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Issue Cover for Volume 17, Number 9—September 2011

Volume 17, Number 9—September 2011

[PDF - 7.89 MB - 215 pages]

Synopses

Risk-based Estimate of Effect of Foodborne Diseases on Public Health, Greece [PDF - 314 KB - 10 pages]
E. Gkogka et al.

The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years (DALY), a health indicator combining illness and death estimates into a single metric. It has been estimated that each year ≈370,000 illnesses/million inhabitants are likely caused because of eating contaminated food; 900 of these illnesses are severe and 3 fatal, corresponding to 896 DALY/million inhabitants. Ill-defined intestinal infections accounted for the greatest part of reported cases and 27% of the DALY. Brucellosis, echinococcosis, salmonellosis, and toxoplasmosis were found to be the most common known causes of foodborne illnesses, being responsible for 70% of the DALY. Overall, the DALY metric provided a quantitative perspective on the impact of foodborne illness that may be useful for prioritizing food safety management targets.

EID Gkogka E, Reij MW, Havelaar AH, Zwietering MH, Gorris LG. Risk-based Estimate of Effect of Foodborne Diseases on Public Health, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1581-1590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101766
AMA Gkogka E, Reij MW, Havelaar AH, et al. Risk-based Estimate of Effect of Foodborne Diseases on Public Health, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1581-1590. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101766.
APA Gkogka, E., Reij, M. W., Havelaar, A. H., Zwietering, M. H., & Gorris, L. G. (2011). Risk-based Estimate of Effect of Foodborne Diseases on Public Health, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1581-1590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101766.
Research

Intrahousehold Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Victoria, Australia [PDF - 252 KB - 9 pages]
C. van Gemert et al.

To examine intrahousehold secondary transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in households in Victoria, Australia, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in late 2009. We randomly selected case-patients reported during May–June 2009 and their household contacts. Information collected included household characteristics, use of prevention and control measures, and signs and symptoms. Secondary cases were defined as influenza-like illness in household contacts within the specified period. Secondary transmission was identified for 18 of 122 susceptible household contacts. To identify independent predictors of secondary transmission, we developed a model. Risk factors were concurrent quarantine with the household index case-patient, and a protective factor was antiviral prophylaxis. These findings show that timely provision of antiviral prophylaxis to household contacts, particularly when household members are concurrently quarantined during implementation of pandemic management strategies, delays or contains community transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

EID van Gemert C, Hellard M, McBryde ES, Fielding J, Spelman T, Higgins N, et al. Intrahousehold Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Victoria, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1599-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101948
AMA van Gemert C, Hellard M, McBryde ES, et al. Intrahousehold Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1599-1607. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101948.
APA van Gemert, C., Hellard, M., McBryde, E. S., Fielding, J., Spelman, T., Higgins, N....Bergeri, I. (2011). Intrahousehold Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1599-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101948.

Epidemiologic Modeling with FluSurge for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, Queensland, Australia [PDF - 298 KB - 7 pages]
P. R. Baker et al.

At the beginning of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, we estimated the potential surge in demand for hospital-based services in 4 Health Service Districts of Queensland, Australia, using the FluSurge model. Modifications to the model were made on the basis of emergent evidence and results provided to local hospitals to inform resource planning for the forthcoming pandemic. To evaluate the fit of the model, a comparison between the model’s predictions and actual hospitalizations was made. In early 2010, a Web-based survey was undertaken to evaluate the model’s usefulness. Predictions based on modified assumptions arising from the new pandemic gained better fit than results from the default model. The survey identified that the modeling support was helpful and useful to service planning for local hospitals. Our research illustrates an integrated framework involving post hoc comparison and evaluation for implementing epidemiologic modeling in response to a public health emergency.

EID Baker PR, Sun J, Morris J, Dines A. Epidemiologic Modeling with FluSurge for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, Queensland, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1608-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102012
AMA Baker PR, Sun J, Morris J, et al. Epidemiologic Modeling with FluSurge for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1608-1614. doi:10.3201/eid1709.102012.
APA Baker, P. R., Sun, J., Morris, J., & Dines, A. (2011). Epidemiologic Modeling with FluSurge for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1608-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102012.

Differential Effects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on Remote and Indigenous Groups, Northern Territory, Australia, 2009 [PDF - 364 KB - 9 pages]
J. M. Trauer et al.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza spread through the Northern Territory, Australia, during June–August 2009. We performed 2 cross-sectional serologic surveys on specimens from Northern Territory residents, with 445 specimens obtained prepandemic and 1,689 specimens postpandemic. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition against reference virus A/California/7/2009 on serum samples collected opportunistically from outpatients. All specimens had data for patients’ gender, age, and address, with patients’ indigenous status determined for 94.1%. Protective immunity (titer >40) was present in 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.2%–10.1%) of prepandemic specimens and 19.5% (95% CI 17.6%–21.4%) of postpandemic specimens, giving a population-standardized attack rate of 14.9% (95% CI 11.0%–18.9%). Prepandemic proportion of immune persons was greater with increasing age but did not differ by other demographic characteristics. Postpandemic proportion of immune persons was greater in younger groups and around double in indigenous persons. Postpandemic proportion immune was geographically heterogeneous, particularly among remote-living and indigenous groups.

EID Trauer JM, Laurie KL, McDonnell J, Kelso A, Markey PG. Differential Effects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on Remote and Indigenous Groups, Northern Territory, Australia, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1615-1623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101196
AMA Trauer JM, Laurie KL, McDonnell J, et al. Differential Effects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on Remote and Indigenous Groups, Northern Territory, Australia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1615-1623. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101196.
APA Trauer, J. M., Laurie, K. L., McDonnell, J., Kelso, A., & Markey, P. G. (2011). Differential Effects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on Remote and Indigenous Groups, Northern Territory, Australia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1615-1623. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101196.

Multiple Reassortment between Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Endemic Influenza Viruses in Pigs, United States [PDF - 259 KB - 6 pages]
M. F. Ducatez et al.

