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Issue Cover for Volume 17, Number 5—May 2011

Volume 17, Number 5—May 2011

[PDF - 6.16 MB - 199 pages]

Perspective

Vector-borne Infections [PDF - 31 KB - 2 pages]
R. Rosenberg and C. Ben Beard

Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

EID Rosenberg R, Ben Beard C. Vector-borne Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):769-770. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.110310
AMA Rosenberg R, Ben Beard C. Vector-borne Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):769-770. doi:10.3201/eid1705.110310.
APA Rosenberg, R., & Ben Beard, C. (2011). Vector-borne Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 769-770. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.110310.
Synopses

Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe [PDF - 294 KB - 7 pages]
T. Zoller et al.

Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure.

EID Zoller T, Junghanss T, Kapaun A, Gjørup I, Richter J, Hugo-Persson M, et al. Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):771-777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101229
AMA Zoller T, Junghanss T, Kapaun A, et al. Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):771-777. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101229.
APA Zoller, T., Junghanss, T., Kapaun, A., Gjørup, I., Richter, J., Hugo-Persson, M....Flick, H. (2011). Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 771-777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101229.

Medscape CME Activity
Lessons Learned about Pneumonic Plague Diagnosis from 2 Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 245 KB - 7 pages]
E. Bertherat et al.

Pneumonic plague is a highly transmissible infectious disease for which fatality rates can be high if untreated; it is considered extremely lethal. Without prompt diagnosis and treatment, disease management can be problematic. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2 outbreaks of pneumonic plague occurred during 2005 and 2006. In 2005, because of limitations in laboratory capabilities, etiology was confirmed only through retrospective serologic studies. This prompted modifications in diagnostic strategies, resulting in isolation of Yersinia pestis during the second outbreak. Results from these outbreaks demonstrate the utility of a rapid diagnostic test detecting F1 antigen for initial diagnosis and public health management, as well as the need for specialized sampling kits and trained personnel for quality specimen collection and appropriate specimen handling and preservation for plague confirmation and Y. pestis isolation. Efficient frontline management and a streamlined diagnostic strategy are essential for confirming plague, especially in remote areas.

EID Bertherat E, Thullier P, Shako JC, England K, Koné M, Arntzen L, et al. Lessons Learned about Pneumonic Plague Diagnosis from 2 Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):778-784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100029
AMA Bertherat E, Thullier P, Shako JC, et al. Lessons Learned about Pneumonic Plague Diagnosis from 2 Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):778-784. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100029.
APA Bertherat, E., Thullier, P., Shako, J. C., England, K., Koné, M., Arntzen, L....Rahalison, L. (2011). Lessons Learned about Pneumonic Plague Diagnosis from 2 Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 778-784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100029.
Research

Evolution of New Genotype of West Nile Virus in North America [PDF - 497 KB - 9 pages]
A. R. McMullen et al.

Previous studies of North American isolates of West Nile virus (WNV) during 1999–2005 suggested that the virus had reached genetic homeostasis in North America. However, genomic sequencing of WNV isolates from Harris County, Texas, during 2002–2009 suggests that this is not the case. Three new genetic groups have been identified in Texas since 2005. Spread of the southwestern US genotype (SW/WN03) from the Arizona/Colorado/northern Mexico region to California, Illinois, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, and the Texas Gulf Coast demonstrates continued evolution of WNV. Thus, WNV continues to evolve in North America, as demonstrated by selection of this new genotype. Continued surveillance of the virus is essential as it continues to evolve in the New World.

EID McMullen AR, May FJ, Li L, Guzman H, Bueno R, Dennett JA, et al. Evolution of New Genotype of West Nile Virus in North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):785-793. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101707
AMA McMullen AR, May FJ, Li L, et al. Evolution of New Genotype of West Nile Virus in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):785-793. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101707.
APA McMullen, A. R., May, F. J., Li, L., Guzman, H., Bueno, R., Dennett, J. A....Barrett, A. D. (2011). Evolution of New Genotype of West Nile Virus in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 785-793. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101707.

Transstadial Transmission of Francisella tularensis holarctica in Mosquitoes, Sweden [PDF - 625 KB - 6 pages]
J. O. Lundström et al.

In Sweden, human cases of tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis holarctica are assumed to be transmitted by mosquitoes, but how mosquito vectors acquire and transmit the bacterium is not clear. To determine how transmission of this bacterium occurs, mosquito larvae were collected in an area where tularemia is endemic, brought to the laboratory, and reared to adults in their original pond water. Screening of adult mosquitoes by real-time PCR demonstrated F. tularensis lpnA sequences in 14 of the 48 mosquito pools tested; lpnA sequences were demonstrated in 6 of 9 identified mosquito species. Further analysis confirmed the presence of F. tularensis holarctica–specific 30-bp deletion region sequences (FtM19inDel) in water from breeding containers and in 3 mosquito species (Aedes sticticus, Ae. vexans, and Ae. punctor) known to take blood from humans. Our results suggest that the mosquitoes that transmit F. tularensis holarctica during tularemia outbreaks acquire the bacterium already as larvae.

