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Issue Cover for Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011

Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011

[PDF - 8.87 MB - 174 pages]

Perspective

Medscape CME Activity
Zoonoses in the Bedroom [PDF - 145 KB - 6 pages]
B. B. Chomel and B. Sun

In most industrialized countries, pets are becoming an integral part of households, sharing human lifestyles, bedrooms, and beds. The estimated percentage of pet owners who allow dogs and cats on their beds is 14%–62%. However, public health risks, including increased emergence of zoonoses, may be associated with such practices.

EID Chomel BB, Sun B. Zoonoses in the Bedroom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):167-172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101070
AMA Chomel BB, Sun B. Zoonoses in the Bedroom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):167-172. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101070.
APA Chomel, B. B., & Sun, B. (2011). Zoonoses in the Bedroom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 167-172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101070.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Hepatitis E Virus and Neurologic Disorders [PDF - 244 KB - 7 pages]
N. Kamar et al.

Information about the spectrum of disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is emerging. During 2004–2009, at 2 hospitals in the United Kingdom and France, among 126 patients with locally acquired acute and chronic HEV genotype 3 infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 (5.5%): inflammatory polyradiculopathy (n = 3), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1), bilateral brachial neuritis (n = 1), encephalitis (n = 1), and ataxia/proximal myopathy (n = 1). Three cases occurred in nonimmunocompromised patients with acute HEV infection, and 4 were in immunocompromised patients with chronic HEV infection. HEV RNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid of all 4 patients with chronic HEV infection but not in that of 2 patients with acute HEV infection. Neurologic outcomes were complete resolution (n = 3), improvement with residual neurologic deficit (n = 3), and no improvement (n = 1). Neurologic disorders are an emerging extrahepatic manifestation of HEV infection.

EID Kamar N, Bendall RP, Peron JM, Cintas P, Prudhomme L, Mansuy J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus and Neurologic Disorders. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):173-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100856
AMA Kamar N, Bendall RP, Peron JM, et al. Hepatitis E Virus and Neurologic Disorders. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):173-179. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100856.
APA Kamar, N., Bendall, R. P., Peron, J. M., Cintas, P., Prudhomme, L., Mansuy, J....Dalton, H. R. (2011). Hepatitis E Virus and Neurologic Disorders. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 173-179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100856.
Research

Human Infections with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Switzerland, 2000–2009 [PDF - 161 KB - 6 pages]
U. Käppeli et al.

We characterized 97 non-O157 Shiga toxin (stx)–producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from human patients during 2000–2009 from the national reference laboratory in Switzerland. These strains belonged to 40 O:H serotypes; 4 serotypes (O26:H11/H, O103:H2, O121:H19, and O145:H28/H) accounted for 46.4% of the strains. Nonbloody diarrhea was reported by 23.2% of the patients, bloody diarrhea by 56.8%. Hemolytic uremic syndrome developed in 40.0% of patients; serotype O26:H11/H was most often associated with this syndrome. Forty-five (46.4%) strains carried stx2 genes only, 36 strains (37.1%) carried stx1, and 16 (16.5%) strains carried stx1 and stx2. Genes encoding enterohemolysin and intimin were detected in 75.3% and 70.1% of the strains, respectively. Resistance to >1 antimicrobial agent was present in 25 isolates. High genetic diversity within strains indicates that non-O157 stx–producing E. coli infections in Switzerland most often occurred as single cases.

EID Käppeli U, Hächler H, Giezendanner N, Beutin L, Stephan R. Human Infections with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Switzerland, 2000–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):180-185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100909
AMA Käppeli U, Hächler H, Giezendanner N, et al. Human Infections with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Switzerland, 2000–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):180-185. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100909.
APA Käppeli, U., Hächler, H., Giezendanner, N., Beutin, L., & Stephan, R. (2011). Human Infections with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Switzerland, 2000–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 180-185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100909.

Severe Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Children, Germany [PDF - 167 KB - 7 pages]
M. Altmann et al.

In a hospital-based observational study in Germany, we investigated children admitted to pediatric intensive care units and deaths caused by confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 to identify risk factors and outcomes in critically ill children. Ninety-three children were eligible for our study, including 9 with hospital-acquired infections. Seventy-five percent had underlying chronic medical conditions; neurodevelopmental disorders were most prevalent (57%). The proportion of patients having >1 risk factor increased with age in years (odds ratio 1.21, p = 0.007). Of 15 deaths, 11 occurred in a pediatric intensive care unit (case-fatality rate 12%, 95% confidence interval 6%–21%). Only 9% of the children had been vaccinated against pandemic (H1N1) 2009; all survived. Our results stress the role of underlying risk factors, especially neurodevelopmental disorders, and the need for improving preventive measures to reduce severe disease and adverse outcomes of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in children.

EID Altmann M, Fiebig L, Soyka J, von Kries R, Dehnert M, Haas W. Severe Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Children, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):186-192. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101090
AMA Altmann M, Fiebig L, Soyka J, et al. Severe Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Children, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):186-192. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101090.
APA Altmann, M., Fiebig, L., Soyka, J., von Kries, R., Dehnert, M., & Haas, W. (2011). Severe Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Children, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 186-192. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101090.

