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Issue Cover for Volume 21, Number 5—May 2015

Volume 21, Number 5—May 2015

[PDF - 55.96 MB - 191 pages]

Perspective

Detecting Spread of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Beyond China [PDF - 2.34 MB - 9 pages]
A. J. Millman et al.

During February 2013–March 2015, a total of 602 human cases of low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported; no autochthonous cases were reported outside mainland China. In contrast, since highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) reemerged during 2003 in China, 784 human cases in 16 countries and poultry outbreaks in 53 countries have been reported. Whether the absence of reported A(H7N9) outside mainland China represents lack of spread or lack of detection remains unclear. We compared epidemiologic and virologic features of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) and used human and animal influenza surveillance data collected during April 2013–May 2014 from 4 Southeast Asia countries to assess the likelihood that A(H7N9) would have gone undetected during 2014. Surveillance in Vietnam and Cambodia detected human A(H5N1) cases; no A(H7N9) cases were detected in humans or poultry in Southeast Asia. Although we cannot rule out the possible spread of A(H7N9), substantial spread causing severe disease in humans is unlikely.

EID Millman AJ, Havers F, Iuliano A, Davis C, Sar B, Sovann L, et al. Detecting Spread of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Beyond China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):741-749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141756
AMA Millman AJ, Havers F, Iuliano A, et al. Detecting Spread of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Beyond China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):741-749. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141756.
APA Millman, A. J., Havers, F., Iuliano, A., Davis, C., Sar, B., Sovann, L....Widdowson, M. (2015). Detecting Spread of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Beyond China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 741-749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141756.

Medscape CME Activity
Recent US Case of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease—Global Implications [PDF - 2.48 MB - 10 pages]
A. Maheshwari et al.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a rare, fatal prion disease resulting from transmission to humans of the infectious agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We describe the clinical presentation of a recent case of vCJD in the United States and provide an update on diagnostic testing. The location of this patient’s exposure is less clear than those in the 3 previously reported US cases, but strong evidence indicates that exposure to contaminated beef occurred outside the United States more than a decade before illness onset. This case exemplifies the persistent risk for vCJD acquired in unsuspected geographic locations and highlights the need for continued global surveillance and awareness to prevent further dissemination of vCJD.

EID Maheshwari A, Fischer M, Gambetti P, Parker A, Ram A, Soto C, et al. Recent US Case of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease—Global Implications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):750-759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142017
AMA Maheshwari A, Fischer M, Gambetti P, et al. Recent US Case of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease—Global Implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):750-759. doi:10.3201/eid2105.142017.
APA Maheshwari, A., Fischer, M., Gambetti, P., Parker, A., Ram, A., Soto, C....Hussein, H. M. (2015). Recent US Case of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease—Global Implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 750-759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142017.
Research

Novel Thogotovirus Associated with Febrile Illness and Death, United States, 2014 [PDF - 2.02 MB - 5 pages]
O. I. Kosoy et al.

A previously healthy man from eastern Kansas, USA, sought medical care in late spring because of a history of tick bite, fever, and fatigue. The patient had thrombocytopenia and leukopenia and was given doxycycline for a presumed tickborne illness. His condition did not improve. Multiorgan failure developed, and he died 11 days after illness onset from cardiopulmonary arrest. Molecular and serologic testing results for known tickborne pathogens were negative. However, testing of a specimen for antibodies against Heartland virus by using plaque reduction neutralization indicated the presence of another virus. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the virus as a novel member of the genus Thogotovirus.

EID Kosoy OI, Lambert AJ, Hawkinson DJ, Pastula DM, Goldsmith CS, Hunt D, et al. Novel Thogotovirus Associated with Febrile Illness and Death, United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):760-764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.150150
AMA Kosoy OI, Lambert AJ, Hawkinson DJ, et al. Novel Thogotovirus Associated with Febrile Illness and Death, United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):760-764. doi:10.3201/eid2105.150150.
APA Kosoy, O. I., Lambert, A. J., Hawkinson, D. J., Pastula, D. M., Goldsmith, C. S., Hunt, D....Staples, J. (2015). Novel Thogotovirus Associated with Febrile Illness and Death, United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 760-764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.150150.

Pathologic Changes in Wild Birds Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014 [PDF - 2.44 MB - 6 pages]
H. Kim et al.

