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Issue Cover for Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012

Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012

[PDF - 4.60 MB - 167 pages]

Research

Constant Transmission Properties of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in 5 Countries [PDF - 274 KB - 6 pages]
A. B. Diack et al.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been reported in 12 countries. We hypothesized that a common strain of agent is responsible for all vCJD cases, regardless of geographic origin. To test this hypothesis, we inoculated strain-typing panels of wild-type mice with brain material from human vCJD case-patients from France, the Netherlands, Italy, and the United States. Mice were assessed for clinical disease, neuropathologic changes, and glycoform profile; results were compared with those for 2 reference vCJD cases from the United Kingdom. Transmission to mice occurred from each sample tested, and data were similar between non-UK and UK cases, with the exception of the ranking of mean clinical incubation times of mouse lines. These findings support the hypothesis that a single strain of infectious agent is responsible for all vCJD infections. However, differences in incubation times require further subpassage in mice to establish any true differences in strain properties between cases.

EID Diack AB, Ritchie D, Bishop M, Pinion V, Brandel J, Haik S, et al. Constant Transmission Properties of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in 5 Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1574-1579. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120792
AMA Diack AB, Ritchie D, Bishop M, et al. Constant Transmission Properties of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in 5 Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1574-1579. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120792.
APA Diack, A. B., Ritchie, D., Bishop, M., Pinion, V., Brandel, J., Haik, S....Manson, J. C. (2012). Constant Transmission Properties of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in 5 Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1574-1579. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120792.

WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Samples from Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients [PDF - 295 KB - 9 pages]
J. Kuypers et al.

Data are limited regarding 2 new human polyomaviruses, KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) and WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), in immunocompromised patients. We used real-time PCR to test for these and 12 respiratory viruses in 2,732 nasal wash samples collected during the first year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from 222 patients. Specimens were collected weekly until day 100; then at least every 3 months. One year after hematopoietic cell transplantation, the cumulative incidence estimate was 26% for KIPyV and 8% for WUPyV. Age <20 years predicted detection of KIPyV (hazard ratio [HR] 4.6) and WUPyV (HR 4.4), and detection of a respiratory virus in the previous 2 weeks predicted KIPyV detection (HR 3.4). Sputum production and wheezing were associated with detection of KIPyV in the past week and WUPyV in the past month. There were no associations with polyomavirus detection and acute graft versus host disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, neutropenia, lymphopenia, hospitalization, or death.

EID Kuypers J, Campbell AP, Guthrie KA, Wright NL, Englund JA, Corey L, et al. WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Samples from Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1580-1588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120477
AMA Kuypers J, Campbell AP, Guthrie KA, et al. WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Samples from Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1580-1588. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120477.
APA Kuypers, J., Campbell, A. P., Guthrie, K. A., Wright, N. L., Englund, J. A., Corey, L....Boeckh, M. (2012). WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Samples from Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1580-1588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120477.

Wild Birds and Urban Ecology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005–2010 [PDF - 239 KB - 7 pages]
S. A. Hamer et al.

Bird-facilitated introduction of ticks and associated pathogens is postulated to promote invasion of tick-borne zoonotic diseases into urban areas. Results of a longitudinal study conducted in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA, during 2005–2010 show that 1.6% of 6,180 wild birds captured in mist nets harbored ticks. Tick species in order of abundance were Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, and I. scapularis, but 2 neotropical tick species of the genus Amblyomma were sampled during the spring migration. I. scapularis ticks were absent at the beginning of the study but constituted the majority of ticks by study end and were found predominantly on birds captured in areas designated as urban green spaces. Of 120 ticks, 5 were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, spanning 3 ribotypes, but none were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results allow inferences about propagule pressure for introduction of tick-borne diseases and emphasize the large sample sizes required to estimate this pressure.

EID Hamer SA, Goldberg TL, Kitron UD, Brawn JD, Anderson TK, Loss SR, et al. Wild Birds and Urban Ecology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1589-1595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120511
AMA Hamer SA, Goldberg TL, Kitron UD, et al. Wild Birds and Urban Ecology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1589-1595. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120511.
APA Hamer, S. A., Goldberg, T. L., Kitron, U. D., Brawn, J. D., Anderson, T. K., Loss, S. R....Hamer, G. L. (2012). Wild Birds and Urban Ecology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1589-1595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120511.

Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards [PDF - 287 KB - 7 pages]
A. Marinova-Petkova et al.

On March 15, 2010, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from the carcass of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) in Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analyses of the virus showed a close genetic relationship with influenza virus A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Tyva Republic and Mongolia during 2009–2010. Designated A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38WB/2010, this strain was highly pathogenic in chickens but had low pathogenicity in mice and ferrets and no molecular markers of increased pathogenicity in mammals. The establishment of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds in Europe would increase the likelihood of health threats to humans and poultry in the region.