Risk Factors for Cryptococcus gattii Infection, British Columbia, Canada [PDF - 139 KB - 7 pages]
L. MacDougall et al.

To determine whether particular environmental, medical, or behavioral risk factors existed among Cryptcoccus gattii–infected persons compared with the general population, we conducted a sex-matched case−control study on a subset of case-patients in British Columbia (1999–2001). Exposures and underlying medical conditions among all case-patients (1999–2007) were also compared with results of provincial population–based surveys and studies. In case−control analyses, oral steroids (matched odds ratio [MOR] 8.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74–37.80), pneumonia (MOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05–6.98), and other lung conditions (MOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.08–9.52) were associated with infection. In population comparisons, case-patients were more likely to be >50 years of age (p<0.001), current smokers (p<0.001), infected with HIV (p<0.001), or have a history of invasive cancer (p<0.001). Although C. gattii is commonly believed to infect persons with apparently healthy immune systems, several immunosuppressive and pulmonary conditions seem to be risk factors.

EID MacDougall L, Fyfe M, Romney M, Starr M, Galanis E. Risk Factors for Cryptococcus gattii Infection, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):193-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101020
AMA MacDougall L, Fyfe M, Romney M, et al. Risk Factors for Cryptococcus gattii Infection, British Columbia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):193-199. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101020.
APA MacDougall, L., Fyfe, M., Romney, M., Starr, M., & Galanis, E. (2011). Risk Factors for Cryptococcus gattii Infection, British Columbia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 193-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101020.

Possible Increased Pathogenicity of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus upon Reassortment [PDF - 502 KB - 9 pages]
E. J. Schrauwen et al.

Since emergence of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in April 2009, three influenza A viruses—seasonal (H3N2), seasonal (H1N1), and pandemic (H1N1) 2009—have circulated in humans. Genetic reassortment between these viruses could result in enhanced pathogenicity. We compared 4 reassortant viruses with favorable in vitro replication properties with the wild-type pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with respect to replication kinetics in vitro and pathogenicity and transmission in ferrets. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses containing basic polymerase 2 alone or in combination with acidic polymerase of seasonal (H1N1) virus were attenuated in ferrets. In contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 with neuraminidase of seasonal (H3N2) virus resulted in increased virus replication and more severe pulmonary lesions. The data show that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus has the potential to reassort with seasonal influenza viruses, which may result in increased pathogenicity while it maintains the capacity of transmission through aerosols or respiratory droplets.

EID Schrauwen EJ, Herfst S, Chutinimitkul S, Bestebroer TM, Rimmelzwaan GF, Osterhaus A, et al. Possible Increased Pathogenicity of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus upon Reassortment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):200-208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101268
AMA Schrauwen EJ, Herfst S, Chutinimitkul S, et al. Possible Increased Pathogenicity of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus upon Reassortment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):200-208. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101268.
APA Schrauwen, E. J., Herfst, S., Chutinimitkul, S., Bestebroer, T. M., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Osterhaus, A....Fouchier, R. (2011). Possible Increased Pathogenicity of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus upon Reassortment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 200-208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101268.

Common Reservoirs for Penicillium marneffei Infection in Humans and Rodents, China [PDF - 167 KB - 6 pages]
C. Cao et al.

Human penicilliosis marneffei is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Penicillium marneffei. High prevalence of infection among bamboo rats of the genera Rhizomys and Cannomys suggest that these rodents are a key facet of the P. marneffei life cycle. We trapped bamboo rats during June 2004–July 2005 across Guangxi Province, China, and demonstrated 100% prevalence of infection. Multilocus genotypes show that P. marneffei isolates from humans are similar to those infecting rats and are in some cases identical. Comparison of our dataset with genotypes recovered from sites across Southeast Asia shows that the overriding component of genetic structure in P. marneffei is spatial, with humans containing a greater diversity of genotypes than rodents. Humans and bamboo rats are sampling an as-yet undiscovered common reservoir of infection, or bamboo rats are a vector for human infections by acting as amplifiers of infectious dispersal stages.

EID Cao C, Liang L, Wang W, Luo H, Huang S, Liu D, et al. Common Reservoirs for Penicillium marneffei Infection in Humans and Rodents, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):209-214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100718
AMA Cao C, Liang L, Wang W, et al. Common Reservoirs for Penicillium marneffei Infection in Humans and Rodents, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):209-214. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100718.
APA Cao, C., Liang, L., Wang, W., Luo, H., Huang, S., Liu, D....Fisher, M. C. (2011). Common Reservoirs for Penicillium marneffei Infection in Humans and Rodents, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 209-214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100718.

Phocine Distemper Virus in Seals, East Coast, United States, 2006 [PDF - 245 KB - 6 pages]
J. P. Earle et al.

