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Issue Cover for Volume 6, Number 6—December 2000

Volume 6, Number 6—December 2000

[PDF - 2.31 MB - 106 pages]

Perspective

International Editor's Update [PDF - 29 KB - 1 page]
T. Kurata
EID Kurata T. International Editor's Update. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000601
AMA Kurata T. International Editor's Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):565. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000601.
APA Kurata, T. (2000). International Editor's Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000601.

Recent Trends in Tuberculosis, Japan [PDF - 25 KB - 3 pages]
T. Mori

Despite a decline after World War II, the rate of tuberculosis in Japan remains high. Infection is heavily concentrated in the >60-year age group, and 82% of patients are >40 years of age. The success rate for treatment of smear-positive patients is 78%. Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are rare.

EID Mori T. Recent Trends in Tuberculosis, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):566-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000602
AMA Mori T. Recent Trends in Tuberculosis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):566-568. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000602.
APA Mori, T. (2000). Recent Trends in Tuberculosis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 566-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000602.

Trends in Flavivirus Infections in Japan [PDF - 20 KB - 3 pages]
I. Kurane et al.

Although Japanese encephalitis has declined as an important cause of illness and death in Japan, infection with other flaviviruses has become a public health concern. Recently, reports of imported dengue cases, as well as isolations of tick-borne encephalitis virus, have increased.

EID Kurane I, Takasaki T, Yamada K. Trends in Flavivirus Infections in Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):569-571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000603
AMA Kurane I, Takasaki T, Yamada K. Trends in Flavivirus Infections in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):569-571. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000603.
APA Kurane, I., Takasaki, T., & Yamada, K. (2000). Trends in Flavivirus Infections in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 569-571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000603.

Trends in Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance in Japan [PDF - 29 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Arakawa et al.

Multidrug resistance in gram-positive bacteria has become common worldwide. In Japan until recently, gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens were controlled by carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. However, several of these microorganisms have recently developed resistance against many antimicrobial drugs.

EID Arakawa Y, Ike Y, Nagasawa M, Shibata N, Doi Y, Shibayama K, et al. Trends in Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance in Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):572-575. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000604
AMA Arakawa Y, Ike Y, Nagasawa M, et al. Trends in Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):572-575. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000604.
APA Arakawa, Y., Ike, Y., Nagasawa, M., Shibata, N., Doi, Y., Shibayama, K....Kurata, T. (2000). Trends in Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 572-575. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000604.

Developing National Epidemiological Capacity to Meet the Challenges of Emerging Infections in Germany [PDF - 55 KB - 9 pages]
L. R. Petersen et al.

In January 1996, the Robert Koch Institute, Germany’s national public health institute, began strengthening its epidemiologic capacity to respond to emerging and other infectious diseases. Six integrated strategies were initiated: developing employee training, outbreak investigation, and epidemiologic research programs; strengthening surveillance systems; improving communications to program partners and constituents; and building international collaborations. By December 1999, five employees had completed a 2-year applied epidemiology training program, 186 health department personnel had completed a 2-week training course, 27 outbreak investigations had been completed, eight short-term research projects had been initiated, major surveillance and epidemiologic research efforts for foodborne and nosocomial infections had begun, and 16 scientific manuscripts had been published or were in press. The German experience indicates that, with a concerted effort, considerable progress in building a national applied infectious disease program can be achieved in a short time frame.

EID Petersen LR, Ammon A, Hamouda O, Breuer T, Kießling S, Bellach B, et al. Developing National Epidemiological Capacity to Meet the Challenges of Emerging Infections in Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):576-584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000605
AMA Petersen LR, Ammon A, Hamouda O, et al. Developing National Epidemiological Capacity to Meet the Challenges of Emerging Infections in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):576-584. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000605.
APA Petersen, L. R., Ammon, A., Hamouda, O., Breuer, T., Kießling, S., Bellach, B....Kurth, R. (2000). Developing National Epidemiological Capacity to Meet the Challenges of Emerging Infections in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 576-584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000605.

Evidence Against Rapid Emergence of Praziquantel Resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya [PDF - 222 KB - 9 pages]
C. H. King et al.

