI-38 Human Lung Fibroblast AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, influenza, mumps, poliovirus, rhinovirus, RSV Unknown No
McCoy Mouse Unknown Fibroblast HSV Unknown No
MNA Mouse Nerve Neuroblastoma Rabies Unknown No
MDCK Dog Kidney Epithelial AdV, coxsackie virus, influenza, reoviruses No (29,32,33,35,37) No
CRFK Cat Kidney Epithelial canine parvovirus, feline calicivirus, feline panleukopenia virus, rabies virus Yes (29) Yes (limited)
Mv1Lu American mink Lung Epithelial CMV, influenza Yes (35,38) No
H&V-Mix CV-1 and MRC-5 Mixture Mixture AdV, CMV, echovirus, HSV, influenza, poliovirus type 1, SV40 virus, VZV Unknown No
R-Mix Mv1Lu and A549 Mixture Mixture AdV, CMV, HSV, influenza, measles, mumps, poliovirus, RSV, rotavirus Yes (35) No
R-Mix Too MDCK and A549 Mixture Mixture AdV, HSV, influenza, MPV, measles, mumps, poliovirus, RSV, rotavirus, VZV Unknown No
Super E-Mix BGMK and A549 Mixture Mixture AdV, HSV, influenza, measles, mumps, poliovirus, RSV, rotavirus, VZV Unknown Yes

*AdV, adenovirus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; RhMK, rhesus monkey kidney; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; VZV, varicella zoster virus.
†Virus susceptibility profiles listed are as reported by Quidel ( and not verified in this study.

Main Article

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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.