EID Lundström JO, Andersson A, Bäckman S, Schäfer ML, Forsman M, Thelaus J. Transstadial Transmission of Francisella tularensis holarctica in Mosquitoes, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):794-799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100426
AMA Lundström JO, Andersson A, Bäckman S, et al. Transstadial Transmission of Francisella tularensis holarctica in Mosquitoes, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):794-799. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100426.
APA Lundström, J. O., Andersson, A., Bäckman, S., Schäfer, M. L., Forsman, M., & Thelaus, J. (2011). Transstadial Transmission of Francisella tularensis holarctica in Mosquitoes, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 794-799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100426.

Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil [PDF - 360 KB - 7 pages]
H. B. Vasconcelos et al.

Oropouche virus (OROV) is the causative agent of Oropouche fever, an urban febrile arboviral disease widespread in South America, with >30 epidemics reported in Brazil and other Latin American countries during 1960–2009. To describe the molecular epidemiology of OROV, we analyzed the entire N gene sequences (small RNA) of 66 strains and 35 partial Gn (medium RNA) and large RNA gene sequences. Distinct patterns of OROV strain clustered according to N, Gn, and large gene sequences, which suggests that each RNA segment had a different evolutionary history and that the classification in genotypes must consider the genetic information for all genetic segments. Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ≈223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal.

EID Vasconcelos HB, Nunes MR, Casseb LM, Carvalho VL, Pinto da Silva EV, Silva M, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):800-806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101333
AMA Vasconcelos HB, Nunes MR, Casseb LM, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):800-806. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101333.
APA Vasconcelos, H. B., Nunes, M. R., Casseb, L. M., Carvalho, V. L., Pinto da Silva, E. V., Silva, M....Vasconcelos, P. (2011). Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 800-806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101333.

Medscape CME Activity
Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003 [PDF - 206 KB - 7 pages]
E. Seringe et al.

Little is known about severe imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in industrialized countries where the disease is not endemic because most studies have been case reports or have included <200 patients. To identify factors independently associated with the severity of P. falciparum, we conducted a retrospective study using surveillance data obtained from 21,888 P. falciparum patients in France during 1996–2003; 832 were classified as having severe malaria. The global case-fatality rate was 0.4% and the rate of severe malaria was ≈3.8%. Factors independently associated with severe imported P. falciparum malaria were older age, European origin, travel to eastern Africa, absence of chemoprophylaxis, initial visit to a general practitioner, time to diagnosis of 4 to 12 days, and diagnosis during the fall–winter season. Pretravel advice should take into account these factors and promote the use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis for every traveler, with a particular focus on nonimmune travelers and elderly persons.

EID Seringe E, Thellier M, Fontanet A, Legros F, Bouchaud O, Ancelle T, et al. Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):807-813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101527
AMA Seringe E, Thellier M, Fontanet A, et al. Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):807-813. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101527.
APA Seringe, E., Thellier, M., Fontanet, A., Legros, F., Bouchaud, O., Ancelle, T....Durand, R. (2011). Severe Imported Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, France, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 807-813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101527.

Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Children [PDF - 233 KB - 7 pages]
B. E. Barber et al.

Plasmodium knowlesi can cause severe malaria in adults; however, descriptions of clinical disease in children are lacking. We reviewed case records of children (age <15 years) with a malaria diagnosis at Kudat District Hospital, serving a largely deforested area of Sabah, Malaysia, during January–November 2009. Sixteen children with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi monoinfection were compared with 14 children with P. falciparum monoinfection diagnosed by microscopy or PCR. Four children with knowlesi malaria had a hemoglobin level at admission of <10.0 g/dL (minimum lowest level 6.4 g/dL). Minimum level platelet counts were lower in knowlesi than in falciparum malaria (median 76,500/µL vs. 156,000/μL; p = 0.01). Most (81%) children with P. knowlesi malaria received chloroquine and primaquine; median parasite clearance time was 2 days (range 1–5 days). P. knowlesi is the most common cause of childhood malaria in Kudat. Although infection is generally uncomplicated, anemia is common and thrombocytopenia universal. Transmission dynamics in this region require additional investigation.

EID Barber BE, William T, Jikal M, Jilip J, Dhararaj P, Menon J, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):814-820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101489
AMA Barber BE, William T, Jikal M, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):814-820. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101489.
APA Barber, B. E., William, T., Jikal, M., Jilip, J., Dhararaj, P., Menon, J....Anstey, N. M. (2011). Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 814-820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101489.

Travel-related Dengue Virus Infection, the Netherlands, 2006–2007 [PDF - 227 KB - 8 pages]
G. G. Baaten et al.

To assess the incidence of and risk factors for clinical and subclinical dengue virus (DENV) infection, we prospectively studied 1,207 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to dengue-endemic areas. Participants donated blood samples for serologic testing before and after travel. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against DENV. Seroconversion occurred in 14 (1.2%) travelers at risk. The incidence rate was 14.6 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate was significantly higher for travel during the rainy months. Dengue-like illness occurred in 5 of the 14 travelers who seroconverted. Seroconversion was significantly related to fever, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, and skin rash. The risk for DENV infection for short-term travelers to dengue-endemic areas is substantial. The incidence rate for this study is comparable with that in 2 other serology-based prospective studies conducted in the 1990s.

EID Baaten GG, Sonder G, Zaaijer HL, van Gool T, Kint JA, van den Hoek A. Travel-related Dengue Virus Infection, the Netherlands, 2006–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):821-828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101125
AMA Baaten GG, Sonder G, Zaaijer HL, et al. Travel-related Dengue Virus Infection, the Netherlands, 2006–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):821-828. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101125.
APA Baaten, G. G., Sonder, G., Zaaijer, H. L., van Gool, T., Kint, J. A., & van den Hoek, A. (2011). Travel-related Dengue Virus Infection, the Netherlands, 2006–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 821-828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101125.

Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii [PDF - 223 KB - 6 pages]
M. B. Labruna et al.

We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission.

EID Labruna MB, Ogrzewalska M, Soares JF, Martins TF, Soares HS, Moraes-Filho J, et al. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):829-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101524
AMA Labruna MB, Ogrzewalska M, Soares JF, et al. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):829-834. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101524.
APA Labruna, M. B., Ogrzewalska, M., Soares, J. F., Martins, T. F., Soares, H. S., Moraes-Filho, J....Pinter, A. (2011). Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 829-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101524.

Genotypic Profile of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 and Clinical Features of Infection in Humans, Thailand [PDF - 453 KB - 8 pages]
K. Oishi et al.

To examine associations between clinical features of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections in humans in Thailand and genotypic profiles of isolates, we conducted a retrospective study during 2006–2008. Of 165 patients for whom bacterial cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or both were positive for S. suis serotype 2, the major multilocus sequence types (STs) found were ST1 (62.4%) and ST104 (25.5%); the latter is unique to Thailand. Clinical features were examined for 158 patients. Infections were sporadic; case-fatality rate for adults was 9.5%, primarily in northern Thailand. Disease incidence peaked during the rainy season. Disease was classified as meningitis (58.9%) or nonmeningitis (41.1%, and included sepsis [35.4%] and others [5.7%]). Although ST1 strains were significantly associated with the meningitis category (p<0.0001), ST104 strains were significantly associated with the nonmeningitis category (p<0.0001). The ST1 and ST104 strains are capable of causing sepsis, but only the ST1 strains commonly cause meningitis.

EID Oishi K, Dejsirilert S, Puangpatra P, Sripakdee S, Chumla K, Boonkerd N, et al. Genotypic Profile of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 and Clinical Features of Infection in Humans, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):835-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100754
AMA Oishi K, Dejsirilert S, Puangpatra P, et al. Genotypic Profile of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 and Clinical Features of Infection in Humans, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):835-842. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100754.
APA Oishi, K., Dejsirilert, S., Puangpatra, P., Sripakdee, S., Chumla, K., Boonkerd, N....Kerdsin, A. (2011). Genotypic Profile of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 and Clinical Features of Infection in Humans, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 835-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100754.

Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA [PDF - 258 KB - 5 pages]
J. T. Joseph et al.

Although Lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the Lower Hudson Valley of New York, United States, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001. The number of Lower Hudson Valley residents in whom babesiosis was diagnosed increased 20-fold, from 6 to 119 cases per year during 2001–2008, compared with an ≈1.6-fold increase for the rest of New York. During 2002–2009, a total of 19 patients with babesiosis were hospitalized on 22 occasions at the regional tertiary care center. Concurrent conditions included advanced age, malignancies, splenectomy, and AIDS. Two patients acquired the infection from blood transfusions and 1 from perinatal exposure, rather than from a tick bite. One patient died. Clinicians should consider babesiosis in persons with fever and hemolytic anemia who have had tick exposure or have received blood products.

EID Joseph JT, Roy SS, Shams N, Visintainer P, Nadelman RB, Hosur S, et al. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):843-847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101334
AMA Joseph JT, Roy SS, Shams N, et al. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):843-847. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101334.
APA Joseph, J. T., Roy, S. S., Shams, N., Visintainer, P., Nadelman, R. B., Hosur, S....Wormser, G. P. (2011). Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 843-847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101334.

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep [PDF - 543 KB - 7 pages]
M. M. Simmons et al.

To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specific prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These findings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.

EID Simmons MM, Moore S, Konold T, Thurston L, Terry LA, Thorne L, et al. Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):848-854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101654
AMA Simmons MM, Moore S, Konold T, et al. Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):848-854. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101654.
APA Simmons, M. M., Moore, S., Konold, T., Thurston, L., Terry, L. A., Thorne, L....Spiropoulos, J. (2011). Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 848-854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101654.
Historical Review

Evidence of Tungiasis in Pre-Hispanic America [PDF - 666 KB - 8 pages]
V. Maco et al.

Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. We identified 17 written documents and 4 anthropomorphic figures, of which 3 originated from the Chimu culture and 1 from the Maranga culture. Tungiasis has been endemic to Peru for at least 14 centuries. We also identified a pottery fragment during this study. This fragment is the fourth representation of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America identified and provides explicit evidence of disease endemicity in ancient Peru.

EID Maco V, Tantaleán M, Gotuzzo E. Evidence of Tungiasis in Pre-Hispanic America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):855-862. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100542
AMA Maco V, Tantaleán M, Gotuzzo E. Evidence of Tungiasis in Pre-Hispanic America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):855-862. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100542.
APA Maco, V., Tantaleán, M., & Gotuzzo, E. (2011). Evidence of Tungiasis in Pre-Hispanic America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 855-862. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100542.
Dispatches

Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil [PDF - 455 KB - 4 pages]
D. Otranto et al.

A case of human intraocular dirofilariasis is reported from northern Brazil. The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same area. A zoonotic Dirofilaria species infesting wild mammals in Brazil and its implications are discussed.