In 2006 and 2007, elevated numbers of deaths among seals, constituting an unusual mortality event, occurred off the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts, United States. We isolated a virus from seal tissue and confirmed it as phocine distemper virus (PDV). We compared the viral hemagglutinin, phosphoprotein, and fusion (F) and matrix (M) protein gene sequences with those of viruses from the 1988 and 2002 PDV epizootics. The virus showed highest similarity with a PDV 1988 Netherlands virus, which raises the possibility that the 2006 isolate from the United States might have emerged independently from 2002 PDVs and that multiple lineages of PDV might be circulating among enzootically infected North American seals. Evidence from comparison of sequences derived from different tissues suggested that mutations in the F and M genes occur in brain tissue that are not present in lung, liver, or blood, which suggests virus persistence in the central nervous system.

EID Earle JP, Melia MM, Doherty NV, Nielsen O, Cosby SL. Phocine Distemper Virus in Seals, East Coast, United States, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):215-220. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100190
AMA Earle JP, Melia MM, Doherty NV, et al. Phocine Distemper Virus in Seals, East Coast, United States, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):215-220. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100190.
APA Earle, J. P., Melia, M. M., Doherty, N. V., Nielsen, O., & Cosby, S. L. (2011). Phocine Distemper Virus in Seals, East Coast, United States, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 215-220. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100190.

Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008 [PDF - 118 KB - 6 pages]
A. R. Katz et al.

Although infrequently diagnosed in the United States, leptospirosis is a notable reemerging infectious disease throughout developing countries. Until 1995, when the disease was eliminated from the US list of nationally notifiable diseases, Hawaii led the nation in reported annual incidence rates. Leptospirosis remains a notifiable disease in Hawaii. To ascertain the status of leptospirosis in Hawaii since the most recent US report in 2002, we reviewed 1999–2008 data obtained from case investigation reports by the Hawaii State Department of Health. Of the 345 case reports related to in-state exposures, 198 (57%) were laboratory confirmed. Our findings indicate a change in seasonal disease occurrence from summer to winter and in the infective serogroup from Icterohemorrhagiae to Australis. Also, during the past 20 years, recreational exposures have plateaued, while occupational exposures have increased. Ongoing surveillance is needed to clarify and track the dynamic epidemiology of this widespread zoonosis.

EID Katz AR, Buchholz AE, Hinson K, Park SY, Effler PV. Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):221-226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101109
AMA Katz AR, Buchholz AE, Hinson K, et al. Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):221-226. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101109.
APA Katz, A. R., Buchholz, A. E., Hinson, K., Park, S. Y., & Effler, P. V. (2011). Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 221-226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101109.

Next-Generation Sequencing of Coccidioides immitis Isolated during Cluster Investigation [PDF - 704 KB - 6 pages]
D. M. Engelthaler et al.

Next-generation sequencing enables use of whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) as a viable and discriminatory tool for genotyping and molecular epidemiologic analysis. We used WGST to confirm the linkage of a cluster of Coccidioides immitis isolates from 3 patients who received organ transplants from a single donor who later had positive test results for coccidioidomycosis. Isolates from the 3 patients were nearly genetically identical (a total of 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified among them), thereby demonstrating direct descent of the 3 isolates from an original isolate. We used WGST to demonstrate the genotypic relatedness of C. immitis isolates that were also epidemiologically linked. Thus, WGST offers unique benefits to public health for investigation of clusters considered to be linked to a single source.

EID Engelthaler DM, Chiller TM, Schupp JA, Colvin J, Beckstrom-Sternberg SM, Driebe EM, et al. Next-Generation Sequencing of Coccidioides immitis Isolated during Cluster Investigation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):227-232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100620
AMA Engelthaler DM, Chiller TM, Schupp JA, et al. Next-Generation Sequencing of Coccidioides immitis Isolated during Cluster Investigation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):227-232. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100620.
APA Engelthaler, D. M., Chiller, T. M., Schupp, J. A., Colvin, J., Beckstrom-Sternberg, S. M., Driebe, E. M....Balajee, S. (2011). Next-Generation Sequencing of Coccidioides immitis Isolated during Cluster Investigation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 227-232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100620.

Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya [PDF - 446 KB - 9 pages]
A. LaBeaud et al.

Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools tested, 22% were positive for Rift Valley fever virus, 18% were positive for West Nile virus, and 3% were positive for both. Estimated mosquito minimum infection rates did not differ between locations. Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak.

EID LaBeaud A, Sutherland LJ, Muiruri S, Muchiri EM, Gray LR, Zimmerman PA, et al. Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):233-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.091666
AMA LaBeaud A, Sutherland LJ, Muiruri S, et al. Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):233-241. doi:10.3201/eid1702.091666.
APA LaBeaud, A., Sutherland, L. J., Muiruri, S., Muchiri, E. M., Gray, L. R., Zimmerman, P. A....King, C. H. (2011). Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 233-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.091666.
Dispatches

New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase from Traveler Returning to Canada [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
G. Peirano et al.

An Escherichia coli isolate with New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase was isolated from a patient with pyelonephritis and prostatitis who returned to Canada after recent hospitalization in India. The patient was successfully treated with ertapenem and fosfomycin. This patient highlights the role of international travel in the spread of antimicrobial drug resistance and blaNDM-1.

