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Issue Cover for Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013

Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013

[PDF - 8.69 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control [PDF - 554 KB - 5 pages]
O. Dar et al.

Although Rift Valley fever is a disease that, through its wider societal effects, disproportionately affects vulnerable communities with poor resilience to economic and environmental challenge, Rift Valley fever virus has since its discovery in 1931 been neglected by major global donors and disease control programs. We describe recent outbreaks affecting humans and animals and discuss the serious socioeconomic effects on the communities affected and the slow pace of development of new vaccines. We also discuss the mixed global response, which has largely been fueled by the classification of the virus as a potential bioterrorism agent and its potential to migrate beyond its traditional eastern African boundaries. We argue for a refocus of strategy with increased global collaboration and a greater sense of urgency and investment that focuses on an equity-based approach in which funding and research are prioritized by need, inspired by principles of equity and social justice.

EID Dar O, McIntyre S, Hogarth S, Heymann D. Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):189-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120941
AMA Dar O, McIntyre S, Hogarth S, et al. Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):189-193. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120941.
APA Dar, O., McIntyre, S., Hogarth, S., & Heymann, D. (2013). Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 189-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120941.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010 [PDF - 2.48 MB - 9 pages]
M. A. Silverman et al.

We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic characteristics of 15 cases of eastern equine encephalitis in children during 1970–2010. The most common clinical and laboratory features were fever, headache, seizures, peripheral leukocytosis, and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophilic pleocytosis. Radiographic lesions were found in the basal ganglia, thalami, and cerebral cortex. Clinical outcomes included severe neurologic deficits in 5 (33%) patients, death of 4 (27%), full recovery of 4 (27%), and mild neurologic deficits in 2 (13%). We identify an association between a short prodrome and an increased risk for death or for severe disease.

EID Silverman MA, Misasi J, Smole S, Feldman HA, Cohen AB, Santagata S, et al. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):194-201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120039
AMA Silverman MA, Misasi J, Smole S, et al. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):194-201. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120039.
APA Silverman, M. A., Misasi, J., Smole, S., Feldman, H. A., Cohen, A. B., Santagata, S....Ahmed, A. A. (2013). Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 194-201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120039.

Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi [PDF - 791 KB - 8 pages]
A. Minetti et al.

Despite high reported coverage for routine and supplementary immunization, in 2010 in Malawi, a large measles outbreak occurred that comprised 134,000 cases and 304 deaths. Although the highest attack rates were for young children (2.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% for children <6, 6–8, and 9–11 months, respectively), persons >15 years of age were highly affected (1.0% and 0.4% for persons 15–19 and >19 years, respectively; 28% of all cases). A survey in 8 districts showed routine coverage of 95.0% for children 12–23 months; 57.9% for children 9–11 months; and 60.7% for children covered during the last supplementary immunization activities in 2008. Vaccine effectiveness was 83.9% for 1 dose and 90.5% for 2 doses. A continuous accumulation of susceptible persons during the past decade probably accounts for this outbreak. Countries en route to measles elimination, such as Malawi, should improve outbreak preparedness. Timeliness and the population chosen are crucial elements for reactive campaigns.

EID Minetti A, Kagoli M, Katsulukuta A, Huerga H, Featherstone A, Chiotcha H, et al. Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):202-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120301
AMA Minetti A, Kagoli M, Katsulukuta A, et al. Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):202-209. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120301.
APA Minetti, A., Kagoli, M., Katsulukuta, A., Huerga, H., Featherstone, A., Chiotcha, H....Luquero, F. J. (2013). Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 202-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120301.

Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh [PDF - 881 KB - 8 pages]
H. Sazzad et al.

Active Nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in Faridpur, Bangladesh, in January 2010. We identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. For 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patient’s exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. Among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic cases, 6 died, including a physician who had physically examined encephalitis patients without gloves or a mask. Nipah virus–infected patients were more likely than community-based controls to report drinking raw date palm sap and to have had physical contact with an encephalitis patient (29% vs. 4%, matched odds ratio undefined). Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on reducing caregivers’ exposure to infected patients’ bodily secretions during care and traditional burial practices.

EID Sazzad H, Hossain M, Gurley ES, Ameen K, Parveen S, Islam M, et al. Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):210-217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120971
AMA Sazzad H, Hossain M, Gurley ES, et al. Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):210-217. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120971.
APA Sazzad, H., Hossain, M., Gurley, E. S., Ameen, K., Parveen, S., Islam, M....Luby, S. P. (2013). Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 210-217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120971.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012 [PDF - 635 KB - 6 pages]
J. Drobeniuc et al.