EID Otranto D, Diniz DG, Dantas-Torres F, Casiraghi M, de Almeida IN, de Almeida LN, et al. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):863-866. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100916
AMA Otranto D, Diniz DG, Dantas-Torres F, et al. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):863-866. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100916.
APA Otranto, D., Diniz, D. G., Dantas-Torres, F., Casiraghi, M., de Almeida, I. N., de Almeida, L. N....Bain, O. (2011). Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 863-866. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100916.

Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil [PDF - 230 KB - 3 pages]
O. Bain et al.

A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species.

EID Bain O, Otranto D, Diniz DG, Nascimento dos Santos J, Pinto de Oliveira N, Frota de Almeida IN, et al. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):867-869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101309
AMA Bain O, Otranto D, Diniz DG, et al. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):867-869. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101309.
APA Bain, O., Otranto, D., Diniz, D. G., Nascimento dos Santos, J., Pinto de Oliveira, N., Frota de Almeida, I. N....Sobrinho, E. F. (2011). Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 867-869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101309.

Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
M. Koehsler et al.

Linguatula serrata, the so-called tongue worm, is a worm-like, bloodsucking parasite belonging to the Pentastomida group. Infections with L. serrata tongue worms are rare in Europe. We describe a case of ocular linguatulosis in central Europe and provide molecular data on L. serrata tongue worms.

EID Koehsler M, Walochnik J, Georgopoulos M, Pruente C, Boeckeler W, Auer H, et al. Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):870-872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100790
AMA Koehsler M, Walochnik J, Georgopoulos M, et al. Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):870-872. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100790.
APA Koehsler, M., Walochnik, J., Georgopoulos, M., Pruente, C., Boeckeler, W., Auer, H....Barisani-Asenbauer, T. (2011). Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 870-872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100790.

Rickettsia rickettsii Transmission by a Lone Star Tick, North Carolina [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
E. B. Breitschwerdt et al.

Only indirect or circumstantial evidence has been published to support transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii by Amblyomma americanum (lone star) ticks in North America. This study provides molecular evidence that A. americanum ticks can function, although most likely infrequently, as vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever for humans.

EID Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Maggi RG, Lantos PM, Aslett DM, Bradley JM. Rickettsia rickettsii Transmission by a Lone Star Tick, North Carolina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):873-875. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101530
AMA Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Maggi RG, et al. Rickettsia rickettsii Transmission by a Lone Star Tick, North Carolina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):873-875. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101530.
APA Breitschwerdt, E. B., Hegarty, B. C., Maggi, R. G., Lantos, P. M., Aslett, D. M., & Bradley, J. M. (2011). Rickettsia rickettsii Transmission by a Lone Star Tick, North Carolina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 873-875. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101530.

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan [PDF - 304 KB - 4 pages]
B. J. Briggs et al.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan by collecting small mammals and ticks from diverse localities and analyzing them for evidence of TBEV infection. We found TBEV circulating in Kyrgyzstan much farther south and at higher altitudes than previously reported.

EID Briggs BJ, Atkinson B, Czechowski DM, Larsen PA, Meeks HN, Carrera JP, et al. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):876-879. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101183
AMA Briggs BJ, Atkinson B, Czechowski DM, et al. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):876-879. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101183.
APA Briggs, B. J., Atkinson, B., Czechowski, D. M., Larsen, P. A., Meeks, H. N., Carrera, J. P....Hay, J. (2011). Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 876-879. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101183.

Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
B. D. Foy et al.

Clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 American scientists contracted Zika virus infections while working in Senegal in 2008. One of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. Direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.

EID Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Foy JL, Blitvich BJ, Travassos da Rosa A, Haddow AD, et al. Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):880-882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101939
AMA Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Foy JL, et al. Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):880-882. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101939.
APA Foy, B. D., Kobylinski, K. C., Foy, J. L., Blitvich, B. J., Travassos da Rosa, A., Haddow, A. D....Tesh, R. B. (2011). Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 880-882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101939.

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, Rural Senegal [PDF - 301 KB - 3 pages]
P. Parola et al.

Detecting spirochetes remains challenging in cases of African tick-borne relapsing fever. Using real-time PCR specific for the 16S rRNA Borrelia gene, we found 27 (13%) of 206 samples from febrile patients in rural Senegal to be positive, whereas thick blood smear examinations conducted at dispensaries identified only 4 (2%) as positive.

EID Parola P, Diatta G, Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Tall A, Bassene H, et al. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, Rural Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):883-885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100573
AMA Parola P, Diatta G, Socolovschi C, et al. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, Rural Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):883-885. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100573.
APA Parola, P., Diatta, G., Socolovschi, C., Mediannikov, O., Tall, A., Bassene, H....Raoult, D. (2011). Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, Rural Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 883-885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100573.

Novel Bluetongue Virus Serotype from Kuwait [PDF - 333 KB - 4 pages]
S. Maan et al.

Sheep and goats sampled in Kuwait during February 2010 were seropositive for bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV isolate KUW2010/02, from 1 of only 2 sheep that also tested positive for BTV by real-time reverse transcription–PCR, caused mild clinical signs in sheep. Nucleotide sequencing identified KUW2010/02 as a novel BTV serotype.