We examined the long-term efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis, during a school-based treatment program in the Msambweni area of Coast Province, Kenya, where the disease is highly endemic. Our results, derived from treating 4,031 of 7,641 children from 1984 to 1993, indicate substantial year-to-year variation in drug efficacy. However, the pattern of this variation was not consistent with primary or progressive emergence of praziquantel resistance. Mathematical modeling indicated that, at current treatment rates, praziquantel resistance will likely take 10 or more years to emerge.

EID King CH, Muchiri EM, Ouma JH. Evidence Against Rapid Emergence of Praziquantel Resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):585-594. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000606
AMA King CH, Muchiri EM, Ouma JH. Evidence Against Rapid Emergence of Praziquantel Resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):585-594. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000606.
APA King, C. H., Muchiri, E. M., & Ouma, J. H. (2000). Evidence Against Rapid Emergence of Praziquantel Resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 585-594. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000606.

Investigating Disease Outbreaks under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention [PDF - 33 KB - 6 pages]
M. Wheelis

The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, and stockpiling of biological weapons agents or delivery devices for anything other than peaceful purposes. A protocol currently in the final stages of negotiation adds verification measures to the convention. One of these measures will be international investigation of disease outbreaks that suggest a violation of the convention, i.e., outbreaks that may be caused by use of biological weapons or release of harmful agents from a facility conducting prohibited work. Adding verification measures to the current Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention will affect the international public health and epidemiology communities; therefore, active involvement of these communities in planning the implementation details of the protocol will be important.

EID Wheelis M. Investigating Disease Outbreaks under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):595-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000607
AMA Wheelis M. Investigating Disease Outbreaks under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):595-600. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000607.
APA Wheelis, M. (2000). Investigating Disease Outbreaks under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 595-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000607.
Synopses

Hemophagocytic Syndromes and Infection [PDF - 59 KB - 8 pages]
D. N. Fisman

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an unusual syndrome characterized by fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, and the pathologic finding of hemophagocytosis (phagocytosis by macrophages of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors) in bone marrow and other tissues. HLH may be diagnosed in association with malignant, genetic, or autoimmune diseases but is also prominently linked with Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus infection. Hyperproduction of cytokines, including interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, by EBV-infected T lymphocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of HLH. EBV-associated HLH may mimic T-cell lymphoma and is treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy, while hemophagocytic syndromes associated with nonviral pathogens often respond to treatment of the underlying infection.

EID Fisman DN. Hemophagocytic Syndromes and Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):601-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000608
AMA Fisman DN. Hemophagocytic Syndromes and Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):601-608. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000608.
APA Fisman, D. N. (2000). Hemophagocytic Syndromes and Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 601-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000608.
Research

Predominance of HIV-1 Subtype A and D Infections in Uganda [PDF - 76 KB - 7 pages]
D. J. Hu et al.

To better characterize the virus isolates associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Uganda, 100 specimens from HIV-1-infected persons were randomly selected from each of two periods from late 1994 to late 1997. The 200 specimens were classified into HIV-1 subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (env) gp41 region; 98 (49%) were classified as env subtype A, 96 (48%) as D, 5 (2.5%) as C, and 1 was not classified as a known env subtype. Demographic characteristics of persons infected with the two principal HIV-1 subtypes, A and D, were very similar, and the proportion of either subtype did not differ significantly between early and later periods. Our systematic characterization of the HIV-1 epidemic in Uganda over an almost 3-year period documented that the distribution and degree of genetic diversity of the HIV subtypes A and D are very similar and have not changed appreciably over that time.

EID Hu DJ, Baggs J, Downing RG, Pieniazek D, Dorn J, Fridlund C, et al. Predominance of HIV-1 Subtype A and D Infections in Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):509-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000609
AMA Hu DJ, Baggs J, Downing RG, et al. Predominance of HIV-1 Subtype A and D Infections in Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):509-515. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000609.
APA Hu, D. J., Baggs, J., Downing, R. G., Pieniazek, D., Dorn, J., Fridlund, C....Lal, R. B. (2000). Predominance of HIV-1 Subtype A and D Infections in Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 509-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000609.