To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005–March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history.

EID Drobeniuc J, Greene-Montfort T, Le N, Mixson-Hayden TR, Ganova-Raeva L, Dong C, et al. Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):218-222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120961
AMA Drobeniuc J, Greene-Montfort T, Le N, et al. Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):218-222. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120961.
APA Drobeniuc, J., Greene-Montfort, T., Le, N., Mixson-Hayden, T. R., Ganova-Raeva, L., Dong, C....Teo, C. (2013). Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 218-222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120961.

Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya [PDF - 467 KB - 7 pages]
P. Munywoki et al.

Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified readmissions for pneumonia among this group during early childhood (<60 months of age). Incidence of readmission for pneumonia was higher for children whose first admission as infants was for LRTI and who were <3 months of age than for children who were first admitted as infants for non-LRTI, irrespective of RSV status. Incidence of readmission for pneumonia with wheeze was higher for children whose first admission involved RSV compared with those who had non-RSV LRTI. Excess pneumonia risk persisted for 2 years after the initial hospitalization. Close postdischarge follow-up of infants with LRTI, with or without RSV, could help prevent severe pneumonia later in childhood.

EID Munywoki P, Ohuma EO, Ngama M, Bauni E, Scott J, Nokes D. Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):223-229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120940
AMA Munywoki P, Ohuma EO, Ngama M, et al. Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):223-229. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120940.
APA Munywoki, P., Ohuma, E. O., Ngama, M., Bauni, E., Scott, J., & Nokes, D. (2013). Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 223-229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120940.

Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria [PDF - 3.25 MB - 7 pages]
N. Cabanel et al.

After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

EID Cabanel N, Leclercq A, Chenal-Francisque V, Annajar B, Rajerison M, Bekkhoucha S, et al. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):230-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121031
AMA Cabanel N, Leclercq A, Chenal-Francisque V, et al. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):230-236. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121031.
APA Cabanel, N., Leclercq, A., Chenal-Francisque, V., Annajar, B., Rajerison, M., Bekkhoucha, S....Carniel, E. (2013). Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 230-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121031.

Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005 [PDF - 1.56 MB - 9 pages]
Y. Nakazawa et al.

Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans.

EID Nakazawa Y, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, Zhao H, Li Y, Reynolds MG, et al. Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):237-245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121220
AMA Nakazawa Y, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, et al. Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):237-245. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121220.
APA Nakazawa, Y., Emerson, G. L., Carroll, D. S., Zhao, H., Li, Y., Reynolds, M. G....Damon, I. K. (2013). Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 237-245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121220.

Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010 [PDF - 1.05 MB - 8 pages]
I. E. Aradaib et al.

To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

EID Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Elageb RM, Khristova ML, Carroll SA, Elkhidir IM, et al. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):246-253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120834
AMA Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Elageb RM, et al. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):246-253. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120834.
APA Aradaib, I. E., Erickson, B. R., Elageb, R. M., Khristova, M. L., Carroll, S. A., Elkhidir, I. M....Nichol, S. T. (2013). Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 246-253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120834.
Historical Review

Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A [PDF - 1.94 MB - 6 pages]
E. Tognotti

In the new millennium, the centuries-old strategy of quarantine is becoming a powerful component of the public health response to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. During the 2003 pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome, the use of quarantine, border controls, contact tracing, and surveillance proved effective in containing the global threat in just over 3 months. For centuries, these practices have been the cornerstone of organized responses to infectious disease outbreaks. However, the use of quarantine and other measures for controlling epidemic diseases has always been controversial because such strategies raise political, ethical, and socioeconomic issues and require a careful balance between public interest and individual rights. In a globalized world that is becoming ever more vulnerable to communicable diseases, a historical perspective can help clarify the use and implications of a still-valid public health strategy.

EID Tognotti E. Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):254-259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120312
AMA Tognotti E. Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):254-259. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120312.
APA Tognotti, E. (2013). Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 254-259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120312.
Dispatches

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco [PDF - 6.65 MB - 4 pages]
A. M. Palomar et al.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus was detected in ticks removed from migratory birds in Morocco. This finding demonstrates the circulation of this virus in northwestern Africa and supports the hypothesis that the virus can be introduced into Europe by infected ticks transported from Africa by migratory birds.