As a result of human-to-pig transmission, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in pigs soon after it emerged in humans. In the United States, this transmission was quickly followed by multiple reassortment between the pandemic virus and endemic swine viruses. Nine reassortant viruses representing 7 genotypes were detected in commercial pig farms in the United States. Field observations suggested that the newly described reassortant viruses did not differ substantially from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 or endemic strains in their ability to cause disease. Comparable growth properties of reassortant and endemic viruses in vitro supported these observations; similarly, a representative reassortant virus replicated in ferrets to the same extent as did pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and endemic swine virus. These novel reassortant viruses highlight the increasing complexity of influenza viruses within pig populations and the frequency at which viral diversification occurs in this ecologically important viral reservoir.

EID Ducatez MF, Hause B, Stigger-Rosser E, Darnell D, Corzo C, Juleen K, et al. Multiple Reassortment between Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Endemic Influenza Viruses in Pigs, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1624-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110338
AMA Ducatez MF, Hause B, Stigger-Rosser E, et al. Multiple Reassortment between Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Endemic Influenza Viruses in Pigs, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1624-1629. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110338.
APA Ducatez, M. F., Hause, B., Stigger-Rosser, E., Darnell, D., Corzo, C., Juleen, K....Webby, R. J. (2011). Multiple Reassortment between Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Endemic Influenza Viruses in Pigs, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1624-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110338.

Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in Miscarriage [PDF - 220 KB - 6 pages]
D. Baud et al.

To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis–positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of sex partners (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.9). C. trachomatis DNA was more frequently amplified from products of conception or placenta from women who had a miscarriage (4%) than from controls (0.7%; p = 0.026). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed C. trachomatis in placenta from 5 of 7 patients with positive PCR results, whereas results of immunohistochemical analysis were negative in placenta samples from all 8 negative controls tested. Associations between miscarriage and serologic/molecular evidence of C. trachomatis infection support its role in miscarriage.

EID Baud D, Goy G, Jaton K, Osterheld M, Blumer S, Borel N, et al. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in Miscarriage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1630-1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100865
AMA Baud D, Goy G, Jaton K, et al. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in Miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1630-1635. doi:10.3201/eid1709.100865.
APA Baud, D., Goy, G., Jaton, K., Osterheld, M., Blumer, S., Borel, N....Greub, G. (2011). Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in Miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1630-1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100865.

Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Transmission of H-Type Prion in Homologous Prion Protein Context [PDF - 616 KB - 9 pages]
J. Torres et al.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and BSE-related disorders have been associated with a single major prion strain. Recently, 2 atypical, presumably sporadic forms of BSE have been associated with 2 distinct prion strains that are characterized mainly by distinct Western blot profiles of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), named high-type (BSE-H) and low-type (BSE-L), that also differed from classical BSE. We characterized 5 atypical BSE-H isolates by analyzing their molecular and neuropathologic properties during transmission in transgenic mice expressing homologous bovine prion protein. Unexpectedly, in several inoculated animals, strain features emerged that were highly similar to those of classical BSE agent. These findings demonstrate the capability of an atypical bovine prion to acquire classical BSE–like properties during propagation in a homologous bovine prion protein context and support the view that the epidemic BSE agent could have originated from such a cattle prion.

EID Torres J, Andréoletti O, Lacroux C, Prieto I, Lorenzo P, Larska M, et al. Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Transmission of H-Type Prion in Homologous Prion Protein Context. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1636-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101403
AMA Torres J, Andréoletti O, Lacroux C, et al. Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Transmission of H-Type Prion in Homologous Prion Protein Context. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1636-1644. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101403.
APA Torres, J., Andréoletti, O., Lacroux, C., Prieto, I., Lorenzo, P., Larska, M....Espinosa, J. (2011). Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Transmission of H-Type Prion in Homologous Prion Protein Context. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1636-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101403.

Increasing Incidence of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Adults, Utah, USA [PDF - 293 KB - 6 pages]
M. P. Rubach et al.

Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, the incidence of invasive H. influenzae type b disease among children has fallen dramatically, but the effect on invasive H. influenzae disease among adults may be more complex. In this population-based study we examined the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive disease caused by typeable and nontypeable H. influenzae among Utah adults during 1998–2008. The overall incidence increased over the study period from 0.14/100,000 person-years in 1998 to 1.61/100,000 person-years in 2008. The average incidence in persons >65 years old was 2.74/100,000 person-years, accounting for 51% of cases and 67% of deaths. The incidence was highest for nontypeable H. influenzae (0.23/100,000 person-years), followed by H. influenzae type f (0.14/100,000 person-years). The case-fatality rate was 22%. The incidence of invasive H. influenzae in Utah adults appears to be increasing. Invasive H. influenzae infection disproportionately affected the elderly and was associated with a high mortality rate.

EID Rubach MP, Bender JM, Mottice S, Hanson K, Weng HY, Korgenski K, et al. Increasing Incidence of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Adults, Utah, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1645-1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101991
AMA Rubach MP, Bender JM, Mottice S, et al. Increasing Incidence of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Adults, Utah, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1645-1650. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101991.
APA Rubach, M. P., Bender, J. M., Mottice, S., Hanson, K., Weng, H. Y., Korgenski, K....Pavia, A. T. (2011). Increasing Incidence of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Adults, Utah, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1645-1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101991.

Central Venous Catheter–associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients [PDF - 426 KB - 8 pages]
F. Al Akhrass et al.

Central venous catheters, often needed by cancer patients, can be the source of Nocardia bacteremia. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 17 cancer patients with Nocardia bacteremia. For 10 patients, the bacteremia was associated with the catheter; for the other 7, it was a disseminated infection. N. nova complex was the leading cause of bacteremia. Nocardia promoted heavy biofilm formation on the surface of central venous catheter segments tested in an in vitro biofilm model. Trimethoprim- and minocycline-based lock solutions had potent in vitro activity against biofilm growth. Patients with Nocardia central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections responded well to catheter removal and antimicrobial drug therapy, whereas those with disseminated bacteremia had poor prognoses.