EID Peirano G, Ahmed-Bentley J, Woodford N, Pitout JD. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase from Traveler Returning to Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):242-244. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101313
AMA Peirano G, Ahmed-Bentley J, Woodford N, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase from Traveler Returning to Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):242-244. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101313.
APA Peirano, G., Ahmed-Bentley, J., Woodford, N., & Pitout, J. D. (2011). New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase from Traveler Returning to Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 242-244. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101313.

School Closures and Student Contact Patterns [PDF - 201 KB - 3 pages]
C. Jackson et al.

To determine how school closure for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 affected students’ contact patterns, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire survey at a UK school 2 weeks after the school reopened. School closure was associated with a 65% reduction in the mean total number of contacts for each student.

EID Jackson C, Mangtani P, Vynnycky E, Fielding K, Kitching A, Mohamed H, et al. School Closures and Student Contact Patterns. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):245-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100458
AMA Jackson C, Mangtani P, Vynnycky E, et al. School Closures and Student Contact Patterns. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):245-247. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100458.
APA Jackson, C., Mangtani, P., Vynnycky, E., Fielding, K., Kitching, A., Mohamed, H....Maguire, H. (2011). School Closures and Student Contact Patterns. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 245-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100458.

Unusual Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Bordeaux, France, 2009 [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
M. Vareil et al.

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is usually transmitted by mosquitoes. We report 2 cases in France transmitted by other modes: occupational blood exposure and blood transfusion. Even where malaria is not endemic, it should be considered as a cause of unexplained acute fever.

EID Vareil M, Tandonnet O, Chemoul A, Bogreau H, Saint-Léger M, Micheau M, et al. Unusual Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Bordeaux, France, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):248-250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100595
AMA Vareil M, Tandonnet O, Chemoul A, et al. Unusual Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Bordeaux, France, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):248-250. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100595.
APA Vareil, M., Tandonnet, O., Chemoul, A., Bogreau, H., Saint-Léger, M., Micheau, M....Malvy, D. (2011). Unusual Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Bordeaux, France, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 248-250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100595.

Transmission of Armillifer armillatus Ova at Snake Farm, The Gambia, West Africa [PDF - 364 KB - 4 pages]
D. Tappe et al.

Visceral pentastomiasis caused by Armillifer armillatus larvae was diagnosed in 2 dogs in The Gambia. Parasites were subjected to PCR; phylogenetic analysis confirmed relatedness with branchiurans/crustaceans. Our investigation highlights transmission of infective A. armillatus ova to dogs and, by serologic evidence, also to 1 human, demonstrating a public health concern.

EID Tappe D, Meyer M, Oesterlein A, Jaye A, Frosch M, Schoen C, et al. Transmission of Armillifer armillatus Ova at Snake Farm, The Gambia, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):251-254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101118
AMA Tappe D, Meyer M, Oesterlein A, et al. Transmission of Armillifer armillatus Ova at Snake Farm, The Gambia, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):251-254. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101118.
APA Tappe, D., Meyer, M., Oesterlein, A., Jaye, A., Frosch, M., Schoen, C....Pantchev, N. (2011). Transmission of Armillifer armillatus Ova at Snake Farm, The Gambia, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 251-254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101118.

Characteristics of Patients with Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States [PDF - 132 KB - 3 pages]
S. B. Graitcer et al.

During April 2009–June 2010, thirty-seven (0.5%) of 6,740 pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses submitted to a US surveillance system were oseltamivir resistant. Most patients with oseltamivir-resistant infections were severely immunocompromised (76%) and had received oseltamivir before specimen collection (89%). No evidence was found for community circulation of resistant viruses; only 4 (unlinked) patients had no oseltamivir exposure.

EID Graitcer SB, Gubareva L, Kamimoto L, Doshi S, Vandermeer M, Louie J, et al. Characteristics of Patients with Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):255-257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101724
AMA Graitcer SB, Gubareva L, Kamimoto L, et al. Characteristics of Patients with Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):255-257. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101724.
APA Graitcer, S. B., Gubareva, L., Kamimoto, L., Doshi, S., Vandermeer, M., Louie, J....Fry, A. M. (2011). Characteristics of Patients with Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 255-257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101724.

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]
S. Shakoor et al.

We report 13 cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis in persons in Karachi, Pakistan, who had no history of aquatic activities. Infection likely occurred through ablution with tap water. An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems.

EID Shakoor S, Beg MA, Mahmood SF, Bandea R, Sriram R, Noman F, et al. Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):258-261. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100442
AMA Shakoor S, Beg MA, Mahmood SF, et al. Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):258-261. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100442.
APA Shakoor, S., Beg, M. A., Mahmood, S. F., Bandea, R., Sriram, R., Noman, F....Zafar, A. (2011). Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 258-261. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100442.

Alert System to Detect Possible School-based Outbreaks of Influenza-like Illness [PDF - 52 KB - 3 pages]
P. Mann et al.

To evaluate the usefulness of school absentee data in identifying outbreaks as part of syndromic surveillance, we examined data collected from public schools in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. An innovative automated alert system captured information about school-specific absenteeism to detect and provide real-time notification of possible outbreaks of influenza-like illness.