EID Palomar AM, Portillo A, Santibáñez P, Mazuelas D, Arizaga J, Crespo A, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):260-263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121193
AMA Palomar AM, Portillo A, Santibáñez P, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):260-263. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121193.
APA Palomar, A. M., Portillo, A., Santibáñez, P., Mazuelas, D., Arizaga, J., Crespo, A....Oteo, J. A. (2013). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 260-263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121193.

Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France [PDF - 2.25 MB - 3 pages]
A. Berto et al.

We investigated viability of hepatitis E virus (HEV) identified in contaminated pork liver sausages obtained from France. HEV replication was demonstrated in 1 of 4 samples by using a 3-dimensional cell culture system. The risk for human infection with HEV by consumption of these sausages should be considered to be high.

EID Berto A, Grierson S, Hakze-van der Honing R, Martelli F, Johne R, Reetz J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):264-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121255
AMA Berto A, Grierson S, Hakze-van der Honing R, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):264-266. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121255.
APA Berto, A., Grierson, S., Hakze-van der Honing, R., Martelli, F., Johne, R., Reetz, J....Banks, M. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 264-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121255.

Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011 [PDF - 3.21 MB - 3 pages]
J. M. Ramos et al.

Human infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was initially reported in 1996, and reports of a total of 18 cases have been published. We describe 6 additional cases that occurred in the Mediterranean coast region of Spain during 2007–2011. Clinicians should consider this infection in patients who have traveled to this area.

EID Ramos JM, Jado I, Padilla S, Masiá M, Anda P, Gutiérrez F. Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):267-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111706
AMA Ramos JM, Jado I, Padilla S, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):267-269. doi:10.3201/eid1902.111706.
APA Ramos, J. M., Jado, I., Padilla, S., Masiá, M., Anda, P., & Gutiérrez, F. (2013). Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 267-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111706.

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh [PDF - 13.19 MB - 4 pages]
K. J. Olival et al.

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

EID Olival KJ, Islam A, Yu M, Anthony SJ, Epstein JH, Khan S, et al. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):270-273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120524
AMA Olival KJ, Islam A, Yu M, et al. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):270-273. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120524.
APA Olival, K. J., Islam, A., Yu, M., Anthony, S. J., Epstein, J. H., Khan, S....Daszak, P. (2013). Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 270-273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120524.

Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996 [PDF - 2.54 MB - 4 pages]
H. Weissenböck et al.

Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed.

EID Weissenböck H, Bakonyi T, Rossi G, Mani P, Nowotny N. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):274-277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121191
AMA Weissenböck H, Bakonyi T, Rossi G, et al. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):274-277. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121191.
APA Weissenböck, H., Bakonyi, T., Rossi, G., Mani, P., & Nowotny, N. (2013). Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 274-277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121191.

Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012 [PDF - 32.27 MB - 4 pages]
G. S. Kasabi et al.

To determine the cause of the recent upsurge in Kyasanur Forest disease, we investigated the outbreak that occurred during December 2011–March 2012 in India. Male patients >14 years of age were most commonly affected. Although vaccination is the key strategy for preventing disease, vaccine for boosters was unavailable during 2011, which might be a reason for the increased cases.

EID Kasabi GS, Murhekar MV, Yadav PD, Raghunandan R, Kiran S, Sandhya V, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):278-281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120544
AMA Kasabi GS, Murhekar MV, Yadav PD, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):278-281. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120544.
APA Kasabi, G. S., Murhekar, M. V., Yadav, P. D., Raghunandan, R., Kiran, S., Sandhya, V....Mehendale, S. M. (2013). Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 278-281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120544.

Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA [PDF - 947 KB - 4 pages]
A. J. Burton et al.

Macrolide and rifampin resistance developed on a horse breeding farm after widespread use was instituted for treatment of subclinical pulmonary lesions in foals. Resistance occurred in 6 (24%) of 25 pretreatment and 8 (62%) of 13 (62%) posttreatment isolates from affected foals. Drug-resistant isolates formed 2 distinct genotypic clusters.

EID Burton AJ, Giguère S, Sturgill TL, Berghaus LJ, Slovis NM, Whitman JL, et al. Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):282-285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121210
AMA Burton AJ, Giguère S, Sturgill TL, et al. Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):282-285. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121210.
APA Burton, A. J., Giguère, S., Sturgill, T. L., Berghaus, L. J., Slovis, N. M., Whitman, J. L....Cohen, N. D. (2013). Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 282-285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121210.

Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011 [PDF - 558 KB - 3 pages]
M. A. de Perio et al.

During a health hazard evaluation, we investigated 29 cases of laboratory-diagnosed Campylobacter infection among workers at a poultry-processing plant. Most infected employees worked at the plant <1 month, worked as live hangers, and lived at a state-operated center. To lessen the infection risk, we recommended improvements to engineering and administrative controls at the plant.

EID de Perio MA, Niemeier R, Levine SJ, Gruszynski K, Gibbins JD. Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):286-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121147
AMA de Perio MA, Niemeier R, Levine SJ, et al. Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):286-288. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121147.
APA de Perio, M. A., Niemeier, R., Levine, S. J., Gruszynski, K., & Gibbins, J. D. (2013). Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 286-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121147.

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan [PDF - 4.12 MB - 4 pages]
N. Ohashi et al.

We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected.

EID Ohashi N, Gaowa, Wuritu N, Kawamori F, Wu D, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):289-292. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120855
AMA Ohashi N, Gaowa, Wuritu N, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):289-292. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120855.
APA Ohashi, N., Gaowa., Wuritu, N., Kawamori, F., Wu, D., Yoshikawa, Y....Kishimoto, T. (2013). Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 289-292. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120855.

Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010 [PDF - 1.18 MB - 4 pages]
H. Maan et al.

Nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis is increasing in India. To determine viral causes, we conducted cell culture and molecular analysis identification of nonpolio human enteroviruses associated with acute flaccid paralysis during March–August 2010 in northern India. The predominant nonpolio enterovirus found was echovirus 13, a serotype rarely isolated in India.

EID Maan H, Chowdhary R, Shakya A, Dhole TN. Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):293-296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111832
AMA Maan H, Chowdhary R, Shakya A, et al. Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):293-296. doi:10.3201/eid1902.111832.
APA Maan, H., Chowdhary, R., Shakya, A., & Dhole, T. N. (2013). Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 293-296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111832.

Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China [PDF - 772 KB - 4 pages]
H. Li et al.

We detected Bartonella quintana in 48.6% of captive rhesus macaques from an animal facility in Beijing, China. Prevalence of infection increased over the period of observation. Our findings suggest that macaques may serve as reservoir hosts for B. quintana and that Pedicinus obtusus lice might act as efficient vectors.

EID Li H, Liu W, Zhang G, Sun Z, Bai J, Jiang B, et al. Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):297-300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120816
AMA Li H, Liu W, Zhang G, et al. Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):297-300. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120816.
APA Li, H., Liu, W., Zhang, G., Sun, Z., Bai, J., Jiang, B....Cao, W. (2013). Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 297-300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120816.

Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa [PDF - 1.12 MB - 4 pages]
S. Goutier et al.

Borrelia crocidurae–associated relapsing fever is endemic to West Africa and is considered benign. We report 4 patients with B. crocidurae–associated neurologic symptoms; 2 of their cases had been misdiagnosed. Frequency and severity of this disease could be underestimated; molecular methods and serodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease might be helpful in its detection.

EID Goutier S, Ferquel E, Pinel C, Bosseray A, Hoen B, Couetdic G, et al. Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):301-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121325
AMA Goutier S, Ferquel E, Pinel C, et al. Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):301-304. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121325.
APA Goutier, S., Ferquel, E., Pinel, C., Bosseray, A., Hoen, B., Couetdic, G....Cornet, M. (2013). Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 301-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121325.

Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011 [PDF - 19.73 MB - 4 pages]
S. Horm et al.

In Cambodia, influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets (LPMs) relies on virus isolation from poultry specimens; however, virus is rarely detected by this method. We tested 502 environmental LPM samples: 90 were positive by PCR, 10 by virus isolation. Virus circulation could be better monitored by environmental sampling of LPMs.

EID Horm S, Sorn S, Allal L, Buchy P. Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):305-308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121201
AMA Horm S, Sorn S, Allal L, et al. Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):305-308. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121201.
APA Horm, S., Sorn, S., Allal, L., & Buchy, P. (2013). Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 305-308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121201.

Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China [PDF - 610 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Zheng et al.

To identify risk factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among students in Beijing, China, we conducted a case–control study. Participants (304 case-patients and 608 controls, age range 6–19 years) were interviewed by using a standardized questionnaire. We found that in addition to vaccination, nonpharmaceutical interventions appeared to be protective.