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Associated with Monongahela Virus, Pennsylvania [PDF - 68 KB - 6 pages]
L. V. Rhodes et al.

The first two recognized cases of rapidly fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Pennsylvania occurred within an 8-month period in 1997. Illness in the two patients was confirmed by immunohistochemical techniques on autopsy material. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissue from one patient and environmentally associated Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) identified the Monongahela virus variant. Physicians should be vigilant for such Monongahela virus-associated cases in the eastern United States and Canada, particularly in the Appalachian region.

EID Rhodes LV, Huang C, Sanchez AJ, Nichol ST, Zaki SR, Ksiazek TG, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Associated with Monongahela Virus, Pennsylvania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):616-621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000610
AMA Rhodes LV, Huang C, Sanchez AJ, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Associated with Monongahela Virus, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):616-621. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000610.
APA Rhodes, L. V., Huang, C., Sanchez, A. J., Nichol, S. T., Zaki, S. R., Ksiazek, T. G....Knecht, K. R. (2000). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Associated with Monongahela Virus, Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 616-621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000610.

Risk Factors for Otitis Media and Carriage of Multiple Strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae [PDF - 109 KB - 9 pages]
J. St. Sauver et al.

We studied genetic diversity in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in throat culture isolates from 38 children attending two day-care centers in Michigan. Culture specimens were collected weekly; 184 S. pneumoniae and 418 H. influenzae were isolated from the cultures. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 29 patterns among the S. pneumoniae isolates and 87 among the H. influenzae isolates. Of the cultures, 5% contained multiple genetic types of S. pneumoniae, and 43% contained multiple types of H. influenzae. Carriage of multiple H. influenzae isolates, which was associated with exposure to smoking, history of allergies, and age 36 to 47 months, may increase risk for otitis media in children.

EID St. Sauver J, Marrs CF, Foxman B, Somsel P, Madera R, Gilsdorf JR. Risk Factors for Otitis Media and Carriage of Multiple Strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):622-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000611
AMA St. Sauver J, Marrs CF, Foxman B, et al. Risk Factors for Otitis Media and Carriage of Multiple Strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):622-630. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000611.
APA St. Sauver, J., Marrs, C. F., Foxman, B., Somsel, P., Madera, R., & Gilsdorf, J. R. (2000). Risk Factors for Otitis Media and Carriage of Multiple Strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 622-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000611.

Molecular Evidence of Clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus Pandemic Strains [PDF - 189 KB - 6 pages]
N. R. Chowdhury et al.

The upsurge in worldwide incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in the last 5 years has been attributed to the recent appearance of three serotypes with pandemic potential: O3:K6, O4:K68, and O1:K untypeable (KUT). Thirty-five strains of these serotypes, isolated from different countries over 4 years, were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their origin. The ribotypes of the strains of these serotypes were indistinguishable, except for a Japanese tdh- negative O3:K6 strain and a U.S. clinical O3:K6 isolate, which had slightly different profiles. The migration patterns of the NotI-digest of the total DNA of the strains were similar, and only slight variations were observed between the serotypes. By contrast, the O3:K6 and O1:KUT strains isolated before 1995 and strains of other serotypes had markedly different profiles. The O4:K68 and O1:KUT strains most likely originated from the pandemic O3:K6 clone.

EID Chowdhury NR, Chakraborty S, Ramamurthy T, Nishibuchi M, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, et al. Molecular Evidence of Clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus Pandemic Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):631-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000612
AMA Chowdhury NR, Chakraborty S, Ramamurthy T, et al. Molecular Evidence of Clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus Pandemic Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):631-636. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000612.
APA Chowdhury, N. R., Chakraborty, S., Ramamurthy, T., Nishibuchi, M., Yamasaki, S., Takeda, Y....Nair, G. B. (2000). Molecular Evidence of Clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus Pandemic Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 631-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000612.
Dispatches

Mass Die-Off of Caspian Seals Caused by Canine Distemper Virus [PDF - 68 KB - 3 pages]
S. Kennedy et al.