In January 2014, an outbreak of infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus began on a duck farm in South Korea and spread to other poultry farms nearby. During this outbreak, many sick or dead wild birds were found around habitats frequented by migratory birds. To determine the causes of death, we examined 771 wild bird carcasses and identified HPAI A(H5N8) virus in 167. Gross and histologic lesions were observed in pancreas, lung, brain, and kidney of Baikal teals, bean geese, and whooper swans but not mallard ducks. Such lesions are consistent with lethal HPAI A(H5N8) virus infection. However, some HPAI-positive birds had died of gunshot wounds, peritonitis, or agrochemical poisoning rather than virus infection. These findings suggest that susceptibility to HPAI A(H5N8) virus varies among species of migratory birds and that asymptomatic migratory birds could be carriers of this virus.

EID Kim H, Kwon Y, Jang I, Lee Y, Kang H, Lee E, et al. Pathologic Changes in Wild Birds Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):775-780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141967
AMA Kim H, Kwon Y, Jang I, et al. Pathologic Changes in Wild Birds Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):775-780. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141967.
APA Kim, H., Kwon, Y., Jang, I., Lee, Y., Kang, H., Lee, E....Bae, Y. (2015). Pathologic Changes in Wild Birds Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 775-780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141967.

Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru [PDF - 1.89 MB - 8 pages]
R. D. Hontz et al.

Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America.

EID Hontz RD, Guevara C, Halsey ES, Silvas J, Santiago FW, Widen SG, et al. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):781-788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141368
AMA Hontz RD, Guevara C, Halsey ES, et al. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):781-788. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141368.
APA Hontz, R. D., Guevara, C., Halsey, E. S., Silvas, J., Santiago, F. W., Widen, S. G....Aguilar, P. V. (2015). Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 781-788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141368.

Isolation of Onchocerca lupi in Dogs and Black Flies, California, USA [PDF - 2.93 MB - 8 pages]
H. K. Hassan et al.

In southern California, ocular infections caused by Onchocerca lupi were diagnosed in 3 dogs (1 in 2006, 2 in 2012). The infectious agent was confirmed through morphologic analysis of fixed parasites in tissues and by PCR and sequencing of amplicons derived from 2 mitochondrially encoded genes and 1 nuclear-encoded gene. A nested PCR based on the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of the parasite was developed and used to screen Simulium black flies collected from southern California for O. lupi DNA. Six (2.8%; 95% CI 0.6%–5.0%) of 213 black flies contained O. lupi DNA. Partial mitochondrial16S rRNA gene sequences from the infected flies matched sequences derived from black fly larvae cytotaxonomically identified as Simulium tribulatum. These data implicate S. tribulatum flies as a putative vector for O. lupi in southern California.

EID Hassan HK, Bolcen S, Kubofcik J, Nutman TB, Eberhard ML, Middleton K, et al. Isolation of Onchocerca lupi in Dogs and Black Flies, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):789-796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142011
AMA Hassan HK, Bolcen S, Kubofcik J, et al. Isolation of Onchocerca lupi in Dogs and Black Flies, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):789-796. doi:10.3201/eid2105.142011.
APA Hassan, H. K., Bolcen, S., Kubofcik, J., Nutman, T. B., Eberhard, M. L., Middleton, K....Beeler, E. S. (2015). Isolation of Onchocerca lupi in Dogs and Black Flies, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 789-796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142011.

Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010–2012 [PDF - 837 KB - 7 pages]
G. Baldeviano et al.

During 2010–2012, an outbreak of 210 cases of malaria occurred in Tumbes, in the northern coast of Peru, where no Plasmodium falciparum malaria case had been reported since 2006. To identify the source of the parasite causing this outbreak, we conducted a molecular epidemiology investigation. Microsatellite typing showed an identical genotype in all 54 available isolates. This genotype was also identical to that of parasites isolated in 2010 in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon and closely related to clonet B, a parasite lineage previously reported in the Amazon during 1998–2000. These findings are consistent with travel history of index case-patients. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 loci, which are strongly associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and deletion of the Pfhrp2 gene. These results highlight the need for timely molecular epidemiology investigations to trace the parasite source during malaria reintroduction events.

EID Baldeviano G, Okoth S, Arrospide N, Gonzalez RV, Sánchez JF, Macedo S, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):797-803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141427
AMA Baldeviano G, Okoth S, Arrospide N, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):797-803. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141427.
APA Baldeviano, G., Okoth, S., Arrospide, N., Gonzalez, R. V., Sánchez, J. F., Macedo, S....Lescano, A. G. (2015). Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 797-803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141427.

Delayed-Onset Hemolytic Anemia in Patients with Travel-Associated Severe Malaria Treated with Artesunate, France, 2011–2013 [PDF - 1.26 MB - 9 pages]
S. Jauréguiberry et al.