EID Mann P, O’Connell E, Zhang G, Llau A, Rico E, Leguen FC. Alert System to Detect Possible School-based Outbreaks of Influenza-like Illness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):262-264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100496
AMA Mann P, O’Connell E, Zhang G, et al. Alert System to Detect Possible School-based Outbreaks of Influenza-like Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):262-264. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100496.
APA Mann, P., O’Connell, E., Zhang, G., Llau, A., Rico, E., & Leguen, F. C. (2011). Alert System to Detect Possible School-based Outbreaks of Influenza-like Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 262-264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100496.

New Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Wild Birds, Qinghai, China [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Li et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) (QH09) was isolated from dead wild birds (3 species) in Qinghai, China, during May–June 2009. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed that QH09 was clearly distinguishable from classical clade 2.2 viruses and belonged to clade 2.3.2.

EID Li Y, Liu L, Zhang Y, Duan Z, Tian G, Zeng X, et al. New Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Wild Birds, Qinghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):265-267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100732
AMA Li Y, Liu L, Zhang Y, et al. New Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Wild Birds, Qinghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):265-267. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100732.
APA Li, Y., Liu, L., Zhang, Y., Duan, Z., Tian, G., Zeng, X....Chen, H. (2011). New Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Wild Birds, Qinghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 265-267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100732.

Blastomycosis in Man after Kinkajou Bite [PDF - 272 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Harris et al.

We report transmission of Blastomyces dermatitidis fungal infection from a pet kinkajou to a man. When treating a patient with a recalcitrant infection and a history of an animal bite, early and complete animal necropsy and consideration of nonbacterial etiologies are needed.

EID Harris JR, Blaney DD, Lindsley MD, Zaki SR, Paddock CD, Drew CP, et al. Blastomycosis in Man after Kinkajou Bite. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):268-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101046
AMA Harris JR, Blaney DD, Lindsley MD, et al. Blastomycosis in Man after Kinkajou Bite. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):268-270. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101046.
APA Harris, J. R., Blaney, D. D., Lindsley, M. D., Zaki, S. R., Paddock, C. D., Drew, C. P....Baker, R. (2011). Blastomycosis in Man after Kinkajou Bite. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 268-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101046.

Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Forms in Antenatal Cohort, Montreal, Quebec, Canada [PDF - 519 KB - 4 pages]
M. Quesnel-Vallières et al.

Near full-length genomes of 4 unclassified HIV-1 variants infecting patients enrolled in an antenatal cohort in Canada were obtained by sequencing. All 4 variants showed original recombination profiles, including A1/A2/J, A1/D, and A1/G/J/CRF11_cpx structures. Identification of these variants highlights the growing prevalence of unique recombinant forms of HIV-1 in North America.

EID Quesnel-Vallières M, Kouzayha I, Tran E, Barry I, Lasgi C, Merindol N, et al. Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Forms in Antenatal Cohort, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):271-274. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100629
AMA Quesnel-Vallières M, Kouzayha I, Tran E, et al. Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Forms in Antenatal Cohort, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):271-274. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100629.
APA Quesnel-Vallières, M., Kouzayha, I., Tran, E., Barry, I., Lasgi, C., Merindol, N....Soudeyns, H. (2011). Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Forms in Antenatal Cohort, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 271-274. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100629.

Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil [PDF - 357 KB - 4 pages]
N. Silva et al.

In Brazil, Brazilian spotted fever was once considered the only tick-borne rickettsial disease. We report eschar-associated rickettsial disease that occurred after a tick bite. The etiologic agent is most related to Rickettsia parkeri, R. africae, and R. sibirica and probably widely distributed from São Paulo to Bahia in the Atlantic Forest.

EID Silva N, Eremeeva ME, Rozental T, Ribeiro GS, Paddock CD, Ramos EA, et al. Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):275-278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100859
AMA Silva N, Eremeeva ME, Rozental T, et al. Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):275-278. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100859.
APA Silva, N., Eremeeva, M. E., Rozental, T., Ribeiro, G. S., Paddock, C. D., Ramos, E. A....Ko, A. I. (2011). Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 275-278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100859.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Pneumonia in Children, Japan [PDF - 330 KB - 4 pages]
M. Hasegawa et al.

To describe clinical aspects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus–associated pneumonia in children, we studied 80 such children, including 17 (21%) with complications, who were admitted to 5 hospitals in Japan during August–November 2009 after a mean of 2.9 symptomatic days. All enrolled patients recovered (median hospitalization 6 days). Timely access to hospitals may have contributed to favorable outcomes.

EID Hasegawa M, Okada T, Sakata H, Nakayama E, Fuchigami T, Inamo Y, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Pneumonia in Children, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):279-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.091904
AMA Hasegawa M, Okada T, Sakata H, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Pneumonia in Children, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):279-282. doi:10.3201/eid1702.091904.
APA Hasegawa, M., Okada, T., Sakata, H., Nakayama, E., Fuchigami, T., Inamo, Y....Takahashi, T. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Pneumonia in Children, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 279-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.091904.

Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Mexico [PDF - 330 KB - 4 pages]
J. E. Ramirez-Gonzalez et al.

During May 2009–April 2010, we analyzed 692 samples of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus from patients in Mexico. We detected the H275Y substitution of the neuraminidase gene in a specimen from an infant with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who was treated with oseltamivir. This virus was susceptible to zanamivir and resistant to adamantanes and oseltamivir.

EID Ramirez-Gonzalez JE, Gonzalez-Duran E, Alcantara-Perez P, Wong-Arambula C, Olivera-Diaz H, Cortez-Ortiz I, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):283-286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100897
AMA Ramirez-Gonzalez JE, Gonzalez-Duran E, Alcantara-Perez P, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):283-286. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100897.
APA Ramirez-Gonzalez, J. E., Gonzalez-Duran, E., Alcantara-Perez, P., Wong-Arambula, C., Olivera-Diaz, H., Cortez-Ortiz, I....Alpuche-Aranda, C. M. (2011). Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 283-286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100897.

Comparison of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza Viral Loads, Singapore [PDF - 380 KB - 14 pages]
C. K. Lee et al.

Mean viral loads for patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were ≈1 log10 times lower than those for patients with seasonal influenza within the first week after symptom onset. Neither pandemic nor seasonal influenza viral loads correlated with clinical severity of illness. No correlation was found between viral loads and concurrent illness.

EID Lee CK, Lee HK, Loh TP, Lai FY, Tambyah PA, Chiu L, et al. Comparison of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza Viral Loads, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):287-290. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100282
AMA Lee CK, Lee HK, Loh TP, et al. Comparison of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza Viral Loads, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):287-290. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100282.
APA Lee, C. K., Lee, H. K., Loh, T. P., Lai, F. Y., Tambyah, P. A., Chiu, L....Tang, J. W. (2011). Comparison of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza Viral Loads, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 287-290. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100282.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, May 2009–March 2010 [PDF - 269 KB - 4 pages]
G. Khan et al.

To ascertain characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, we reviewed medical records for all suspected or confirmed cases reported in Abu Dhabi during May 2009–March 2010. Overall case-fatality rate was 1.4/100,000 population. Most patients who died had ≥1 risk factor, and female decedents were considerably younger than male decedents.

EID Khan G, Al-Mutawa J, Hashim MJ. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, May 2009–March 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):292-295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101007
AMA Khan G, Al-Mutawa J, Hashim MJ. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, May 2009–March 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):292-295. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101007.
APA Khan, G., Al-Mutawa, J., & Hashim, M. J. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, May 2009–March 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 292-295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101007.

Usefulness of Published PCR Primers in Detecting Human Rhinovirus Infection [PDF - 248 KB - 3 pages]
C. E. Faux et al.

We conducted a preliminary comparison of the relative sensitivity of a cross-section of published human rhinovirus (HRV)–specific PCR primer pairs, varying the oligonucleotides and annealing temperature. None of the pairs could detect all HRVs in 2 panels of genotyped clinical specimens; >1 PCR is required for accurate description of HRV epidemiology.

EID Faux CE, Arden KE, Lambert SB, Nissen MD, Nolan TM, Chang AB, et al. Usefulness of Published PCR Primers in Detecting Human Rhinovirus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):296-298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101123
AMA Faux CE, Arden KE, Lambert SB, et al. Usefulness of Published PCR Primers in Detecting Human Rhinovirus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):296-298. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101123.
APA Faux, C. E., Arden, K. E., Lambert, S. B., Nissen, M. D., Nolan, T. M., Chang, A. B....Mackay, I. M. (2011). Usefulness of Published PCR Primers in Detecting Human Rhinovirus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 296-298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101123.

Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008 [PDF - 300 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yeh et al.

To investigate the possibility of West Nile virus (WNV) introduction into South Korea, the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service has conducted nationwide surveillance of WNV activity in dead wild birds since 2005. Surveillance conducted during 2005–2008 found no evidence of WNV activity.

EID Yeh J, Kim H, Nah J, Lee H, Kim Y, Moon J, et al. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):299-301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100551
AMA Yeh J, Kim H, Nah J, et al. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):299-301. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100551.
APA Yeh, J., Kim, H., Nah, J., Lee, H., Kim, Y., Moon, J....Lee, J. (2011). Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 299-301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100551.
Letters

Hantavirus Infection in Istanbul, Turkey [PDF - 144 KB - 2 pages]
O. Oncul et al.
EID Oncul O, Atalay Y, Onem Y, Turhan V, Acar A, Uyar Y, et al. Hantavirus Infection in Istanbul, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):303-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100663
AMA Oncul O, Atalay Y, Onem Y, et al. Hantavirus Infection in Istanbul, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):303-304. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100663.
APA Oncul, O., Atalay, Y., Onem, Y., Turhan, V., Acar, A., Uyar, Y....Gorenek, L. (2011). Hantavirus Infection in Istanbul, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 303-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100663.

Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in Harbor Porpoise [PDF - 143 KB - 2 pages]
S. A. Norman et al.
EID Norman SA, Raverty S, Zabek E, Etheridge S, Ford JK, Hoang LM, et al. Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in Harbor Porpoise. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):304-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101232
AMA Norman SA, Raverty S, Zabek E, et al. Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in Harbor Porpoise. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):304-305. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101232.
APA Norman, S. A., Raverty, S., Zabek, E., Etheridge, S., Ford, J. K., Hoang, L. M....Morshed, M. (2011). Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in Harbor Porpoise. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 304-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101232.

New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase, Ontario, Canada [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
N. Tijet et al.
EID Tijet N, Alexander DC, Richardson D, Lastovetska O, Low DE, Patel SN, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):306-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101561
AMA Tijet N, Alexander DC, Richardson D, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):306-307. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101561.
APA Tijet, N., Alexander, D. C., Richardson, D., Lastovetska, O., Low, D. E., Patel, S. N....Melano, R. G. (2011). New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 306-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101561.

Genetic Detection of Dobrava/Belgrade Virus, Bulgaria [PDF - 164 KB - 2 pages]
A. Papa and I. Christova
EID Papa A, Christova I. Genetic Detection of Dobrava/Belgrade Virus, Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):308-309. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101275
AMA Papa A, Christova I. Genetic Detection of Dobrava/Belgrade Virus, Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):308-309. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101275.
APA Papa, A., & Christova, I. (2011). Genetic Detection of Dobrava/Belgrade Virus, Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 308-309. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101275.

A226V Strains of Chikungunya Virus, Réunion Island, 2010 [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
E. D’Ortenzio et al.
EID D’Ortenzio E, Grandadam M, Balleydier E, Jaffar-Bandjee M, Michault A, Brottet E, et al. A226V Strains of Chikungunya Virus, Réunion Island, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):309-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101056
AMA D’Ortenzio E, Grandadam M, Balleydier E, et al. A226V Strains of Chikungunya Virus, Réunion Island, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):309-311. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101056.
APA D’Ortenzio, E., Grandadam, M., Balleydier, E., Jaffar-Bandjee, M., Michault, A., Brottet, E....Filleul, L. (2011). A226V Strains of Chikungunya Virus, Réunion Island, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 309-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101056.

Segniliparus rugosus–associated Bronchiolitis in California Sea Lion [PDF - 170 KB - 2 pages]
R. H. Evans
EID Evans RH. Segniliparus rugosus–associated Bronchiolitis in California Sea Lion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):311-312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101511
AMA Evans RH. Segniliparus rugosus–associated Bronchiolitis in California Sea Lion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):311-312. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101511.
APA Evans, R. H. (2011). Segniliparus rugosus–associated Bronchiolitis in California Sea Lion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 311-312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101511.

Orbiviruses in Rusa Deer, Mauritius, 2007 [PDF - 173 KB - 2 pages]
F. Jori et al.
EID Jori F, Roger M, Baldet T, Delécolle J, Sauzier J, Jaumally MR, et al. Orbiviruses in Rusa Deer, Mauritius, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):312-313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101293
AMA Jori F, Roger M, Baldet T, et al. Orbiviruses in Rusa Deer, Mauritius, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):312-313. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101293.
APA Jori, F., Roger, M., Baldet, T., Delécolle, J., Sauzier, J., Jaumally, M. R....Roger, F. (2011). Orbiviruses in Rusa Deer, Mauritius, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 312-313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101293.

No Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus–related Virus Detected in Fibromyalgia Patients [PDF - 237 KB - 2 pages]
J. Luczkowiak et al.
EID Luczkowiak J, Sierra O, González-Martín JJ, Herrero-Beaumont G, Delgado R. No Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus–related Virus Detected in Fibromyalgia Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):314-315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100978
AMA Luczkowiak J, Sierra O, González-Martín JJ, et al. No Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus–related Virus Detected in Fibromyalgia Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):314-315. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100978.
APA Luczkowiak, J., Sierra, O., González-Martín, J. J., Herrero-Beaumont, G., & Delgado, R. (2011). No Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus–related Virus Detected in Fibromyalgia Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 314-315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100978.

Clonal Spread of Streptococcus pyogenes emm44 among Homeless Persons, Rennes, France [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
A. Cady et al.
EID Cady A, Plainvert C, Donnio P, Loury P, Huguenet D, Briand A, et al. Clonal Spread of Streptococcus pyogenes emm44 among Homeless Persons, Rennes, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):315-317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101022
AMA Cady A, Plainvert C, Donnio P, et al. Clonal Spread of Streptococcus pyogenes emm44 among Homeless Persons, Rennes, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):315-317. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101022.
APA Cady, A., Plainvert, C., Donnio, P., Loury, P., Huguenet, D., Briand, A....Bouvet, A. (2011). Clonal Spread of Streptococcus pyogenes emm44 among Homeless Persons, Rennes, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 315-317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101022.