EID Al Akhrass F, Hachem R, Mohamed JA, Tarrand JJ, Kontoyiannis DP, Chandra J, et al. Central Venous Catheter–associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1651-1658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101810
AMA Al Akhrass F, Hachem R, Mohamed JA, et al. Central Venous Catheter–associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1651-1658. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101810.
APA Al Akhrass, F., Hachem, R., Mohamed, J. A., Tarrand, J. J., Kontoyiannis, D. P., Chandra, J....Raad, I. (2011). Central Venous Catheter–associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1651-1658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101810.

Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile [PDF - 364 KB - 5 pages]
M. E. Balcells et al.

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia.

EID Balcells ME, Rabagliati R, García P, Poggi H, Oddó D, Concha M, et al. Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1659-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100960
AMA Balcells ME, Rabagliati R, García P, et al. Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1659-1663. doi:10.3201/eid1709.100960.
APA Balcells, M. E., Rabagliati, R., García, P., Poggi, H., Oddó, D., Concha, M....Fuerst, P. A. (2011). Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1659-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100960.

Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States [PDF - 274 KB - 6 pages]
J. W. Baddley et al.

To investigate the epidemiology and geographic distribution of histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis in older persons in the United States, we evaluated a random 5% sample of national Medicare data from 1999 through 2008. We calculated national, regional, and state-based incidence rates and determined 90-day postdiagnosis mortality rates. We identified 776 cases (357 histoplasmosis, 345 coccidioidomycosis, 74 blastomycosis). Patient mean age was 75.7 years; 55% were male. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis incidence was highest in the Midwest (6.1 and 1.0 cases/100,000 person-years, respectively); coccidioidomycosis incidence rate was highest in the West (15.2). On the basis of available data, for 86 (11.1%) cases, there was no patient exposure to a traditional disease-endemic area. Knowledge of areas where endemic mycosis incidence is increased may affect diagnostic or prevention measures for older adults at risk.

EID Baddley JW, Winthrop KL, Patkar NM, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Xie F, et al. Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1664-1669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101987
AMA Baddley JW, Winthrop KL, Patkar NM, et al. Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1664-1669. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101987.
APA Baddley, J. W., Winthrop, K. L., Patkar, N. M., Delzell, E., Beukelman, T., Xie, F....Curtis, J. R. (2011). Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1664-1669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101987.

Seroepidemiologic Study of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Outbreak in Boarding School, England [PDF - 209 KB - 8 pages]
S. Johnson et al.

We conducted a seroepidemiologic study during an outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a boarding school in England. Overall, 353 (17%) of students and staff completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample. The attack rate was 40.5% and 34.1% for self-reported acute respiratory infection (ARI). Staff were less likely to be seropositive than students 13–15 years of age (staff 20–49 years, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.30; >50 years AOR 0.20). Teachers were more likely to be seropositive than other staff (AOR 7.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–24.2). Of seropositive persons, 44.6% (95% CI 36.2%–53.3%) did not report ARI. Conversely, of 141 with ARI and 63 with influenza-like illness, 45.8% (95% CI 37.0%–54.0%) and 30.2% (95% CI 19.2%–43.0%) had negative test results, respectively. A weak association was found between seropositivity and a prophylactic dose of antiviral agents (AOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–0.99); prophylactic antiviral agents lowered the odds of ARI by 50%.

EID Johnson S, Ihekweazu C, Hardelid P, Raphaely N, Hoschler K, Bermingham A, et al. Seroepidemiologic Study of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Outbreak in Boarding School, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1670-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100761
AMA Johnson S, Ihekweazu C, Hardelid P, et al. Seroepidemiologic Study of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Outbreak in Boarding School, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1670-1677. doi:10.3201/eid1709.100761.
APA Johnson, S., Ihekweazu, C., Hardelid, P., Raphaely, N., Hoschler, K., Bermingham, A....O’Moore, É. (2011). Seroepidemiologic Study of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Outbreak in Boarding School, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1670-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100761.

Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka [PDF - 212 KB - 7 pages]
M. E. Reller et al.

To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March–October 2007. Immunoglobulin M ELISA was performed on paired serum specimens to diagnose acute (seroconversion or 4-fold titer rise) or past (titer without rise) leptospirosis and seroprevalence (acute). We compared (individually) the diagnostic yield of acute-phase specimens and clinical impression with paired specimens for acute leptospirosis. Of 889 patients with paired specimens, 120 had acute leptosoirosis and 241 had past leptospirosis. The sensitivity and specificity of acute-phase serum specimens were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2%–25.5%) and 69.2% (95% CI 65.5%–72.7%), respectively, and of clinical impression 22.9% (95% CI 15.4%–32.0%) and 91.7% (95% CI 89.2%–93.8%), respectively. For identifying acute leptospirosis, clinical impression is insensitive, and immunoglobulin M results are more insensitive and costly. Rapid, pathogen-based tests for early diagnosis are needed.

EID Reller ME, Bodinayake C, Nagahawatte A, Devasiri V, Kodikara-Arachichi W, Strouse JJ, et al. Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1678-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100915
AMA Reller ME, Bodinayake C, Nagahawatte A, et al. Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1678-1684. doi:10.3201/eid1709.100915.
APA Reller, M. E., Bodinayake, C., Nagahawatte, A., Devasiri, V., Kodikara-Arachichi, W., Strouse, J. J....Woods, C. W. (2011). Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1678-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100915.

Medscape CME Activity
Inpatient Capacity at Children’s Hospitals during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States [PDF - 198 KB - 7 pages]
M. R. Sills et al.