Thousands of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) died in the Caspian Sea from April to August 2000. Lesions characteristic of morbillivirus infection were found in tissue specimens from dead seals. Canine distemper virus infection was identified by serologic examination, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of selected P gene fragments. These results implicate canine distemper virus infection as the primary cause of death.

EID Kennedy S, Kuiken T, Jepson PD, Deaville R, Forsyth M, Barrett T, et al. Mass Die-Off of Caspian Seals Caused by Canine Distemper Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):637-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000613
AMA Kennedy S, Kuiken T, Jepson PD, et al. Mass Die-Off of Caspian Seals Caused by Canine Distemper Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):637-639. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000613.
APA Kennedy, S., Kuiken, T., Jepson, P. D., Deaville, R., Forsyth, M., Barrett, T....Wilson, S. (2000). Mass Die-Off of Caspian Seals Caused by Canine Distemper Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 637-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000613.

Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae: An Emerging Pathogen in England and Wales? [PDF - 64 KB - 6 pages]
M. Reacher et al.

Confirmed isolates of nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in England and Wales increased substantially from 1986 to 1994. Ribotyping of 121 isolates confirmed in 1995 showed that 90 were of a single strain isolated exclusively from the throat; none had previously been identified in toxigenic strains from U.K. or non-U.K. residents. The upward trend in nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae probably represented increased ascertainment, although dissemination of a particular strain or clone may have been a factor.

EID Reacher M, Ramsay M, White J, De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Mann G, et al. Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae: An Emerging Pathogen in England and Wales?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):640-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000614
AMA Reacher M, Ramsay M, White J, et al. Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae: An Emerging Pathogen in England and Wales?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):640-645. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000614.
APA Reacher, M., Ramsay, M., White, J., De Zoysa, A., Efstratiou, A., Mann, G....George, R. C. (2000). Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae: An Emerging Pathogen in England and Wales?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 640-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000614.

Meningococcemia in a Patient Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus and HIV [PDF - 20 KB - 3 pages]
C. G. Nelson et al.

Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV is an emerging public health problem. While coinfection with HIV can accelerate the progression of HCV (1,2), the impact of dual infection on other infectious diseases is unknown. We describe the first reported case of meningococcal infection in a patient coinfected with HCV and HIV.

EID Nelson CG, Iler MA, Woods CW, Bartlett JA, Fowler VG. Meningococcemia in a Patient Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus and HIV. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):646-648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000615
AMA Nelson CG, Iler MA, Woods CW, et al. Meningococcemia in a Patient Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):646-648. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000615.
APA Nelson, C. G., Iler, M. A., Woods, C. W., Bartlett, J. A., & Fowler, V. G. (2000). Meningococcemia in a Patient Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 646-648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000615.

Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Kenya [PDF - 17 KB - 3 pages]
S. Kariuki et al.

We report the emergence in Kenya during 1997-1999 of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and cotrimoxazole. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA yielded a single cluster. The multidrug-resistant S. Typhi were related to earlier drug-susceptible isolates but were unrelated to multidrug-resistant isolates from Asia.

EID Kariuki S, Gilks C, Revathi G, Hart CA. Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):649-651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000616
AMA Kariuki S, Gilks C, Revathi G, et al. Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):649-651. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000616.
APA Kariuki, S., Gilks, C., Revathi, G., & Hart, C. A. (2000). Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 649-651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000616.
Commentaries

Lessons Learned from a Full-Scale Bioterrorism Exercise [PDF - 17 KB - 2 pages]
R. E. Hoffman and J. E. Norton

During May 20-23, 2000, local, state, and federal officials, and the staff of three hospitals in metropolitan Denver, participated in a bioterrorism exercise called Operation Topoff. As a simulated bioterrorist attack unfolded, participants learned that a Yersinia pestis aerosol had been covertly released 3 days earlier at the city’s center for the performing arts, leading to >2,000 cases of pneumonic plague, many deaths, and hundreds of secondary cases. The exercise provided an opportunity to practice working with an infectious agent and to address issues related to antimicrobial prophylaxis and infection control that would also be applicable to smallpox or pandemic influenza.