Artesunate is the most effective treatment for severe malaria. However, delayed-onset hemolytic anemia has been observed in ≈20% of travelers who receive artesunate, ≈60% of whom require transfusion. This finding could discourage physicians from using artesunate. We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 123 patients in France who had severe imported malaria that was treated with artesunate; our evaluation focused on outcome, adverse events, and postartesunate delayed-onset hemolysis (PADH). Of the 123 patients, 6 (5%) died. Overall, 97 adverse events occurred. Among the 78 patients who received follow-up for >8 days after treatment initiation, 76 (97%) had anemia, and 21 (27%) of the 78 cases were recorded as PADH. The median drop in hemoglobin levels was 1.3 g/dL; 15% of patients with PADH had hemoglobin levels of <7 g/dL, and 1 required transfusion. Despite the high incidence of PADH, the resulting anemia remained mild in 85% of cases. This reassuring result confirms the safety and therapeutic benefit of artesunate.

EID Jauréguiberry S, Thellier M, Ndour P, Ader F, Roussel C, Sonneville R, et al. Delayed-Onset Hemolytic Anemia in Patients with Travel-Associated Severe Malaria Treated with Artesunate, France, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):804-812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141171
AMA Jauréguiberry S, Thellier M, Ndour P, et al. Delayed-Onset Hemolytic Anemia in Patients with Travel-Associated Severe Malaria Treated with Artesunate, France, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):804-812. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141171.
APA Jauréguiberry, S., Thellier, M., Ndour, P., Ader, F., Roussel, C., Sonneville, R....Caumes, E. (2015). Delayed-Onset Hemolytic Anemia in Patients with Travel-Associated Severe Malaria Treated with Artesunate, France, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 804-812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141171.

Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin [PDF - 1.07 MB - 11 pages]
N. Ndam et al.

Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum–infected erythrocytes that bind to placental tissue. Binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen coded by the var gene, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Consequences include maternal anemia and fetal growth retardation. Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. Antibody responses to the N-terminal region of VAR2CSA during early pregnancy were associated with reduced risks for infections and low birthweight. Among women infected during pregnancy, an increase in CSA binding inhibition was associated with reduced risks for placental infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. These data suggest that antibodies against VAR2CSA N-terminal region mediate immunity to placental malaria and associated outcomes. Our results validate current vaccine development efforts with VAR2CSA N-terminal constructs.

EID Ndam N, Denoeud-Ndam L, Doritchamou J, Viwami F, Salanti A, Nielsen MA, et al. Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):813-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141626
AMA Ndam N, Denoeud-Ndam L, Doritchamou J, et al. Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):813-823. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141626.
APA Ndam, N., Denoeud-Ndam, L., Doritchamou, J., Viwami, F., Salanti, A., Nielsen, M. A....Deloron, P. (2015). Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 813-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141626.

Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves [PDF - 1.06 MB - 9 pages]
C. H. Gordon et al.

The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

EID Gordon CH, Banyard A, Hussein A, Laurenson M, Malcolm JR, Marino J, et al. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):824-832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141920
AMA Gordon CH, Banyard A, Hussein A, et al. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):824-832. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141920.
APA Gordon, C. H., Banyard, A., Hussein, A., Laurenson, M., Malcolm, J. R., Marino, J....Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 824-832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141920.

Comparative Sequence Analyses of La Crosse Virus Strain Isolated from Patient with Fatal Encephalitis, Tennessee, USA [PDF - 695 KB - 4 pages]
A. J. Lambert et al.

We characterized a La Crosse virus (LACV) isolate from the brain of a child who died of encephalitis-associated complications in eastern Tennessee, USA, during summer 2012. We compared the isolate with LACV sequences from mosquitoes collected near the child’s home just after his postmortem diagnosis. In addition, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of these and other sequences derived from LACV strains representing varied temporal, geographic, and ecologic origins. Consistent with historical findings, results of these analyses indicate that a limited range of LACV lineage I genotypes is associated with severe clinical outcomes.

EID Lambert AJ, Fryxell R, Freyman K, Ulloa A, Velez JO, Paulsen D, et al. Comparative Sequence Analyses of La Crosse Virus Strain Isolated from Patient with Fatal Encephalitis, Tennessee, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):833-836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141992
AMA Lambert AJ, Fryxell R, Freyman K, et al. Comparative Sequence Analyses of La Crosse Virus Strain Isolated from Patient with Fatal Encephalitis, Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):833-836. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141992.
APA Lambert, A. J., Fryxell, R., Freyman, K., Ulloa, A., Velez, J. O., Paulsen, D....Moncayo, A. (2015). Comparative Sequence Analyses of La Crosse Virus Strain Isolated from Patient with Fatal Encephalitis, Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 833-836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141992.

Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005–2012 [PDF - 3.12 MB - 10 pages]
N. Bretaña et al.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is predominantly transmitted between persons who inject drugs. For this population, global prevalence of HCV infection is high and incarceration is common and an independent risk factor for HCV acquisition. To explore HCV transmission dynamics in incarcerated populations, we integrated virus sequences with risk behavior and spatiotemporal data and analyzed transmission clusters among prisoners in Australia. We detected 3 clusters of recent HCV transmission consisting of 4 likely in-custody transmission events involving source/recipient pairs located in the same prison at the same time. Of these 4 events, 3 were associated with drug injecting and equipment sharing. Despite a large population of prisoners with chronic HCV, recent transmission events were identified in the prison setting. This ongoing HCV transmission among high-risk prisoners argues for expansion of prevention programs to reduce HCV transmission in prisons.

EID Bretaña N, Boelen L, Bull R, Teutsch S, White PA, Lloyd AR, et al. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):765-774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141832
AMA Bretaña N, Boelen L, Bull R, et al. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):765-774. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141832.
APA Bretaña, N., Boelen, L., Bull, R., Teutsch, S., White, P. A., Lloyd, A. R....Luciani, F. (2015). Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 765-774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141832.
Dispatches

Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014 [PDF - 1.13 MB - 5 pages]
J. Reiche et al.

We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August–October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions.

EID Reiche J, Böttcher S, Diedrich S, Buchholz U, Buda S, Haas W, et al. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):837-841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141900
AMA Reiche J, Böttcher S, Diedrich S, et al. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):837-841. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141900.
APA Reiche, J., Böttcher, S., Diedrich, S., Buchholz, U., Buda, S., Haas, W....Wolff, T. (2015). Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 837-841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141900.

Rapid Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtypes from a Subtype H5N1 Hemagglutinin Variant [PDF - 1.22 MB - 7 pages]
E. de Vries et al.

In 2014, novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N2, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8 viruses caused outbreaks in Asia, Europe, and North America. The H5 genes of these viruses form a monophyletic group that evolved from a clade 2.3.4 H5N1 variant. This rapid emergence of new H5Nx combinations is unprecedented in the H5N1 evolutionary history.

EID de Vries E, Guo H, Dai M, Rottier P, van Kuppeveld F, de Haan C. Rapid Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtypes from a Subtype H5N1 Hemagglutinin Variant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):842-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141927
AMA de Vries E, Guo H, Dai M, et al. Rapid Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtypes from a Subtype H5N1 Hemagglutinin Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):842-846. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141927.
APA de Vries, E., Guo, H., Dai, M., Rottier, P., van Kuppeveld, F., & de Haan, C. (2015). Rapid Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtypes from a Subtype H5N1 Hemagglutinin Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 842-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141927.

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 2.14 MB - 5 pages]
B. Miwanda et al.

We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997–2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011–2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

EID Miwanda B, Moore S, Muyembe J, Nguefack-Tsague G, Kabangwa I, Ndjakani D, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):847-851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141233
AMA Miwanda B, Moore S, Muyembe J, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):847-851. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141233.
APA Miwanda, B., Moore, S., Muyembe, J., Nguefack-Tsague, G., Kabangwa, I., Ndjakani, D....Piarroux, R. (2015). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 847-851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141233.

Transmission Potential of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–2014 [PDF - 1.45 MB - 4 pages]
A. J. Kucharski et al.

To determine transmission potential of influenza A(H7N9) virus, we used symptom onset data to compare 2 waves of infection in China during 2013–2014. We found evidence of increased transmission potential in the second wave and showed that live bird market closure was significantly less effective in Guangdong than in other regions.

EID Kucharski AJ, Mills HL, Donnelly CA, Riley S. Transmission Potential of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):852-855. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141137
AMA Kucharski AJ, Mills HL, Donnelly CA, et al. Transmission Potential of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):852-855. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141137.
APA Kucharski, A. J., Mills, H. L., Donnelly, C. A., & Riley, S. (2015). Transmission Potential of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 852-855. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141137.

Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus [PDF - 1.62 MB - 4 pages]
J. B. Prescott et al.