EID Zheng Y, Duan W, Yang P, Zhang Y, Wang X, Zhang L, et al. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):309-312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120628
AMA Zheng Y, Duan W, Yang P, et al. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):309-312. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120628.
APA Zheng, Y., Duan, W., Yang, P., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, L....Wang, Q. (2013). Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 309-312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120628.

Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China [PDF - 3.42 MB - 4 pages]
Q. Yu et al.

To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.

EID Yu Q, Liu L, Pu J, Zhao J, Sun Y, Shen G, et al. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):313-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120251
AMA Yu Q, Liu L, Pu J, et al. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):313-316. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120251.
APA Yu, Q., Liu, L., Pu, J., Zhao, J., Sun, Y., Shen, G....Liu, J. (2013). Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 313-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120251.

High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania [PDF - 18.00 MB - 4 pages]
T. Dill et al.

Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity.

EID Dill T, Dobler G, Saathoff E, Clowes P, Kroidl I, Ntinginya E, et al. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):317-320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120601
AMA Dill T, Dobler G, Saathoff E, et al. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):317-320. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120601.
APA Dill, T., Dobler, G., Saathoff, E., Clowes, P., Kroidl, I., Ntinginya, E....Heinrich, N. (2013). High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 317-320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120601.
Letters

Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012 [PDF - 376 KB - 2 pages]
C. Sailleau et al.
EID Sailleau C, Bréard E, Viarouge C, Desprat A, Doceul V, Lara E, et al. Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):321-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121281
AMA Sailleau C, Bréard E, Viarouge C, et al. Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):321-322. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121281.
APA Sailleau, C., Bréard, E., Viarouge, C., Desprat, A., Doceul, V., Lara, E....Zientara, S. (2013). Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 321-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121281.

Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia [PDF - 521 KB - 3 pages]
L. Bichaud et al.
EID Bichaud L, Dachraoui K, Piorkowski G, Chelbi I, Moureau G, Cherni S, et al. Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):322-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121463
AMA Bichaud L, Dachraoui K, Piorkowski G, et al. Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):322-324. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121463.
APA Bichaud, L., Dachraoui, K., Piorkowski, G., Chelbi, I., Moureau, G., Cherni, S....Zhioua, E. (2013). Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 322-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121463.

Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010 [PDF - 324 KB - 3 pages]
J. Duncombe et al.
EID Duncombe J, Lau C, Weinstein P, Aaskov J, Rourke M, Grant R, et al. Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):324-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120464
AMA Duncombe J, Lau C, Weinstein P, et al. Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):324-326. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120464.
APA Duncombe, J., Lau, C., Weinstein, P., Aaskov, J., Rourke, M., Grant, R....Clements, A. (2013). Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 324-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120464.

Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia [PDF - 984 KB - 3 pages]
B. Ilyasov et al.
EID Ilyasov B, Kartashev V, Bastrikov N, Morchón R, González-Miguel J, Simón F. Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):326-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121388
AMA Ilyasov B, Kartashev V, Bastrikov N, et al. Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):326-328. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121388.
APA Ilyasov, B., Kartashev, V., Bastrikov, N., Morchón, R., González-Miguel, J., & Simón, F. (2013). Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 326-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121388.

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians [PDF - 499 KB - 2 pages]
B. Knust et al.
EID Knust B, Holman RC, Redd J, Mehal JM, Grube SM, MacNeil A, et al. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):328-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120888
AMA Knust B, Holman RC, Redd J, et al. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):328-329. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120888.
APA Knust, B., Holman, R. C., Redd, J., Mehal, J. M., Grube, S. M., MacNeil, A....Rollin, P. E. (2013). Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 328-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120888.

Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA [PDF - 278 KB - 2 pages]
H. N. Fowler et al.
EID Fowler HN, Brown P, Rovira A, Shade B, Klammer K, Smith K, et al. Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120918
AMA Fowler HN, Brown P, Rovira A, et al. Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):330-331. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120918.
APA Fowler, H. N., Brown, P., Rovira, A., Shade, B., Klammer, K., Smith, K....Scheftel, J. (2013). Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120918.

Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam [PDF - 462 KB - 3 pages]
N. Hoa et al.
EID Hoa N, Chieu T, Do Dung S, Long N, Hieu T, Luc N, et al. Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):331-333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120470
AMA Hoa N, Chieu T, Do Dung S, et al. Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):331-333. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120470.
APA Hoa, N., Chieu, T., Do Dung, S., Long, N., Hieu, T., Luc, N....Bryant, J. E. (2013). Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 331-333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120470.

Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom [PDF - 353 KB - 3 pages]
B. Payne et al.
EID Payne B, Medhi M, Ijaz S, Valappil M, Savage EJ, Gill O, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121174
AMA Payne B, Medhi M, Ijaz S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):333-336. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121174.
APA Payne, B., Medhi, M., Ijaz, S., Valappil, M., Savage, E. J., Gill, O....Schwab, U. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121174.

Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011 [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
J. Bouscaillou et al.
EID Bouscaillou J, Komas N, Tricou V, Nakouné E, Sélékon B, Fontanet A, et al. Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):336-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120670
AMA Bouscaillou J, Komas N, Tricou V, et al. Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):336-337. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120670.
APA Bouscaillou, J., Komas, N., Tricou, V., Nakouné, E., Sélékon, B., Fontanet, A....Kazanji, M. (2013). Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 336-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120670.

Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France [PDF - 347 KB - 2 pages]
S. Edouard et al.
EID Edouard S, Parola P, Socolovschi C, Davoust B, La Scola B, Raoult D. Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):337-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120863
AMA Edouard S, Parola P, Socolovschi C, et al. Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):337-338. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120863.
APA Edouard, S., Parola, P., Socolovschi, C., Davoust, B., La Scola, B., & Raoult, D. (2013). Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 337-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120863.

Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011 [PDF - 378 KB - 3 pages]
Gaowa et al.
EID Gaowa, Ohashi N, Aochi M, Wuritu N, Wu D, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):338-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120856
AMA Gaowa, Ohashi N, Aochi M, et al. Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):338-340. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120856.
APA Gaowa., Ohashi, N., Aochi, M., Wuritu, N., Wu, D., Yoshikawa, Y....Kishimoto, T. (2013). Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 338-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120856.

Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe [PDF - 659 KB - 2 pages]
N. Wetzstein et al.
EID Wetzstein N, Fenollar F, Buffet S, Moos V, Schneider T, Raoult D. Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):341-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120709
AMA Wetzstein N, Fenollar F, Buffet S, et al. Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):341-342. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120709.
APA Wetzstein, N., Fenollar, F., Buffet, S., Moos, V., Schneider, T., & Raoult, D. (2013). Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 341-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120709.

Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues [PDF - 306 KB - 3 pages]
I. Janse et al.
EID Janse I, Hamidjaja RA, Reusken C. Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120659
AMA Janse I, Hamidjaja RA, Reusken C. Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):342-344. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120659.
APA Janse, I., Hamidjaja, R. A., & Reusken, C. (2013). Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120659.

Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina [PDF - 3.19 MB - 3 pages]
R. C. Pacheco et al.
EID Pacheco RC, Echaide IE, Alves RN, Beletti ME, Nava S, Labruna MB. Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120362
AMA Pacheco RC, Echaide IE, Alves RN, et al. Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):344-346. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120362.
APA Pacheco, R. C., Echaide, I. E., Alves, R. N., Beletti, M. E., Nava, S., & Labruna, M. B. (2013). Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120362.

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil [PDF - 2.22 MB - 3 pages]
C. Favero et al.
EID Favero C, Matos A, Campos F, Cândido M, Costa É, Heinemann M, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):346-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120551
AMA Favero C, Matos A, Campos F, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):346-348. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120551.
APA Favero, C., Matos, A., Campos, F., Cândido, M., Costa, É., Heinemann, M....Lobato, Z. (2013). Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 346-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120551.
Books and Media

Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic [PDF - 399 KB - 1 page]
C. Brown
EID Brown C. Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121694
AMA Brown C. Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):349. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121694.
APA Brown, C. (2013). Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121694.
About the Cover

The Iconography of Vermin [PDF - 1.93 MB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Iconography of Vermin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):350-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.ac1902
AMA Potter P. The Iconography of Vermin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):350-351. doi:10.3201/eid1902.ac1902.
APA Potter, P. (2013). The Iconography of Vermin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 350-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.ac1902.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Quarantine [PDF - 2.11 MB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Quarantine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.et1902
AMA Etymologia: Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):263. doi:10.3201/eid1902.et1902.
APA (2013). Etymologia: Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.et1902.
Page created: January 23, 2013
Page updated: January 25, 2013
Page reviewed: January 23, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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