EID Marinova-Petkova A, Georgiev G, Seiler P, Darnell D, Franks J, Krauss S, et al. Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1596-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120357
AMA Marinova-Petkova A, Georgiev G, Seiler P, et al. Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1596-1602. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120357.
APA Marinova-Petkova, A., Georgiev, G., Seiler, P., Darnell, D., Franks, J., Krauss, S....Webster, R. G. (2012). Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1596-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120357.

Dengue Outbreaks in High-Income Area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003–2009 [PDF - 346 KB - 9 pages]
C. Lin et al.

Kaohsiung City, a modern metropolis of 1.5 million persons, has been the focus of dengue virus activity in Taiwan for several decades. The aim of this study was to provide a temporal and spatial description of dengue virus epidemiology in Kaohsiung City by using data for all laboratory-confirmed dengue cases during 2003–2009. We investigated age- and sex-dependent incidence rates and the spatiotemporal patterns of all cases confirmed through passive or active surveillance. Elderly persons were at particularly high risk for dengue virus–related sickness and death. Of all confirmed cases, ≈75% were detected through passive surveillance activities; case-patients detected through active surveillance included immediate family members, neighbors, and colleagues of confirmed case-patients. Changing patterns of case clustering could be due to the effect of unmeasured environmental and demographic factors.

EID Lin C, Schiøler KL, Jepsen MR, Ho C, Li S, Konradsen F. Dengue Outbreaks in High-Income Area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1603-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111929
AMA Lin C, Schiøler KL, Jepsen MR, et al. Dengue Outbreaks in High-Income Area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1603-1611. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111929.
APA Lin, C., Schiøler, K. L., Jepsen, M. R., Ho, C., Li, S., & Konradsen, F. (2012). Dengue Outbreaks in High-Income Area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1603-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111929.

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Household Plumbing as Possible Cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis [PDF - 194 KB - 6 pages]
W. S. Tichenor et al.

Symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often persist despite treatment. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are resistant to commonly used antimicrobial drugs and are found in drinking water that patients may use for sinus irrigation, we investigated whether some CRS patients were infected with NTM in New York, New York, USA, during 2001–2011. Two approaches were chosen: 1) records of NTM-infected CRS patients were reviewed to identify common features of infection and Mycobacterium species; 2) samples from plumbing in households of 8 NTM-infected patients were cultured for NTM presence. In 3 households sampled, M. avium sharing rep-PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis fingerprints identified M. avium isolates clonally related to the patients’ isolates. We conclude that patients with treatment-resistant CRS may be infected with NTM and should have cultures performed for NTM so appropriate therapy can be instituted. In addition, the results suggest that CRS patients can be infected by NTM in their household plumbing.

EID Tichenor WS, Thurlow J, McNulty S, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ, Falkinham JO. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Household Plumbing as Possible Cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1612-1617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120164
AMA Tichenor WS, Thurlow J, McNulty S, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Household Plumbing as Possible Cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1612-1617. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120164.
APA Tichenor, W. S., Thurlow, J., McNulty, S., Brown-Elliott, B. A., Wallace, R. J., & Falkinham, J. O. (2012). Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Household Plumbing as Possible Cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1612-1617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120164.

Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe [PDF - 217 KB - 7 pages]
F. Hagen et al.

Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or associated with travel, we used multilocus sequence typing to compare 100 isolates from Europe (57 from 40 human patients, 22 from the environment, and 21 from animals) with 191 isolates from around the world. Of the 57 human patient isolates, 47 (83%) were obtained since 1995. Among the 40 patients, 24 (60%) probably acquired the C. gattii infection outside Europe; the remaining 16 (40%) probably acquired the infection within Europe. Human patient isolates from Mediterranean Europe clustered into a distinct genotype with animal and environmental isolates. These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere.

EID Hagen F, Colom M, Swinne D, Tintelnot K, Iatta R, Montagna M, et al. Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1618-1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120068
AMA Hagen F, Colom M, Swinne D, et al. Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1618-1624. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120068.
APA Hagen, F., Colom, M., Swinne, D., Tintelnot, K., Iatta, R., Montagna, M....Boekhout, T. (2012). Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1618-1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120068.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks, United States, 2001–2008 [PDF - 215 KB - 8 pages]
A. J. Hall et al.

Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. To better guide interventions, we analyzed 2,922 foodborne disease outbreaks for which norovirus was the suspected or confirmed cause, which had been reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2001–2008. On average, 365 foodborne norovirus outbreaks were reported annually, resulting in an estimated 10,324 illnesses, 1,247 health care provider visits, 156 hospitalizations, and 1 death. In 364 outbreaks attributed to a single commodity, leafy vegetables (33%), fruits/nuts (16%), and mollusks (13%) were implicated most commonly. Infected food handlers were the source of 53% of outbreaks and may have contributed to 82% of outbreaks. Most foods were likely contaminated during preparation and service, except for mollusks, and occasionally, produce was contaminated during production and processing. Interventions to reduce the frequency of foodborne norovirus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production of produce and shellfish.