The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

EID Prescott JB, Bushmaker T, Fischer RJ, Miazgowicz K, Judson SD, Munster VJ. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):856-859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.150041
AMA Prescott JB, Bushmaker T, Fischer RJ, et al. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):856-859. doi:10.3201/eid2105.150041.
APA Prescott, J. B., Bushmaker, T., Fischer, R. J., Miazgowicz, K., Judson, S. D., & Munster, V. J. (2015). Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 856-859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.150041.

Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Similar to Strain in Korea Causing Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Germany [PDF - 2.33 MB - 4 pages]
T. Harder et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus, like the recently described H5N8 strain from Korea, was detected in November 2014 in farmed turkeys and in a healthy common teal (Anas crecca) in northeastern Germany. Infected wild birds possibly introduced this virus.

EID Harder T, Maurer-Stroh S, Pohlmann A, Starick E, Höreth-Böntgen D, Albrecht K, et al. Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Similar to Strain in Korea Causing Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):860-863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141897
AMA Harder T, Maurer-Stroh S, Pohlmann A, et al. Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Similar to Strain in Korea Causing Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):860-863. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141897.
APA Harder, T., Maurer-Stroh, S., Pohlmann, A., Starick, E., Höreth-Böntgen, D., Albrecht, K....Beer, M. (2015). Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Similar to Strain in Korea Causing Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 860-863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141897.

Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013 [PDF - 1.59 MB - 4 pages]
Q. Sun et al.

During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries.

EID Sun Q, Yang Y, Xiao N, Zhou S, Lin K, Wang D, et al. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):864-867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141712
AMA Sun Q, Yang Y, Xiao N, et al. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):864-867. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141712.
APA Sun, Q., Yang, Y., Xiao, N., Zhou, S., Lin, K., Wang, D....Yang, W. (2015). Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 864-867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141712.

Canine Infections with Onchocerca lupi Nematodes, United States, 2011–2014 [PDF - 1.28 MB - 4 pages]
D. Otranto et al.

Infections with Onchocerca lupi nematodes are diagnosed sporadically in the United States. We report 8 cases of canine onchocercosis in Minnesota, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. Identification of 1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene haplotype identical to 1 of 5 from Europe suggests recent introduction of this nematode into the United States.

EID Otranto D, Giannelli A, Latrofa MS, Dantas-Torres F, Trumble N, Chavkin M, et al. Canine Infections with Onchocerca lupi Nematodes, United States, 2011–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):868-871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141812
AMA Otranto D, Giannelli A, Latrofa MS, et al. Canine Infections with Onchocerca lupi Nematodes, United States, 2011–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):868-871. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141812.
APA Otranto, D., Giannelli, A., Latrofa, M. S., Dantas-Torres, F., Trumble, N., Chavkin, M....Bowman, D. D. (2015). Canine Infections with Onchocerca lupi Nematodes, United States, 2011–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 868-871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141812.

Full-Genome Sequence of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Poultry Linked to Sequences of Strains from Asia, the Netherlands, 2014 [PDF - 530 KB - 3 pages]
R. Bouwstra et al.

Genetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus from the Netherlands, and comparison with strains from Europe, South Korea, and Japan, showed a close relation. Data suggest the strains were probably carried to the Netherlands by migratory wild birds from Asia, possibly through overlapping flyways and common breeding sites in Siberia.

EID Bouwstra R, Heutink R, Bossers A, Harders F, Koch G, Elbers A. Full-Genome Sequence of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Poultry Linked to Sequences of Strains from Asia, the Netherlands, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):872-874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141839
AMA Bouwstra R, Heutink R, Bossers A, et al. Full-Genome Sequence of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Poultry Linked to Sequences of Strains from Asia, the Netherlands, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):872-874. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141839.
APA Bouwstra, R., Heutink, R., Bossers, A., Harders, F., Koch, G., & Elbers, A. (2015). Full-Genome Sequence of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Poultry Linked to Sequences of Strains from Asia, the Netherlands, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 872-874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141839.

Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009 [PDF - 904 KB - 4 pages]
J. C. Hesson et al.

We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans collected in an area of Sweden where SINV disease is endemic. The infection rate in Cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining Cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of SINV in Scandinavia.

EID Hesson JC, Verner-Carlsson J, Larsson A, Ahmed R, Lundkvist Å, Lundström JO. Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):875-878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141577
AMA Hesson JC, Verner-Carlsson J, Larsson A, et al. Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):875-878. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141577.
APA Hesson, J. C., Verner-Carlsson, J., Larsson, A., Ahmed, R., Lundkvist, Å., & Lundström, J. O. (2015). Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 875-878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141577.

Genetic Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus from Domestic Ducks, England, November 2014 [PDF - 869 KB - 4 pages]
A. Hanna et al.