Quantifying how close hospitals came to exhausting capacity during the outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 can help the health care system plan for more virulent pandemics. This ecologic analysis used emergency department (ED) and inpatient data from 34 US children's hospitals. For the 11-week pandemic (H1N1) 2009 period during fall 2009, inpatient occupancy reached 95%, which was lower than the 101% occupancy during the 2008–09 seasonal influenza period. Fewer than 1 additional admission per 10 inpatient beds would have caused hospitals to reach 100% occupancy. Using parameters based on historical precedent, we built 5 models projecting inpatient occupancy, varying the ED visit numbers and admission rate for influenza-related ED visits. The 5 scenarios projected median occupancy as high as 132% of capacity. The pandemic did not exhaust inpatient bed capacity, but a more virulent pandemic has the potential to push children’s hospitals past their maximum inpatient capacity.

EID Sills MR, Hall M, Fieldston ES, Hain PD, Simon HK, Brogan TV, et al. Inpatient Capacity at Children’s Hospitals during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1685-1681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101950
AMA Sills MR, Hall M, Fieldston ES, et al. Inpatient Capacity at Children’s Hospitals during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1685-1681. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101950.
APA Sills, M. R., Hall, M., Fieldston, E. S., Hain, P. D., Simon, H. K., Brogan, T. V....Shah, S. S. (2011). Inpatient Capacity at Children’s Hospitals during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1685-1681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101950.

Medscape CME Activity
Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex Associated with Sinopulmonary Disease, Northeastern USA [PDF - 312 KB - 9 pages]
K. E. Simmon et al.

Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex represent Mycobacterium species that cause invasive infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We report the detection of a new pathogen that had been misidentified as M. chelonae with an atypical antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile. The discovery prompted a multicenter investigation of 26 patients. Almost all patients were from the northeastern United States, and most had underlying sinus or pulmonary disease. Infected patients had clinical features similar to those with M. abscessus infections. Taxonomically, the new pathogen shared molecular identity with members of the M. chelonae-abscessus complex. Multilocus DNA target sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, and deep multilocus sequencing (43 full-length genes) support a new taxon for these microorganisms. Because most isolates originated in Pennsylvania, we propose the name M. franklinii sp. nov. This investigation underscores the need for accurate identification of Mycobacterium spp. to detect new pathogens implicated in human disease.

EID Simmon KE, Brown-Elliott BA, Ridge PG, Durtschi JD, Mann LB, Slechta ES, et al. Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex Associated with Sinopulmonary Disease, Northeastern USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1692-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101667
AMA Simmon KE, Brown-Elliott BA, Ridge PG, et al. Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex Associated with Sinopulmonary Disease, Northeastern USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1692-1700. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101667.
APA Simmon, K. E., Brown-Elliott, B. A., Ridge, P. G., Durtschi, J. D., Mann, L. B., Slechta, E. S....Petti, C. A. (2011). Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex Associated with Sinopulmonary Disease, Northeastern USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1692-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101667.

Estimating Effect of Antiviral Drug Use during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States [PDF - 255 KB - 8 pages]
C. Y. Atkins et al.

From April 2009 through March 2010, during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, ≈8.2 million prescriptions for influenza neuraminidase-inhibiting antiviral drugs were filled in the United States. We estimated the number of hospitalizations likely averted due to use of these antiviral medications. After adjusting for prescriptions that were used for prophylaxis and personal stockpiles, as well as for patients who did not complete their drug regimen, we estimated the filled prescriptions prevented ≈8,400–12,600 hospitalizations (on the basis of median values). Approximately 60% of these prevented hospitalizations were among adults 18–64 years of age, with the remainder almost equally divided between children 0–17 years of age and adults >65 years of age. Public health officials should consider these estimates an indication of success of treating patients during the 2009 pandemic and a warning of the need for renewed planning to cope with the next pandemic.

EID Atkins CY, Patel A, Taylor TH, Biggerstaff M, Merlin TL, Dulin SM, et al. Estimating Effect of Antiviral Drug Use during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1591-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110295
AMA Atkins CY, Patel A, Taylor TH, et al. Estimating Effect of Antiviral Drug Use during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1591-1598. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110295.
APA Atkins, C. Y., Patel, A., Taylor, T. H., Biggerstaff, M., Merlin, T. L., Dulin, S. M....Meltzer, M. I. (2011). Estimating Effect of Antiviral Drug Use during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1591-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110295.
Dispatches

High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002–2010 [PDF - 247 KB - 3 pages]
E. R. Wertheimer et al.

To estimate malaria rates in association with birth country, we analyzed routine surveillance data for US military members. During 2002–2010, rates were 44× higher for those born in western Africa than for those born in the United States. Loss of natural immunity renders persons susceptible when visiting birth countries. Pretravel chemoprophylaxis should be emphasized.

EID Wertheimer ER, Brundage JF, Fukuda MM. High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1701-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110318
AMA Wertheimer ER, Brundage JF, Fukuda MM. High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1701-1703. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110318.
APA Wertheimer, E. R., Brundage, J. F., & Fukuda, M. M. (2011). High Rates of Malaria among US Military Members Born in Malaria-Endemic Countries, 2002–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1701-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110318.

Differential Risk for Lyme Disease along Hiking Trail, Germany [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
D. Richter and F. Matuschka

To estimate relative risk for exposure to ticks infected with Lyme disease–causing spirochetes in different land-use types along a trail in Germany, we compared tick density and spirochete prevalence on ruminant pasture with that on meadow and fallow land. Risk was significantly lower on pasture than on meadow and fallow land.

EID Richter D, Matuschka F. Differential Risk for Lyme Disease along Hiking Trail, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1704-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101523
AMA Richter D, Matuschka F. Differential Risk for Lyme Disease along Hiking Trail, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1704-1706. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101523.
APA Richter, D., & Matuschka, F. (2011). Differential Risk for Lyme Disease along Hiking Trail, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1704-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101523.

Bartonella quintana Infections in Captive Monkeys, China [PDF - 241 KB - 3 pages]
R. Huang et al.

Bartonella quintana has been considered to be specifically adapted to humans. Our isolation of the organism from 2 of 36 captive rhesus macaques in China and finding antibodies against B. quintana in 12 of 33 indicates that the reservoir hosts of B. quintana may include primates other than humans.