Surface Layer Protein A Variant of Clostridium difficile PCR-Ribotype 027 [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
P. Spigaglia et al.
EID Spigaglia P, Barbanti F, Mastrantonio P. Surface Layer Protein A Variant of Clostridium difficile PCR-Ribotype 027. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):317-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100355
AMA Spigaglia P, Barbanti F, Mastrantonio P. Surface Layer Protein A Variant of Clostridium difficile PCR-Ribotype 027. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):317-319. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100355.
APA Spigaglia, P., Barbanti, F., & Mastrantonio, P. (2011). Surface Layer Protein A Variant of Clostridium difficile PCR-Ribotype 027. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 317-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100355.

Introduction of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype I, India [PDF - 192 KB - 3 pages]
P. V. Fulmali et al.
EID Fulmali PV, Sapkal GN, Athawale S, Gore MM, Mishra AC, Bondre VP. Introduction of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype I, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):319-321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100815
AMA Fulmali PV, Sapkal GN, Athawale S, et al. Introduction of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype I, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):319-321. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100815.
APA Fulmali, P. V., Sapkal, G. N., Athawale, S., Gore, M. M., Mishra, A. C., & Bondre, V. P. (2011). Introduction of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype I, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 319-321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100815.

Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Subtype III, Zhejiang Province, China [PDF - 209 KB - 3 pages]
J. Sun et al.
EID Sun J, Lin J, Yan J, Fan W, Lu L, Lv H, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Subtype III, Zhejiang Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):321-323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100396
AMA Sun J, Lin J, Yan J, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Subtype III, Zhejiang Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):321-323. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100396.
APA Sun, J., Lin, J., Yan, J., Fan, W., Lu, L., Lv, H....Chai, C. (2011). Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Subtype III, Zhejiang Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 321-323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100396.

European Subtype Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
A. E. Jääskeläinen et al.
EID Jääskeläinen AE, Tonteri E, Sironen T, Pakarinen L, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. European Subtype Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):323-325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101487
AMA Jääskeläinen AE, Tonteri E, Sironen T, et al. European Subtype Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):323-325. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101487.
APA Jääskeläinen, A. E., Tonteri, E., Sironen, T., Pakarinen, L., Vaheri, A., & Vapalahti, O. (2011). European Subtype Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 323-325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101487.

Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum Ticks, Germany [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
L. Rumer et al.
EID Rumer L, Graser E, Hillebrand T, Talaska T, Dautel H, Mediannikov O, et al. Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum Ticks, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):325-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100308
AMA Rumer L, Graser E, Hillebrand T, et al. Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum Ticks, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):325-326. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100308.
APA Rumer, L., Graser, E., Hillebrand, T., Talaska, T., Dautel, H., Mediannikov, O....Niedrig, M. (2011). Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum Ticks, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 325-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100308.

Dogs as Reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
F. Dantas-Torres
EID Dantas-Torres F. Dogs as Reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):326-327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.091823
AMA Dantas-Torres F. Dogs as Reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):326-327. doi:10.3201/eid1702.091823.
APA Dantas-Torres, F. (2011). Dogs as Reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 326-327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.091823.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Co-infection [PDF - 119 KB - 1 page]
D. T. Kuhar and D. K. Henderson
EID Kuhar DT, Henderson DK. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Co-infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101775
AMA Kuhar DT, Henderson DK. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Co-infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):328. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101775.
APA Kuhar, D. T., & Henderson, D. K. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and HIV Co-infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101775.
Another Dimension

Ode to Rickettsiae [PDF - 174 KB - 1 page]
V. Liyanapathirana
EID Liyanapathirana V. Ode to Rickettsiae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.ad1702
AMA Liyanapathirana V. Ode to Rickettsiae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):302. doi:10.3201/eid1702.ad1702.
APA Liyanapathirana, V. (2011). Ode to Rickettsiae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.ad1702.
Books and Media

Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease [PDF - 189 KB - 2 pages]
D. Raoult
EID Raoult D. Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):329-330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101678
AMA Raoult D. Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):329-330. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101678.
APA Raoult, D. (2011). Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 329-330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101678.

Avian Influenza: Science, Policy and Politics
K. Gensheimer
EID Gensheimer K. Avian Influenza: Science, Policy and Politics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101702
AMA Gensheimer K. Avian Influenza: Science, Policy and Politics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):329. doi:10.3201/eid1702.101702.
APA Gensheimer, K. (2011). Avian Influenza: Science, Policy and Politics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.101702.
About the Cover

The Icy Realm of the Rime [PDF - 168 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Icy Realm of the Rime. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.ac1702
AMA Potter P. The Icy Realm of the Rime. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):330-331. doi:10.3201/eid1702.ac1702.
APA Potter, P. (2011). The Icy Realm of the Rime. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.ac1702.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Naegleria fowleri [PDF - 182 KB - 1 page]
N. Männikkö
EID Männikkö N. Etymologia: Naegleria fowleri . Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(2):261. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.et1702
AMA Männikkö N. Etymologia: Naegleria fowleri . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):261. doi:10.3201/eid1702.et1702.
APA Männikkö, N. (2011). Etymologia: Naegleria fowleri . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 261. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.et1702.
Page created: September 09, 2011
Page updated: September 09, 2011
Page reviewed: September 09, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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