Genetic sequences of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus in England have high homology to those detected in mainland Europe and Asia during 2014. Genetic characterization suggests this virus is an avian-adapted virus without specific affinity for zoonoses. Spatio-temporal detections of H5N8 imply a role for wild birds in virus spread.

EID Hanna A, Banks J, Marston DA, Ellis RJ, Brookes SM, Brown IH. Genetic Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus from Domestic Ducks, England, November 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):879-882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141954
AMA Hanna A, Banks J, Marston DA, et al. Genetic Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus from Domestic Ducks, England, November 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):879-882. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141954.
APA Hanna, A., Banks, J., Marston, D. A., Ellis, R. J., Brookes, S. M., & Brown, I. H. (2015). Genetic Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus from Domestic Ducks, England, November 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 879-882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141954.

Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014 [PDF - 736 KB - 3 pages]
M. Nemoto et al.

An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978.

EID Nemoto M, Bannai H, Tsujimura K, Kobayashi M, Kikuchi T, Yamanaka T, et al. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):883-885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141975
AMA Nemoto M, Bannai H, Tsujimura K, et al. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):883-885. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141975.
APA Nemoto, M., Bannai, H., Tsujimura, K., Kobayashi, M., Kikuchi, T., Yamanaka, T....Kondo, T. (2015). Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 883-885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141975.

Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014 [PDF - 1.23 MB - 5 pages]
H. S. Ip et al.

Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

EID Ip HS, Torchetti M, Crespo R, Kohrs P, DeBruyn P, Mansfield KG, et al. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):886-890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142020
AMA Ip HS, Torchetti M, Crespo R, et al. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):886-890. doi:10.3201/eid2105.142020.
APA Ip, H. S., Torchetti, M., Crespo, R., Kohrs, P., DeBruyn, P., Mansfield, K. G....Sleeman, J. M. (2015). Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 886-890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142020.
Letters

Characterization of Shigella sonnei Isolate Carrying Shiga Toxin 2–Producing Gene [PDF - 368 KB - 2 pages]
O. Nyholm et al.
EID Nyholm O, Lienemann T, Halkilahti J, Mero S, Rimhanen-Finne R, Lehtinen V, et al. Characterization of Shigella sonnei Isolate Carrying Shiga Toxin 2–Producing Gene. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):891-892. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.140621
AMA Nyholm O, Lienemann T, Halkilahti J, et al. Characterization of Shigella sonnei Isolate Carrying Shiga Toxin 2–Producing Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):891-892. doi:10.3201/eid2105.140621.
APA Nyholm, O., Lienemann, T., Halkilahti, J., Mero, S., Rimhanen-Finne, R., Lehtinen, V....Siitonen, A. (2015). Characterization of Shigella sonnei Isolate Carrying Shiga Toxin 2–Producing Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 891-892. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.140621.

Outbreak of Leishmania braziliensis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Saül, French Guiana [PDF - 546 KB - 3 pages]
G. Martin-Blondel et al.
EID Martin-Blondel G, Iriart X, El Baidouri F, Simon S, Mills D, Demar M, et al. Outbreak of Leishmania braziliensis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Saül, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):892-894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141181
AMA Martin-Blondel G, Iriart X, El Baidouri F, et al. Outbreak of Leishmania braziliensis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Saül, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):892-894. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141181.
APA Martin-Blondel, G., Iriart, X., El Baidouri, F., Simon, S., Mills, D., Demar, M....Berry, A. (2015). Outbreak of Leishmania braziliensis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Saül, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 892-894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141181.

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to India [PDF - 588 KB - 3 pages]
N. De Lappe et al.
EID De Lappe N, O’Connor J, Garvey P, McKeown PJ, Cormican M. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):894-896. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141184
AMA De Lappe N, O’Connor J, Garvey P, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):894-896. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141184.
APA De Lappe, N., O’Connor, J., Garvey, P., McKeown, P. J., & Cormican, M. (2015). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 894-896. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141184.

Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis in the Netherlands after Travel to The Gambia [PDF - 1009 KB - 3 pages]
N. van der Beek et al.
EID van der Beek N, van Tienen C, de Haan JE, Roelfsema J, Wismans PJ, van Genderen P, et al. Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis in the Netherlands after Travel to The Gambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):896-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141325
AMA van der Beek N, van Tienen C, de Haan JE, et al. Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis in the Netherlands after Travel to The Gambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):896-898. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141325.
APA van der Beek, N., van Tienen, C., de Haan, J. E., Roelfsema, J., Wismans, P. J., van Genderen, P....van Hellemond, J. J. (2015). Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis in the Netherlands after Travel to The Gambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 896-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141325.