EID Huang R, Liu Q, Li G, Li D, Song X, Birtles RJ, et al. Bartonella quintana Infections in Captive Monkeys, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1707-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110133
AMA Huang R, Liu Q, Li G, et al. Bartonella quintana Infections in Captive Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1707-1709. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110133.
APA Huang, R., Liu, Q., Li, G., Li, D., Song, X., Birtles, R. J....Zhao, F. (2011). Bartonella quintana Infections in Captive Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1707-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110133.

Canine Serology as Adjunct to Human Lyme Disease Surveillance [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
P. S. Mead et al.

To better define areas of human Lyme disease risk, we compared US surveillance data with published data on the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies among domestic dogs. Canine seroprevalence >5% was a sensitive but nonspecific marker of human risk, whereas seroprevalence <1% was associated with minimal risk for human infection.

EID Mead PS, Goel R, Kugeler KJ. Canine Serology as Adjunct to Human Lyme Disease Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1710-1712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110210
AMA Mead PS, Goel R, Kugeler KJ. Canine Serology as Adjunct to Human Lyme Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1710-1712. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110210.
APA Mead, P. S., Goel, R., & Kugeler, K. J. (2011). Canine Serology as Adjunct to Human Lyme Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1710-1712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110210.

Predominance of Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 in Neonatal Infections [PDF - 107 KB - 3 pages]
S. Joseph and S. J. Forsythe

A 7-loci (3,036 nt) multilocus sequence typing scheme was applied to 41 clinical isolates of Cronobacter sakazakii. Half (20/41) of the C. sakazakii strains were sequence type (ST) 4, and 9/12 meningitis isolates were ST4. C. sakazakii ST4 appears to be a highly stable clone with a high propensity for neonatal meningitis.

EID Joseph S, Forsythe SJ. Predominance of Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 in Neonatal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1713-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110260
AMA Joseph S, Forsythe SJ. Predominance of Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 in Neonatal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1713-1715. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110260.
APA Joseph, S., & Forsythe, S. J. (2011). Predominance of Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 in Neonatal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1713-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110260.

Wild Rodents and Novel Human Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Southern Sweden [PDF - 155 KB - 3 pages]
M. Andersson and L. Råberg

We examined small mammals as hosts for Anaplasmataceae in southern Sweden. Of 771 rodents, 68 (8.8%) were infected by Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, but no other Anaplasmataceae were found. Candidatus N. mikurensis has recently been found in human patients in Germany, Switzerland, and Sweden, which suggests that this could be an emerging pathogen in Europe.

EID Andersson M, Råberg L. Wild Rodents and Novel Human Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Southern Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1716-1718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101058
AMA Andersson M, Råberg L. Wild Rodents and Novel Human Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Southern Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1716-1718. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101058.
APA Andersson, M., & Råberg, L. (2011). Wild Rodents and Novel Human Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Southern Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1716-1718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101058.

Q Fever among Culling Workers, the Netherlands, 2009–2010 [PDF - 359 KB - 5 pages]
J. Whelan et al.

In 2009, dairy goat farms in the Netherlands were implicated in >2,300 cases of Q fever; in response, 51,820 small ruminants were culled. Among 517 culling workers, despite use of personal protective equipment, 17.5% seroconverted for antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. Vaccination of culling workers could be considered.

EID Whelan J, Schimmer B, Schneeberger PM, Meekelenkamp J, van der Hoek W, Holle MR. Q Fever among Culling Workers, the Netherlands, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1719-1723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110051
AMA Whelan J, Schimmer B, Schneeberger PM, et al. Q Fever among Culling Workers, the Netherlands, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1719-1723. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110051.
APA Whelan, J., Schimmer, B., Schneeberger, P. M., Meekelenkamp, J., van der Hoek, W., & Holle, M. R. (2011). Q Fever among Culling Workers, the Netherlands, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1719-1723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110051.

Syndromic Surveillance during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York, New York, USA [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
M. G. Plagianos et al.

We compared emergency department and ambulatory care syndromic surveillance systems during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in New York City. Emergency departments likely experienced increases in influenza-like-illness significantly earlier than ambulatory care facilities because more patients sought care at emergency departments, differences in case definitions existed, or a combination thereof.

EID Plagianos MG, Wu WY, McCullough C, Paladini M, Lurio J, Buck MD, et al. Syndromic Surveillance during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1724-1726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101357
AMA Plagianos MG, Wu WY, McCullough C, et al. Syndromic Surveillance during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1724-1726. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101357.
APA Plagianos, M. G., Wu, W. Y., McCullough, C., Paladini, M., Lurio, J., Buck, M. D....Soulakis, N. (2011). Syndromic Surveillance during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, New York, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1724-1726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101357.

Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient [PDF - 316 KB - 4 pages]
M. M. Choudhary et al.

The Phylum Microsporidia comprises >1,200 species, only 15 of which are known to infect humans, including the genera Trachipleistophora, Pleistophora, and Brachiola. We report an infection by Tubulinosema sp. in an immunosuppressed patient.

EID Choudhary MM, Metcalfe MG, Arrambide K, Bern C, Visvesvara GS, Pieniazek NJ, et al. Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1727-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101926
AMA Choudhary MM, Metcalfe MG, Arrambide K, et al. Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1727-1730. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101926.
APA Choudhary, M. M., Metcalfe, M. G., Arrambide, K., Bern, C., Visvesvara, G. S., Pieniazek, N. J....Saeed, M. U. (2011). Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1727-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101926.

Listeriosis, Taiwan, 1996–2008 [PDF - 182 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Huang et al.

During 1996–2008, a total of 48 patients with listeriosis were identified at a Taiwan hospital. Average annual incidence increased from 0.029 to 0.118 cases per 1,000 admissions before and after January 2005. Serotype 1/2b predominated; serotype 4b emerged since 2004. Food monitoring and disease surveillance systems could help control listeriosis in Taiwan.