EID Maan S, Maan NS, Nomikou K, Batten C, Antony F, Belaganahalli MN, et al. Novel Bluetongue Virus Serotype from Kuwait. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):886-889. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101742
AMA Maan S, Maan NS, Nomikou K, et al. Novel Bluetongue Virus Serotype from Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):886-889. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101742.
APA Maan, S., Maan, N. S., Nomikou, K., Batten, C., Antony, F., Belaganahalli, M. N....Mertens, P. P. (2011). Novel Bluetongue Virus Serotype from Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 886-889. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101742.

Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Germany [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
C. Silaghi et al.

To explore increased risk for human Rickettsia spp. infection in Germany, we investigated recreational areas and renatured brown coal surface-mining sites (also used for recreation) for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks. R. raoultii (56.7%), R. slovaca (13.3%), and R. helvetica (>13.4%) were detected in the respective tick species.

EID Silaghi C, Hamel D, Thiel C, Pfister K, Pfeffer M. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):890-892. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101445
AMA Silaghi C, Hamel D, Thiel C, et al. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):890-892. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101445.
APA Silaghi, C., Hamel, D., Thiel, C., Pfister, K., & Pfeffer, M. (2011). Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 890-892. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101445.

Bartonella spp. in Feral Pigs, Southeastern United States [PDF - 230 KB - 3 pages]
A. W. Beard et al.

In conjunction with efforts to assess pathogen exposure in feral pigs from the southeastern United States, we amplified Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from blood samples. Feral pigs may represent a zoonotic risk for hunters or butchers and pose a potential threat to domesticated livestock.

EID Beard AW, Maggi RG, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, Cherry NA, Sandfoss MR, DePerno CS, et al. Bartonella spp. in Feral Pigs, Southeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):893-895. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100141
AMA Beard AW, Maggi RG, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, et al. Bartonella spp. in Feral Pigs, Southeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):893-895. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100141.
APA Beard, A. W., Maggi, R. G., Kennedy-Stoskopf, S., Cherry, N. A., Sandfoss, M. R., DePerno, C. S....Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2011). Bartonella spp. in Feral Pigs, Southeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 893-895. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100141.

Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
C. L. Wright et al.

We report evidence that Amblyomma maculatum tick populations are well established in southeastern Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen.

EID Wright CL, Nadolny RM, Jiang J, Richards AL, Sonenshine DE, Gaff HD, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):896-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101836
AMA Wright CL, Nadolny RM, Jiang J, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):896-898. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101836.
APA Wright, C. L., Nadolny, R. M., Jiang, J., Richards, A. L., Sonenshine, D. E., Gaff, H. D....Hynes, W. L. (2011). Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 896-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101836.

Multitarget Test for Emerging Lyme Disease and Anaplasmosis in a Serosurvey of Dogs, Maine, USA [PDF - 243 KB - 3 pages]
P. W. Rand et al.

To determine if the range of deer ticks in Maine had expanded, we conducted a multitarget serosurvey of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in 2007. An extension of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi to the northern border and local transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum throughout southern areas was found.

EID Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Elias SP, Cahill BK, Lubelczyk CB, Smith RP. Multitarget Test for Emerging Lyme Disease and Anaplasmosis in a Serosurvey of Dogs, Maine, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):899-902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100408
AMA Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Elias SP, et al. Multitarget Test for Emerging Lyme Disease and Anaplasmosis in a Serosurvey of Dogs, Maine, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):899-902. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100408.
APA Rand, P. W., Lacombe, E. H., Elias, S. P., Cahill, B. K., Lubelczyk, C. B., & Smith, R. P. (2011). Multitarget Test for Emerging Lyme Disease and Anaplasmosis in a Serosurvey of Dogs, Maine, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 899-902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100408.

Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates, Italy, 2008–2009 [PDF - 345 KB - 4 pages]
G. Rossini et al.

To determine the lineage of West Nile virus that caused outbreaks in Italy in 2008 and 2009, several West Nile virus strains were isolated from human specimens and sequenced. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, the strains isolated constitute a distinct group within the western Mediterranean cluster.

EID Rossini G, Carletti F, Bordi L, Cavrini F, Gaibani P, Landini MP, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates, Italy, 2008–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):903-906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101569
AMA Rossini G, Carletti F, Bordi L, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates, Italy, 2008–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):903-906. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101569.
APA Rossini, G., Carletti, F., Bordi, L., Cavrini, F., Gaibani, P., Landini, M. P....Sambri, V. (2011). Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates, Italy, 2008–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 903-906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101569.

Genomic Characterization of Nipah Virus, West Bengal, India [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
V. A. Arankalle et al.

An intrafamilial outbreak in West Bengal, India, involving 5 deaths and person-to-person transmission was attributed to Nipah virus. Full-genome sequence of Nipah virus (18,252 nt) amplified from lung tissue showed 99.2% nt and 99.8% aa identity with the Bangladesh-2004 isolate, suggesting a common source of the virus.

EID Arankalle VA, Bandyopadhyay BT, Ramdasi AY, Jadi R, Patil DR, Rahman M, et al. Genomic Characterization of Nipah Virus, West Bengal, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):907-909. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100968
AMA Arankalle VA, Bandyopadhyay BT, Ramdasi AY, et al. Genomic Characterization of Nipah Virus, West Bengal, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):907-909. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100968.
APA Arankalle, V. A., Bandyopadhyay, B. T., Ramdasi, A. Y., Jadi, R., Patil, D. R., Rahman, M....Mishra, A. C. (2011). Genomic Characterization of Nipah Virus, West Bengal, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 907-909. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100968.

Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France [PDF - 230 KB - 4 pages]
M. Grandadam et al.

In September 2010, autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus was recorded in southeastern France, where the Aedes albopictus mosquito vector is present. Sequence analysis of the viral genomes of imported and autochthonous isolates indicated new features for the potential emergence and spread of the virus in Europe.

EID Grandadam M, Caro V, Plumet S, Thiberge J, Souarès Y, Failloux A, et al. Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):910-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101873
AMA Grandadam M, Caro V, Plumet S, et al. Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):910-913. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101873.
APA Grandadam, M., Caro, V., Plumet, S., Thiberge, J., Souarès, Y., Failloux, A....Desprès, P. (2011). Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 910-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101873.

Upward Trend in Dengue Incidence among Hospitalized Patients, United States [PDF - 59 KB - 3 pages]
J. A. Streit et al.

International travel and a global expansion of dengue fever have the potential to increase the incidence of dengue in the United States. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of trends in dengue among hospitalized patients by using the National Inpatient Sample (2000–2007); the number of cases more than tripled (p<0.0001).

EID Streit JA, Yang M, Cavanaugh JE, Polgreen PM. Upward Trend in Dengue Incidence among Hospitalized Patients, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):914-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101023
AMA Streit JA, Yang M, Cavanaugh JE, et al. Upward Trend in Dengue Incidence among Hospitalized Patients, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):914-916. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101023.
APA Streit, J. A., Yang, M., Cavanaugh, J. E., & Polgreen, P. M. (2011). Upward Trend in Dengue Incidence among Hospitalized Patients, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 914-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101023.

Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Human Hepatitis E Virus Strains, Czech Republic [PDF - 217 KB - 3 pages]
P. Vasickova et al.

To determine the origin of hepatitis E virus in the Czech Republic, we analyzed patient clinical samples. Five isolates of genotypes 3e, 3f, and 3g were obtained. Their genetic relatedness with Czech strains from domestic pigs and wild boars and patient recollections suggest an autochthonous source likely linked to consumption of contaminated pork.

EID Vasickova P, Slany M, Chalupa P, Holub M, Svoboda R, Pavlik I. Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Human Hepatitis E Virus Strains, Czech Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):917-919. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101205
AMA Vasickova P, Slany M, Chalupa P, et al. Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Human Hepatitis E Virus Strains, Czech Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):917-919. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101205.
APA Vasickova, P., Slany, M., Chalupa, P., Holub, M., Svoboda, R., & Pavlik, I. (2011). Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Human Hepatitis E Virus Strains, Czech Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 917-919. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101205.

Genetic Characterization of West Nile Virus Lineage 2, Greece, 2010 [PDF - 142 KB - 3 pages]
A. Papa et al.

We conducted a complete genome analysis of a West Nile virus detected in Culex pipiens mosquitoes during a severe outbreak of human West Nile disease in Greece 2010. The virus showed closest genetic relationship to the lineage 2 strain that emerged in Hungary in 2004; increased virulence may be associated with amino acid substitution H249P.

EID Papa A, Bakonyi T, Xanthopoulou K, Vázquez A, Tenorio A, Nowotny N. Genetic Characterization of West Nile Virus Lineage 2, Greece, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):920-922. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101759
AMA Papa A, Bakonyi T, Xanthopoulou K, et al. Genetic Characterization of West Nile Virus Lineage 2, Greece, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):920-922. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101759.
APA Papa, A., Bakonyi, T., Xanthopoulou, K., Vázquez, A., Tenorio, A., & Nowotny, N. (2011). Genetic Characterization of West Nile Virus Lineage 2, Greece, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 920-922. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101759.
Letters

Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
H. Li et al.
EID Li H, Liu Z, Li J, Ai L, Zhou D, Yuan Z, et al. Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):928-929. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101846
AMA Li H, Liu Z, Li J, et al. Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):928-929. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101846.
APA Li, H., Liu, Z., Li, J., Ai, L., Zhou, D., Yuan, Z....Zhu, X. (2011). Plasmodium vivax Seroprevalence in Bred Cynomolgus Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 928-929. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101846.

Imported Dengue Virus Serotype 3, Yemen to Italy, 2010 [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
P. Ravanini et al.
EID Ravanini P, Huhtamo E, Hasu E, Rosa F, Costantino S, Crobu MG, et al. Imported Dengue Virus Serotype 3, Yemen to Italy, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):929-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101626
AMA Ravanini P, Huhtamo E, Hasu E, et al. Imported Dengue Virus Serotype 3, Yemen to Italy, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):929-931. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101626.
APA Ravanini, P., Huhtamo, E., Hasu, E., Rosa, F., Costantino, S., Crobu, M. G....Vapalahti, O. (2011). Imported Dengue Virus Serotype 3, Yemen to Italy, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 929-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101626.