Citizens’ Actions in Response to Chikungunya Outbreaks, Réunion Island, 2006 [PDF - 280 KB - 1 page]
B. Gaüzère et al.
EID Gaüzère B, Mausole J, Simon F. Citizens’ Actions in Response to Chikungunya Outbreaks, Réunion Island, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141385
AMA Gaüzère B, Mausole J, Simon F. Citizens’ Actions in Response to Chikungunya Outbreaks, Réunion Island, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):899. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141385.
APA Gaüzère, B., Mausole, J., & Simon, F. (2015). Citizens’ Actions in Response to Chikungunya Outbreaks, Réunion Island, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141385.

Melioidosis in Trinidad and Tobago [PDF - 364 KB - 3 pages]
C. Hogan et al.
EID Hogan C, Wilmer A, Badawi M, Hoang L, Chapman M, Press N, et al. Melioidosis in Trinidad and Tobago. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):902-904. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141610
AMA Hogan C, Wilmer A, Badawi M, et al. Melioidosis in Trinidad and Tobago. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):902-904. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141610.
APA Hogan, C., Wilmer, A., Badawi, M., Hoang, L., Chapman, M., Press, N....Murray, M. (2015). Melioidosis in Trinidad and Tobago. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 902-904. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141610.

Probable Toxic Cause for Suspected Lychee-Linked Viral Encephalitis [PDF - 549 KB - 2 pages]
P. S. Spencer et al.
EID Spencer PS, Palmer VS, Mazumder R. Probable Toxic Cause for Suspected Lychee-Linked Viral Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):904-905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141650
AMA Spencer PS, Palmer VS, Mazumder R. Probable Toxic Cause for Suspected Lychee-Linked Viral Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):904-905. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141650.
APA Spencer, P. S., Palmer, V. S., & Mazumder, R. (2015). Probable Toxic Cause for Suspected Lychee-Linked Viral Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 904-905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141650.

Pin-Site Myiasis Caused by Screwworm Fly, Colombia [PDF - 533 KB - 2 pages]
F. J. Africano et al.
EID Africano FJ, Faccini-Martínez ÁA, Pérez CE, Espinal A, Bravo JS, Morales C. Pin-Site Myiasis Caused by Screwworm Fly, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):905-906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141680
AMA Africano FJ, Faccini-Martínez ÁA, Pérez CE, et al. Pin-Site Myiasis Caused by Screwworm Fly, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):905-906. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141680.
APA Africano, F. J., Faccini-Martínez, Á. A., Pérez, C. E., Espinal, A., Bravo, J. S., & Morales, C. (2015). Pin-Site Myiasis Caused by Screwworm Fly, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 905-906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141680.

East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil, 2014 [PDF - 319 KB - 2 pages]
M. J. Teixeira et al.
EID Teixeira MJ, Andrade A, Costa MN, Castro J, Oliveira F, Goes C, et al. East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):906-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141727
AMA Teixeira MJ, Andrade A, Costa MN, et al. East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):906-907. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141727.
APA Teixeira, M. J., Andrade, A., Costa, M. N., Castro, J., Oliveira, F., Goes, C....Vasconcelos, P. (2015). East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus, Brazil, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 906-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141727.

Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, Dominica, 2014 [PDF - 362 KB - 3 pages]
S. Ahmed et al.
EID Ahmed S, Francis L, Ricketts R, Christian T, Polson-Edwards K, Olowokure B. Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, Dominica, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):909-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141813
AMA Ahmed S, Francis L, Ricketts R, et al. Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, Dominica, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):909-911. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141813.
APA Ahmed, S., Francis, L., Ricketts, R., Christian, T., Polson-Edwards, K., & Olowokure, B. (2015). Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, Dominica, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 909-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141813.

Acute Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014 [PDF - 325 KB - 3 pages]
D. Tappe et al.
EID Tappe D, Nachtigall S, Kapaun A, Schnitzler P, Günther S, Schmidt-Chanasit J. Acute Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):911-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141960
AMA Tappe D, Nachtigall S, Kapaun A, et al. Acute Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):911-913. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141960.
APA Tappe, D., Nachtigall, S., Kapaun, A., Schnitzler, P., Günther, S., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2015). Acute Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 911-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141960.