EID Huang Y, Liao C, Yang C, Teng L, Wang J, Hsueh P. Listeriosis, Taiwan, 1996–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1731-1733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110093
AMA Huang Y, Liao C, Yang C, et al. Listeriosis, Taiwan, 1996–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1731-1733. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110093.
APA Huang, Y., Liao, C., Yang, C., Teng, L., Wang, J., & Hsueh, P. (2011). Listeriosis, Taiwan, 1996–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1731-1733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110093.

Tattoo-associated Mycobacterium haemophilum Skin Infection in Immunocompetent Adult, 2009 [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
M. K. Kay et al.

After a laboratory-confirmed case of Mycobacterium haemophilum skin infection in a recently tattooed immunocompetent adult was reported, we investigated to identify the infection source and additional cases. We found 1 laboratory-confirmed and 1 suspected case among immunocompetent adults who had been tattooed at the same parlor.

EID Kay MK, Perti TR, Duchin JS. Tattoo-associated Mycobacterium haemophilum Skin Infection in Immunocompetent Adult, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1734-1736. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102011
AMA Kay MK, Perti TR, Duchin JS. Tattoo-associated Mycobacterium haemophilum Skin Infection in Immunocompetent Adult, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1734-1736. doi:10.3201/eid1709.102011.
APA Kay, M. K., Perti, T. R., & Duchin, J. S. (2011). Tattoo-associated Mycobacterium haemophilum Skin Infection in Immunocompetent Adult, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1734-1736. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102011.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Transmission during Presymptomatic Phase, Japan [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Gu et al.

During an epidemiologic investigation of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in May 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we found 3 clusters in which virus transmission occurred during the presymptomatic phase. This finding has public health implications because it indicates that viral transmission in communities cannot be prevented solely by isolating symptomatic case-patients.

EID Gu Y, Komiya N, Kamiya H, Yasui Y, Taniguchi K, Okabe N. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Transmission during Presymptomatic Phase, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1737-1739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101411
AMA Gu Y, Komiya N, Kamiya H, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Transmission during Presymptomatic Phase, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1737-1739. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101411.
APA Gu, Y., Komiya, N., Kamiya, H., Yasui, Y., Taniguchi, K., & Okabe, N. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Transmission during Presymptomatic Phase, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1737-1739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101411.

Increased Extent of and Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza among Children, Israel [PDF - 316 KB - 4 pages]
D. Engelhard et al.

During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in Israel, incidence rates among children were 2× higher than that of the previous 4 influenza seasons; hospitalization rates were 5× higher. Children hospitalized for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were older and had more underlying chronic diseases than those hospitalized for seasonal influenza.

EID Engelhard D, Bromberg M, Averbuch D, Tenenbaum A, Goldmann D, Kunin M, et al. Increased Extent of and Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza among Children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1740-1743. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102022
AMA Engelhard D, Bromberg M, Averbuch D, et al. Increased Extent of and Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza among Children, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1740-1743. doi:10.3201/eid1709.102022.
APA Engelhard, D., Bromberg, M., Averbuch, D., Tenenbaum, A., Goldmann, D., Kunin, M....Grotto, I. (2011). Increased Extent of and Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza among Children, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1740-1743. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102022.

Hospitalized Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Kenya [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
E. M. Osoro et al.

To describe the epidemiology and clinical course of patients hospitalized with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Kenya, we reviewed medical records of 49 such patients hospitalized during July–November 2009. The median age (7 years) was lower than that in industrialized countries. More patients had HIV than the general Kenyan population.

EID Osoro EM, Munyua P, Muthoka P, Gikundi S, Njenga MK, Lifumo S, et al. Hospitalized Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1744-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100992
AMA Osoro EM, Munyua P, Muthoka P, et al. Hospitalized Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1744-1746. doi:10.3201/eid1709.100992.
APA Osoro, E. M., Munyua, P., Muthoka, P., Gikundi, S., Njenga, M. K., Lifumo, S....Katz, M. A. (2011). Hospitalized Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1744-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.100992.

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Canada, 2010 [PDF - 266 KB - 4 pages]
C. Gaudreau et al.

In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.

EID Gaudreau C, Ratnayake R, Pilon PA, Gagnon S, Roger M, Lévesque S. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Canada, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1747-1750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102034
AMA Gaudreau C, Ratnayake R, Pilon PA, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Canada, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1747-1750. doi:10.3201/eid1709.102034.
APA Gaudreau, C., Ratnayake, R., Pilon, P. A., Gagnon, S., Roger, M., & Lévesque, S. (2011). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Canada, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1747-1750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102034.

Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany [PDF - 157 KB - 4 pages]
S. Zordan et al.

An increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. in hospitalized animals was observed at the Justus-Liebig-University (Germany). Genotypic analysis of 56 isolates during 2000–2008 showed 3 clusters that corresponded to European clones I–III. Results indicate spread of genotypically related strains within and among veterinary clinics in Germany.

EID Zordan S, Prenger-Berninghoff E, Weiss R, van der Reijden T, van den Broek P, Baljer G, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1751-1754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101931
AMA Zordan S, Prenger-Berninghoff E, Weiss R, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1751-1754. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101931.
APA Zordan, S., Prenger-Berninghoff, E., Weiss, R., van der Reijden, T., van den Broek, P., Baljer, G....Dijkshoorn, L. (2011). Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1751-1754. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101931.
Letters

Escherichia coli O104:H4 from 2011 European Outbreak and Strain from South Korea [PDF - 170 KB - 2 pages]
J. Kim et al.
EID Kim J, Oh K, Jeon S, Cho S, Lee D, Hong S, et al. Escherichia coli O104:H4 from 2011 European Outbreak and Strain from South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1755-1756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110879
AMA Kim J, Oh K, Jeon S, et al. Escherichia coli O104:H4 from 2011 European Outbreak and Strain from South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1755-1756. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110879.
APA Kim, J., Oh, K., Jeon, S., Cho, S., Lee, D., Hong, S....Kim, S. (2011). Escherichia coli O104:H4 from 2011 European Outbreak and Strain from South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1755-1756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110879.