EID Hall AJ, Eisenbart VG, Etingüe A, Gould L, Lopman BA, Parashar UD. Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks, United States, 2001–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1566-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120833
AMA Hall AJ, Eisenbart VG, Etingüe A, et al. Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks, United States, 2001–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1566-1573. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120833.
APA Hall, A. J., Eisenbart, V. G., Etingüe, A., Gould, L., Lopman, B. A., & Parashar, U. D. (2012). Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks, United States, 2001–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1566-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120833.

Medscape CME Activity
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 239-III, Ohio, USA, 2007–2009 [PDF - 291 KB - 9 pages]
S. Wang et al.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a human pathogen that has diverse molecular heterogeneity. Most MRSA strains in the United States are pulsed-field gel electrophoresis USA100 sequence type (ST) 5 and USA300 ST8. Infections with MRSA ST239-III are common and found during health care–associated outbreaks. However, this strain has been rarely reported in the United States. As part of a study supported by the Prevention Epicenter Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA), which evaluated transmission of MRSA among hospitals in Ohio, molecular typing identified 78 (6%) of 1,286 patients with MRSA ST239-III infections. Ninety-five percent (74/78) of these infections were health care associated, and 65% (51/78) of patients had histories of invasive device use. The crude case-fatality rate was 22% (17/78). Identification of these strains, which belong to a virulent clonal group, emphasizes the need for molecular surveillance.

EID Wang S, Khan Y, Hines L, Mediavilla JR, Zhang L, Chen L, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 239-III, Ohio, USA, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1557-1565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120468
AMA Wang S, Khan Y, Hines L, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 239-III, Ohio, USA, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1557-1565. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120468.
APA Wang, S., Khan, Y., Hines, L., Mediavilla, J. R., Zhang, L., Chen, L....Stevenson, K. B. (2012). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 239-III, Ohio, USA, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1557-1565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120468.
Dispatches

Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada [PDF - 355 KB - 4 pages]
S. Catalano et al.

Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids.

EID Catalano S, Lejeune M, Liccioli S, Verocai GG, Gesy KM, Jenkins EJ, et al. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1625-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120119
AMA Catalano S, Lejeune M, Liccioli S, et al. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1625-1628. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120119.
APA Catalano, S., Lejeune, M., Liccioli, S., Verocai, G. G., Gesy, K. M., Jenkins, E. J....Massolo, A. (2012). Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1625-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120119.

Orthobunyavirus Antibodies in Humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico [PDF - 308 KB - 4 pages]
B. J. Blitvich et al.

We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses.

EID Blitvich BJ, Saiyasombat R, Talavera-Aguilar LG, Garcia-Rejon JE, Farfan-Ale JA, Machain-Williams C, et al. Orthobunyavirus Antibodies in Humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1629-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120492
AMA Blitvich BJ, Saiyasombat R, Talavera-Aguilar LG, et al. Orthobunyavirus Antibodies in Humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1629-1632. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120492.
APA Blitvich, B. J., Saiyasombat, R., Talavera-Aguilar, L. G., Garcia-Rejon, J. E., Farfan-Ale, J. A., Machain-Williams, C....Loroño-Pino, M. A. (2012). Orthobunyavirus Antibodies in Humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1629-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120492.

Tetanus as Cause of Mass Die-off of Captive Japanese Macaques, Japan, 2008 [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
T. Nakano et al.

In 2008 in Japan, 15/60 captive Japanese macaques died. Clostridium tetani was isolated from 1 monkey, and 11 had tetanus-specific symptoms. We conclude the outbreak resulted from severe environmental C. tetani contamination. Similar outbreaks could be prevented by vaccinating all monkeys, disinfecting housing areas/play equipment, replacing highly C. tetani–contaminated soil, and conducting epidemiologic surveys.

EID Nakano T, Nakamura S, Yamamoto A, Takahashi M, Une Y. Tetanus as Cause of Mass Die-off of Captive Japanese Macaques, Japan, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1633-1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120503
AMA Nakano T, Nakamura S, Yamamoto A, et al. Tetanus as Cause of Mass Die-off of Captive Japanese Macaques, Japan, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1633-1635. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120503.
APA Nakano, T., Nakamura, S., Yamamoto, A., Takahashi, M., & Une, Y. (2012). Tetanus as Cause of Mass Die-off of Captive Japanese Macaques, Japan, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1633-1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120503.

Human Infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China [PDF - 344 KB - 4 pages]
H. Li et al.