EID Hoffman RE, Norton JE. Lessons Learned from a Full-Scale Bioterrorism Exercise. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):652-653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000617
AMA Hoffman RE, Norton JE. Lessons Learned from a Full-Scale Bioterrorism Exercise. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):652-653. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000617.
APA Hoffman, R. E., & Norton, J. E. (2000). Lessons Learned from a Full-Scale Bioterrorism Exercise. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 652-653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000617.
Letters

Preliminary Characterization and Natural History of Hantaviruses in Rodents in Northern Greece [PDF - 21 KB - 2 pages]
A. Papa et al.
EID Papa A, Mills JN, Kouidou S, Ma B, Papadimitriou E, Antoniadis A. Preliminary Characterization and Natural History of Hantaviruses in Rodents in Northern Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):654-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000618
AMA Papa A, Mills JN, Kouidou S, et al. Preliminary Characterization and Natural History of Hantaviruses in Rodents in Northern Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):654-655. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000618.
APA Papa, A., Mills, J. N., Kouidou, S., Ma, B., Papadimitriou, E., & Antoniadis, A. (2000). Preliminary Characterization and Natural History of Hantaviruses in Rodents in Northern Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 654-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000618.

Imported Dengue in Buenos Aires, Argentina [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
A. Seijo et al.
EID Seijo A, Curcio D, Avilés G, Cernigoi B, Deodato B, Lloveras S. Imported Dengue in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):655-656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000619
AMA Seijo A, Curcio D, Avilés G, et al. Imported Dengue in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):655-656. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000619.
APA Seijo, A., Curcio, D., Avilés, G., Cernigoi, B., Deodato, B., & Lloveras, S. (2000). Imported Dengue in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 655-656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000619.

American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes [PDF - 21 KB - 2 pages]
L. Gern and P. Humair
EID Gern L, Humair P. American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):657-658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000620
AMA Gern L, Humair P. American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):657-658. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000620.
APA Gern, L., & Humair, P. (2000). American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 657-658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000620.

American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes [PDF - 21 KB - 2 pages]
S. Randolph
EID Randolph S. American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):658-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000621
AMA Randolph S. American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):658-659. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000621.
APA Randolph, S. (2000). American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 658-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000621.

Response to Dr. Randolph and Drs. Gern and Humair [PDF - 27 KB - 4 pages]
D. Richter et al.
EID Richter D, Spielman A, Komar N, Matuschka F. Response to Dr. Randolph and Drs. Gern and Humair. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):659-662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000622
AMA Richter D, Spielman A, Komar N, et al. Response to Dr. Randolph and Drs. Gern and Humair. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):659-662. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000622.
APA Richter, D., Spielman, A., Komar, N., & Matuschka, F. (2000). Response to Dr. Randolph and Drs. Gern and Humair. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 659-662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000622.
About the Cover

Japanese color woodcut print advertising the effectiveness of cowpox vaccine (circa 1850 A.D.) [PDF - 12 KB - 1 page]
EID Japanese color woodcut print advertising the effectiveness of cowpox vaccine (circa 1850 A.D.). Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.ac0606
AMA Japanese color woodcut print advertising the effectiveness of cowpox vaccine (circa 1850 A.D.). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):664. doi:10.3201/eid0606.ac0606.
APA (2000). Japanese color woodcut print advertising the effectiveness of cowpox vaccine (circa 1850 A.D.). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.ac0606.
Conference Summaries

3rd Conference on New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 13 KB - 1 page]
EID 3rd Conference on New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000625
AMA 3rd Conference on New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):663. doi:10.3201/eid0606.000625.
APA (2000). 3rd Conference on New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000625.
Corrections

Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4 [PDF - 13 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.c10606
AMA Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(6):663. doi:10.3201/eid0606.c10606.
APA (2000). Erratum Vol. 6, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6), 663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.c10606.
Page created: December 17, 2010
Page updated: December 17, 2010
Page reviewed: December 17, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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