Respiratory Illness in Households of School-Dismissed Students during Influenza Pandemic, 2009 [PDF - 96 KB - 2 pages]
N. J. Cohen et al.
EID Cohen NJ, Callahan DB, Gonzalez V, Balaban V, Wang RT, Pordell P, et al. Respiratory Illness in Households of School-Dismissed Students during Influenza Pandemic, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1756-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101589
AMA Cohen NJ, Callahan DB, Gonzalez V, et al. Respiratory Illness in Households of School-Dismissed Students during Influenza Pandemic, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1756-1757. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101589.
APA Cohen, N. J., Callahan, D. B., Gonzalez, V., Balaban, V., Wang, R. T., Pordell, P....Massoudi, M. S. (2011). Respiratory Illness in Households of School-Dismissed Students during Influenza Pandemic, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1756-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101589.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Swine Herds, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 163 KB - 3 pages]
H. Zhou et al.
EID Zhou H, Wang C, Yang Y, Guo X, Kang C, Chen H, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Swine Herds, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1757-1759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101916
AMA Zhou H, Wang C, Yang Y, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Swine Herds, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1757-1759. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101916.
APA Zhou, H., Wang, C., Yang, Y., Guo, X., Kang, C., Chen, H....Jin, M. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Swine Herds, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1757-1759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101916.

Pulmonary Disease Associated with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oregon, USA [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]
K. L. Winthrop et al.
EID Winthrop KL, Varley CD, Ory J, Cassidy P, Hedberg K. Pulmonary Disease Associated with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oregon, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1760-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101929
AMA Winthrop KL, Varley CD, Ory J, et al. Pulmonary Disease Associated with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oregon, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1760-1761. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101929.
APA Winthrop, K. L., Varley, C. D., Ory, J., Cassidy, P., & Hedberg, K. (2011). Pulmonary Disease Associated with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oregon, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1760-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101929.

Carriage of Meningococci by University Students, United Kingdom [PDF - 89 KB - 3 pages]
D. A. Ala’Aldeen et al.
EID Ala’Aldeen DA, Oldfield NJ, Bidmos FA, Abouseada NM, Ahmed NW, Turner D, et al. Carriage of Meningococci by University Students, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1762-1763. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101762
AMA Ala’Aldeen DA, Oldfield NJ, Bidmos FA, et al. Carriage of Meningococci by University Students, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1762-1763. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101762.
APA Ala’Aldeen, D. A., Oldfield, N. J., Bidmos, F. A., Abouseada, N. M., Ahmed, N. W., Turner, D....Bayliss, C. D. (2011). Carriage of Meningococci by University Students, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1762-1763. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101762.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Neonates, Japan [PDF - 105 KB - 3 pages]
N. Takahashi et al.
EID Takahashi N, Kitajima H, Kusuda S, Morioka I, Itabashi K. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Neonates, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1763-1765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101803
AMA Takahashi N, Kitajima H, Kusuda S, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Neonates, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1763-1765. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101803.
APA Takahashi, N., Kitajima, H., Kusuda, S., Morioka, I., & Itabashi, K. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Neonates, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1763-1765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101803.

Social Network as Outbreak Investigation Tool [PDF - 83 KB - 2 pages]
J. F. Howland and C. Conover
EID Howland JF, Conover C. Social Network as Outbreak Investigation Tool. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1765-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110088
AMA Howland JF, Conover C. Social Network as Outbreak Investigation Tool. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1765-1766. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110088.
APA Howland, J. F., & Conover, C. (2011). Social Network as Outbreak Investigation Tool. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1765-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110088.

Susceptibility of Health Care Students to Measles, Paris, France [PDF - 89 KB - 2 pages]
P. Loulergue et al.
EID Loulergue P, Guthmann J, Fonteneau L, Armengaud J, Levy-Brühl D, Launay O. Susceptibility of Health Care Students to Measles, Paris, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1766-1767. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110141
AMA Loulergue P, Guthmann J, Fonteneau L, et al. Susceptibility of Health Care Students to Measles, Paris, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1766-1767. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110141.
APA Loulergue, P., Guthmann, J., Fonteneau, L., Armengaud, J., Levy-Brühl, D., & Launay, O. (2011). Susceptibility of Health Care Students to Measles, Paris, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1766-1767. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110141.

Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in Woman and Cat [PDF - 95 KB - 3 pages]
A. Berger et al.
EID Berger A, Huber I, Merbecks S, Ehrhard I, Konrad R, Hörmansdorfer S, et al. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in Woman and Cat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1767-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110391
AMA Berger A, Huber I, Merbecks S, et al. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in Woman and Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1767-1769. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110391.
APA Berger, A., Huber, I., Merbecks, S., Ehrhard, I., Konrad, R., Hörmansdorfer, S....Sing, A. (2011). Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in Woman and Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1767-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110391.

Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis, Taiwan, 2000–2010 [PDF - 79 KB - 2 pages]
C. Lai et al.
EID Lai C, Tan C, Huang Y, Liao C, Hsueh P. Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis, Taiwan, 2000–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1769-1770. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110447
AMA Lai C, Tan C, Huang Y, et al. Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis, Taiwan, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1769-1770. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110447.
APA Lai, C., Tan, C., Huang, Y., Liao, C., & Hsueh, P. (2011). Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis, Taiwan, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1769-1770. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110447.

Novel Mycobacterium Species in Seahorses with Tail Rot [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
J. L. Balcázar et al.
EID Balcázar JL, Planas M, Pintado J. Novel Mycobacterium Species in Seahorses with Tail Rot. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1770-1772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101289
AMA Balcázar JL, Planas M, Pintado J. Novel Mycobacterium Species in Seahorses with Tail Rot. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1770-1772. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101289.
APA Balcázar, J. L., Planas, M., & Pintado, J. (2011). Novel Mycobacterium Species in Seahorses with Tail Rot. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1770-1772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101289.

Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. in Calves, China [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
J. Chang et al.
EID Chang J, Liu H, Yu L. Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. in Calves, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1772-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101891
AMA Chang J, Liu H, Yu L. Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. in Calves, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1772-1773. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101891.
APA Chang, J., Liu, H., & Yu, L. (2011). Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. in Calves, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1772-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101891.