Ebola and Psychological Stress of Health Care Professionals [PDF - 329 KB - 2 pages]
M. Lehmann et al.
EID Lehmann M, Bruenahl CA, Löwe B, Addo MM, Schmiedel S, Lohse AW, et al. Ebola and Psychological Stress of Health Care Professionals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):913-914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141988
AMA Lehmann M, Bruenahl CA, Löwe B, et al. Ebola and Psychological Stress of Health Care Professionals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):913-914. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141988.
APA Lehmann, M., Bruenahl, C. A., Löwe, B., Addo, M. M., Schmiedel, S., Lohse, A. W....Schramm, C. (2015). Ebola and Psychological Stress of Health Care Professionals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 913-914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141988.

Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Adult, United States, 2014 [PDF - 457 KB - 3 pages]
J. J. Farrell et al.
EID Farrell JJ, Ikladios O, Wylie KM, O’Rourke LM, Lowery KS, Cromwell JS, et al. Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Adult, United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):914-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142033
AMA Farrell JJ, Ikladios O, Wylie KM, et al. Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Adult, United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):914-916. doi:10.3201/eid2105.142033.
APA Farrell, J. J., Ikladios, O., Wylie, K. M., O’Rourke, L. M., Lowery, K. S., Cromwell, J. S....Storch, G. A. (2015). Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Adult, United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 914-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.142033.

Enterovirus D68–Associated Severe Pneumonia, China, 2014 [PDF - 828 KB - 3 pages]
T. Zhang et al.
EID Zhang T, Ren L, Luo M, Li A, Gong C, Chen M, et al. Enterovirus D68–Associated Severe Pneumonia, China, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):916-918. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.150036
AMA Zhang T, Ren L, Luo M, et al. Enterovirus D68–Associated Severe Pneumonia, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):916-918. doi:10.3201/eid2105.150036.
APA Zhang, T., Ren, L., Luo, M., Li, A., Gong, C., Chen, M....Huang, F. (2015). Enterovirus D68–Associated Severe Pneumonia, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 916-918. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.150036.

Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria Co-Infection after Travel to Nigeria, India [PDF - 287 KB - 3 pages]
C. Raut et al.
EID Raut C, Rao N, Sinha D, Hanumaiah H, Manjunatha M. Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria Co-Infection after Travel to Nigeria, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):907-909. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141804
AMA Raut C, Rao N, Sinha D, et al. Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria Co-Infection after Travel to Nigeria, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):907-909. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141804.
APA Raut, C., Rao, N., Sinha, D., Hanumaiah, H., & Manjunatha, M. (2015). Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria Co-Infection after Travel to Nigeria, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 907-909. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141804.

Loa loa Infection in Pregnant Women, Gabon [PDF - 387 KB - 3 pages]
G. Mombo-Ngoma et al.
EID Mombo-Ngoma G, Mackanga J, Basra A, Capan M, Manego R, Adegnika A, et al. Loa loa Infection in Pregnant Women, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):899-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141471
AMA Mombo-Ngoma G, Mackanga J, Basra A, et al. Loa loa Infection in Pregnant Women, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):899-901. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141471.
APA Mombo-Ngoma, G., Mackanga, J., Basra, A., Capan, M., Manego, R., Adegnika, A....Ramharter, M. (2015). Loa loa Infection in Pregnant Women, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 899-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141471.
About the Cover

The Mosquito—a Cog in the Ideal Nature Machine [PDF - 1.14 MB - 2 pages]
C. Petrosian-Husa and B. Breedlove
EID Petrosian-Husa C, Breedlove B. The Mosquito—a Cog in the Ideal Nature Machine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):919-920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.ac2105
AMA Petrosian-Husa C, Breedlove B. The Mosquito—a Cog in the Ideal Nature Machine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):919-920. doi:10.3201/eid2105.ac2105.
APA Petrosian-Husa, C., & Breedlove, B. (2015). The Mosquito—a Cog in the Ideal Nature Machine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 919-920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.ac2105.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Balamuthia mandrillaris [PDF - 339 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Balamuthia mandrillaris. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.et2105
AMA Etymologia: Balamuthia mandrillaris. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):898. doi:10.3201/eid2105.et2105.
APA (2015). Etymologia: Balamuthia mandrillaris. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.et2105.
Conference Summaries

Using Lessons Learned from Previous Ebola Outbreaks to Inform Current Risk Management
P. Dickmann et al.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 21, No. 4 [PDF - 252 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 21, No. 4. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):918. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.c12105
AMA Correction: Vol. 21, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(5):918. doi:10.3201/eid2105.c12105.
APA (2015). Correction: Vol. 21, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5), 918. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.c12105.
Page created: April 29, 2015
Page updated: April 29, 2015
Page reviewed: April 29, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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