Strongyloidiasis in Man 75 Years after Initial Exposure [PDF - 116 KB - 2 pages]
V. Prendki et al.
EID Prendki V, Fenaux P, Durand R, Thellier M, Bouchaud O. Strongyloidiasis in Man 75 Years after Initial Exposure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):931-932. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100490
AMA Prendki V, Fenaux P, Durand R, et al. Strongyloidiasis in Man 75 Years after Initial Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):931-932. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100490.
APA Prendki, V., Fenaux, P., Durand, R., Thellier, M., & Bouchaud, O. (2011). Strongyloidiasis in Man 75 Years after Initial Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 931-932. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100490.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ticks, China–Russia Border [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
J. Jiang et al.
EID Jiang J, Jiang B, Yu J, Zhang W, Gao H, Zhan L, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ticks, China–Russia Border. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):932-934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101630
AMA Jiang J, Jiang B, Yu J, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ticks, China–Russia Border. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):932-934. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101630.
APA Jiang, J., Jiang, B., Yu, J., Zhang, W., Gao, H., Zhan, L....Cao, W. (2011). Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ticks, China–Russia Border. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 932-934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101630.

Japanese Encephalitis, Tibet, China [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Li et al.
EID Li Y, Li M, Fu S, Chen W, Liu Q, Zhang H, et al. Japanese Encephalitis, Tibet, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):934-936. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101417
AMA Li Y, Li M, Fu S, et al. Japanese Encephalitis, Tibet, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):934-936. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101417.
APA Li, Y., Li, M., Fu, S., Chen, W., Liu, Q., Zhang, H....Liang, G. (2011). Japanese Encephalitis, Tibet, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 934-936. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101417.

Babesia sp. EU1 Infection in a Forest Reindeer, the Netherlands [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kik et al.
EID Kik M, Nijhof AM, Balk JA, Jongejan F. Babesia sp. EU1 Infection in a Forest Reindeer, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):936-938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101834
AMA Kik M, Nijhof AM, Balk JA, et al. Babesia sp. EU1 Infection in a Forest Reindeer, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):936-938. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101834.
APA Kik, M., Nijhof, A. M., Balk, J. A., & Jongejan, F. (2011). Babesia sp. EU1 Infection in a Forest Reindeer, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 936-938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101834.

Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
J. G. Temporão et al.
EID Temporão JG, Penna GO, Carmo EH, Coelho GE, Azevedo Rd, Nunes MR, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):938-940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101681
AMA Temporão JG, Penna GO, Carmo EH, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):938-940. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101681.
APA Temporão, J. G., Penna, G. O., Carmo, E. H., Coelho, G. E., Azevedo, R. d., Nunes, M. R....Vasconcelos, P. (2011). Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Roraima State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 938-940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101681.

Novel Phlebovirus in Febrile Child, Greece [PDF - 128 KB - 2 pages]
V. Anagnostou et al.
EID Anagnostou V, Pardalos G, Athanasiou-Metaxa M, Papa A. Novel Phlebovirus in Febrile Child, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):940-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101958
AMA Anagnostou V, Pardalos G, Athanasiou-Metaxa M, et al. Novel Phlebovirus in Febrile Child, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):940-941. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101958.
APA Anagnostou, V., Pardalos, G., Athanasiou-Metaxa, M., & Papa, A. (2011). Novel Phlebovirus in Febrile Child, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 940-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101958.

Seroprevalence of Toscana Virus in Blood Donors, France, 2007 [PDF - 136 KB - 3 pages]
N. Brisbarre et al.
EID Brisbarre N, Attoui H, Gallian P, Di Bonito P, Giorgi C, Cantaloube J, et al. Seroprevalence of Toscana Virus in Blood Donors, France, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):941-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101052
AMA Brisbarre N, Attoui H, Gallian P, et al. Seroprevalence of Toscana Virus in Blood Donors, France, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):941-943. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101052.
APA Brisbarre, N., Attoui, H., Gallian, P., Di Bonito, P., Giorgi, C., Cantaloube, J....de Micco, P. (2011). Seroprevalence of Toscana Virus in Blood Donors, France, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 941-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101052.

Quinine-Resistant Malaria in Traveler Returning from French Guiana, 2010 [PDF - 126 KB - 3 pages]
L. Bertaux et al.
EID Bertaux L, Kraemer P, Taudon N, Trignol A, Martelloni M, Saidi R, et al. Quinine-Resistant Malaria in Traveler Returning from French Guiana, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):943-945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101424
AMA Bertaux L, Kraemer P, Taudon N, et al. Quinine-Resistant Malaria in Traveler Returning from French Guiana, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):943-945. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101424.
APA Bertaux, L., Kraemer, P., Taudon, N., Trignol, A., Martelloni, M., Saidi, R....Simon, F. (2011). Quinine-Resistant Malaria in Traveler Returning from French Guiana, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 943-945. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101424.

Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus Alkhurma Subtype in Ticks, Najran Province, Saudi Arabia [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
M. Mahdi et al.
EID Mahdi M, Erickson B, Comer JA, Nichol ST, Rollin PE, AlMazroa MA, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus Alkhurma Subtype in Ticks, Najran Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):945-947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101824
AMA Mahdi M, Erickson B, Comer JA, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus Alkhurma Subtype in Ticks, Najran Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):945-947. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101824.
APA Mahdi, M., Erickson, B., Comer, J. A., Nichol, S. T., Rollin, P. E., AlMazroa, M. A....Memish, Z. A. (2011). Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus Alkhurma Subtype in Ticks, Najran Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 945-947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101824.