Bartonella clarridgeiae in Fleas, Tahiti, French Polynesia [PDF - 84 KB - 3 pages]
T. Kernif et al.
EID Kernif T, Parola P, Davoust B, Plaire L, Cabre O, Raoult D, et al. Bartonella clarridgeiae in Fleas, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1773-1775. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102063
AMA Kernif T, Parola P, Davoust B, et al. Bartonella clarridgeiae in Fleas, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1773-1775. doi:10.3201/eid1709.102063.
APA Kernif, T., Parola, P., Davoust, B., Plaire, L., Cabre, O., Raoult, D....Rolain, J. (2011). Bartonella clarridgeiae in Fleas, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1773-1775. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.102063.

Bocavirus in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections [PDF - 96 KB - 2 pages]
L. Guo et al.
EID Guo L, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, Zhou H, Liu C, Wu C, et al. Bocavirus in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1775-1777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110078
AMA Guo L, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, et al. Bocavirus in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1775-1777. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110078.
APA Guo, L., Gonzalez, R., Xie, Z., Zhou, H., Liu, C., Wu, C....Wang, J. (2011). Bocavirus in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1775-1777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110078.

Highly Virulent Escherichia coli O26, Scotland [PDF - 102 KB - 3 pages]
K. Pollock et al.
EID Pollock K, Bhojani S, Beattie TJ, Allison L, Hanson M, Locking ME, et al. Highly Virulent Escherichia coli O26, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1777-1779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110199
AMA Pollock K, Bhojani S, Beattie TJ, et al. Highly Virulent Escherichia coli O26, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1777-1779. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110199.
APA Pollock, K., Bhojani, S., Beattie, T. J., Allison, L., Hanson, M., Locking, M. E....Cowden, J. M. (2011). Highly Virulent Escherichia coli O26, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1777-1779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110199.

Perinatal Transmission of Yellow Fever, Brazil, 2009 [PDF - 159 KB - 2 pages]
M. R. Bentlin et al.
EID Bentlin MR, Almeida RA, Coelho KI, Ribeiro AF, Siciliano MM, Suzuki A, et al. Perinatal Transmission of Yellow Fever, Brazil, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1779-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110242
AMA Bentlin MR, Almeida RA, Coelho KI, et al. Perinatal Transmission of Yellow Fever, Brazil, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1779-1780. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110242.
APA Bentlin, M. R., Almeida, R. A., Coelho, K. I., Ribeiro, A. F., Siciliano, M. M., Suzuki, A....Fortaleza, C. M. (2011). Perinatal Transmission of Yellow Fever, Brazil, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1779-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110242.

Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Wild Rodents, Canary Islands, Spain [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
P. Foronda et al.
EID Foronda P, Martin-Alonso A, del Castillo-Figueruelo B, Feliu C, Gil H, Valladares B. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Wild Rodents, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1781-1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101470
AMA Foronda P, Martin-Alonso A, del Castillo-Figueruelo B, et al. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Wild Rodents, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1781-1782. doi:10.3201/eid1709.101470.
APA Foronda, P., Martin-Alonso, A., del Castillo-Figueruelo, B., Feliu, C., Gil, H., & Valladares, B. (2011). Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Wild Rodents, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1781-1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101470.

Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Asia [PDF - 139 KB - 3 pages]
T. An et al.
EID An T, Tian Z, Leng C, Peng J, Tong G. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1782-1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110411
AMA An T, Tian Z, Leng C, et al. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1782-1784. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110411.
APA An, T., Tian, Z., Leng, C., Peng, J., & Tong, G. (2011). Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1782-1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110411.

Etymologia: Pseudoterranova azarasi [PDF - 21 KB - 1 page]
S. A. Norton and D. I. Gibson
EID Norton SA, Gibson DI. Etymologia: Pseudoterranova azarasi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110541
AMA Norton SA, Gibson DI. Etymologia: Pseudoterranova azarasi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1784. doi:10.3201/eid1709.110541.
APA Norton, S. A., & Gibson, D. I. (2011). Etymologia: Pseudoterranova azarasi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110541.
About the Cover

The Monkey’s Paw [PDF - 192 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Monkey’s Paw . Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1785-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.ac1709
AMA Potter P. The Monkey’s Paw . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1785-1786. doi:10.3201/eid1709.ac1709.
APA Potter, P. (2011). The Monkey’s Paw . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1785-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.ac1709.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Mycobacterium chelonae [PDF - 121 KB - 1 page]
N. Männikkö
EID Männikkö N. Etymologia: Mycobacterium chelonae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.et1709
AMA Männikkö N. Etymologia: Mycobacterium chelonae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1712. doi:10.3201/eid1709.et1709.
APA Männikkö, N. (2011). Etymologia: Mycobacterium chelonae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.et1709.
Conference Summaries

Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Development, Progress and Constraints
J. Kortekaas et al.
Corrections

Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2 [PDF - 21 KB - 1 page]
EID Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c11709
AMA Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1784. doi:10.3201/eid1709.c11709.
APA (2011). Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c11709.

Errata—Vol. 17, No. 3 [PDF - 21 KB - 1 page]
EID Errata—Vol. 17, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c21709
AMA Errata—Vol. 17, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1784. doi:10.3201/eid1709.c21709.
APA (2011). Errata—Vol. 17, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c21709.

Errata—Vol. 17, No. 6 [PDF - 21 KB - 1 page]
EID Errata—Vol. 17, No. 6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c31709
AMA Errata—Vol. 17, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1784. doi:10.3201/eid1709.c31709.
APA (2011). Errata—Vol. 17, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c31709.

Errata—Vol. 17, No. 7 [PDF - 21 KB - 1 page]
EID Errata—Vol. 17, No. 7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(9):1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c41709
AMA Errata—Vol. 17, No. 7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(9):1784. doi:10.3201/eid1709.c41709.
APA (2011). Errata—Vol. 17, No. 7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(9), 1784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.c41709.
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