West Nile Virus Infection, Assam, India [PDF - 128 KB - 2 pages]
A. M. Khan et al.
EID Khan AM, Dutta P, Khan AM, Chowdhury P, Borah J, Doloi P, et al. West Nile Virus Infection, Assam, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):947-948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100479
AMA Khan AM, Dutta P, Khan AM, et al. West Nile Virus Infection, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):947-948. doi:10.3201/eid1705.100479.
APA Khan, A. M., Dutta, P., Khan, A. M., Chowdhury, P., Borah, J., Doloi, P....Mahanta, J. (2011). West Nile Virus Infection, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 947-948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100479.

Rare Rotavirus Strains in Children with Severe Diarrhea, Malaysia [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
L. Ch’ng et al.
EID Ch’ng L, Lee WS, Kirkwood CD. Rare Rotavirus Strains in Children with Severe Diarrhea, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):948-950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101652
AMA Ch’ng L, Lee WS, Kirkwood CD. Rare Rotavirus Strains in Children with Severe Diarrhea, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):948-950. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101652.
APA Ch’ng, L., Lee, W. S., & Kirkwood, C. D. (2011). Rare Rotavirus Strains in Children with Severe Diarrhea, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 948-950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101652.

Avian Malaria Deaths in Parrots, Europe [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
P. Olias et al.
EID Olias P, Wegelin M, Zenker W, Freter S, Gruber AD, Klopfleisch R. Avian Malaria Deaths in Parrots, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):950-952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101618
AMA Olias P, Wegelin M, Zenker W, et al. Avian Malaria Deaths in Parrots, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):950-952. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101618.
APA Olias, P., Wegelin, M., Zenker, W., Freter, S., Gruber, A. D., & Klopfleisch, R. (2011). Avian Malaria Deaths in Parrots, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 950-952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101618.

Fatal Human Case of Western Equine Encephalitis, Uruguay [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
A. Delfraro et al.
EID Delfraro A, Burgueño A, Morel N, González G, García A, Morelli J, et al. Fatal Human Case of Western Equine Encephalitis, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):952-954. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101068
AMA Delfraro A, Burgueño A, Morel N, et al. Fatal Human Case of Western Equine Encephalitis, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):952-954. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101068.
APA Delfraro, A., Burgueño, A., Morel, N., González, G., García, A., Morelli, J....Arbiza, J. (2011). Fatal Human Case of Western Equine Encephalitis, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 952-954. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101068.

Widespread Availability of Artemisinin Monotherapy in the United States [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
R. M. Rakita and U. Malhotra
EID Rakita RM, Malhotra U. Widespread Availability of Artemisinin Monotherapy in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):954-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101532
AMA Rakita RM, Malhotra U. Widespread Availability of Artemisinin Monotherapy in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):954-955. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101532.
APA Rakita, R. M., & Malhotra, U. (2011). Widespread Availability of Artemisinin Monotherapy in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 954-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101532.

Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
T. Tran et al.
EID Tran T, Raoult D, Drancourt M. Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):955-957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101777
AMA Tran T, Raoult D, Drancourt M. Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):955-957. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101777.
APA Tran, T., Raoult, D., & Drancourt, M. (2011). Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 955-957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101777.
Another Dimension

The Crab Hole Mosquito Blues [PDF - 206 KB - 5 pages]
K. M. Johnson et al.

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) epizoodemics were reported at 6–10-year intervals in northern South America beginning in the 1920s. In 1937, epizootic VEE virus was isolated from infected horse brain and shown as distinct from the North American equine encephalomyelitis viruses. Subsequently, epizootic and sylvatic strains were isolated in distinct ecosystems; isolates were characterized serologically as epizootic subtype I, variants A/B and C; or sylvatic (enzootic) subtype I, variants D, E, and F, and subtypes II, III, and IV. In 1969, variant I-A/B virus was transported from a major outbreak in northern South America to the borders of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This musical poem describes the history and ecology of VEE viruses and the epidemiology of an unprecedented 1969 movement of VEE viruses from South America to equids and humans in Central America from Costa Rica to Guatemala and Belize and in Mexico and the United States that continued until 1972.

EID Johnson KM, Antczak DF, Dietz WH, Martin DH, Walton TE. The Crab Hole Mosquito Blues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):923-927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101412
AMA Johnson KM, Antczak DF, Dietz WH, et al. The Crab Hole Mosquito Blues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):923-927. doi:10.3201/eid1705.101412.
APA Johnson, K. M., Antczak, D. F., Dietz, W. H., Martin, D. H., & Walton, T. E. (2011). The Crab Hole Mosquito Blues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 923-927. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.101412.
About the Cover

And therefore I have sailed the seas and come

To the holy city of Byzantium
[PDF - 205 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. And therefore I have sailed the seas and come
To the holy city of Byzantium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):958-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.ac1705
AMA Potter P. And therefore I have sailed the seas and come
To the holy city of Byzantium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):958-959. doi:10.3201/eid1705.ac1705.
APA Potter, P. (2011). And therefore I have sailed the seas and come
To the holy city of Byzantium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 958-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.ac1705.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Francisella tularensis [PDF - 112 KB - 1 page]
N. Männikkö
EID Männikkö N. Etymologia: Francisella tularensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.et1705
AMA Männikkö N. Etymologia: Francisella tularensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(5):799. doi:10.3201/eid1705.et1705.
APA Männikkö, N. (2011). Etymologia: Francisella tularensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(5), 799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.et1705.
Page created: January 18, 2012
Page updated: January 20, 2012
Page reviewed: January 20, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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