To identify Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection in northeastern China, we tested blood samples from 622 febrile patients. We identified in 7 infected patients and natural foci for this bacterium. Field surveys showed that 1.6% of ticks and 3.8% of rodents collected from residences of patients were also infected.

EID Li H, Jiang J, Liu W, Zheng Y, Huo Q, Tang K, et al. Human Infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1636-1639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120594
AMA Li H, Jiang J, Liu W, et al. Human Infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1636-1639. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120594.
APA Li, H., Jiang, J., Liu, W., Zheng, Y., Huo, Q., Tang, K....Cao, W. (2012). Human Infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1636-1639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120594.

Anthroponotic Enteric Parasites in Monkeys in Public Park, China [PDF - 357 KB - 4 pages]
J. Ye et al.

Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were detected in 45, 35, and 116 of 411 free-range rhesus monkeys, respectively, in a popular public park in the People’s Republic of China. Most genotypes and subtypes detected were anthroponotic, indicating these animals might be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis.

EID Ye J, Xiao L, Ma J, Guo M, Liu L, Feng Y. Anthroponotic Enteric Parasites in Monkeys in Public Park, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1640-1643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120653
AMA Ye J, Xiao L, Ma J, et al. Anthroponotic Enteric Parasites in Monkeys in Public Park, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1640-1643. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120653.
APA Ye, J., Xiao, L., Ma, J., Guo, M., Liu, L., & Feng, Y. (2012). Anthroponotic Enteric Parasites in Monkeys in Public Park, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1640-1643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120653.

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus [PDF - 222 KB - 3 pages]
K. V. Goller et al.

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus.

EID Goller KV, Höper D, Schirrmeier H, Mettenleiter TC, Beer M. Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1644-1646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120835
AMA Goller KV, Höper D, Schirrmeier H, et al. Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1644-1646. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120835.
APA Goller, K. V., Höper, D., Schirrmeier, H., Mettenleiter, T. C., & Beer, M. (2012). Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1644-1646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120835.

Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011 [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
L. E. Mease and K. A. Baker

Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

EID Mease LE, Baker KA. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1647-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120419
AMA Mease LE, Baker KA. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1647-1649. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120419.
APA Mease, L. E., & Baker, K. A. (2012). Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1647-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120419.

Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany [PDF - 285 KB - 4 pages]
M. S. Faber et al.

We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody seroprevalence in a sample of the adult population in Germany. Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 16.8% (95% CI 15.6%–17.9%) and increased with age, leveling off at >60 years of age. HEV is endemic in Germany, and the lifetime risk for exposure is high.

EID Faber MS, Wenzel JJ, Jilg W, Thamm M, Höhle M, Stark K. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1654-1657. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111756
AMA Faber MS, Wenzel JJ, Jilg W, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1654-1657. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111756.
APA Faber, M. S., Wenzel, J. J., Jilg, W., Thamm, M., Höhle, M., & Stark, K. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1654-1657. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111756.

Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Hong Kong, 2011 [PDF - 298 KB - 4 pages]
E. Luk et al.

More than 900 cases of scarlet fever were recorded in Hong Kong during January–July, 2011. Six cases were complicated by toxic shock syndrome, of which 2 were fatal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns suggested a multiclonal epidemic; emm12 was the predominant circulating type. We recommend genetic testing of and antimicrobial resistance monitoring for this reportable disease.

EID Luk E, Lo J, Li A, Lau M, Cheung T, Wong A, et al. Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1658-1661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111900
AMA Luk E, Lo J, Li A, et al. Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1658-1661. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111900.
APA Luk, E., Lo, J., Li, A., Lau, M., Cheung, T., Wong, A....Tsang, T. (2012). Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1658-1661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111900.

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India [PDF - 243 KB - 3 pages]
E. Hasker et al.

To identify factors associated with incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we surveyed 13,416 households in Bihar State, India. VL was associated with socioeconomic status, type of housing, and belonging to the Musahar caste. Annual coverage of indoor residual insecticide spraying was 12%. Increasing such spraying can greatly contribute to VL control.

EID Hasker E, Singh S, Malaviya P, Picado A, Gidwani K, Singh R, et al. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1662-1664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111083
AMA Hasker E, Singh S, Malaviya P, et al. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1662-1664. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111083.
APA Hasker, E., Singh, S., Malaviya, P., Picado, A., Gidwani, K., Singh, R....Sundar, S. (2012). Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1662-1664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111083.

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pigs, Réunion Island [PDF - 342 KB - 4 pages]
E. Cardinale et al.

During 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus affected humans on Réunion Island. Since then, the virus has sustained circulation among local swine herds, raising concerns about the potential for genetic evolution of the virus and possible retransmission back to humans of variants with increased virulence. Continuous surveillance of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in pigs is recommended.

EID Cardinale E, Pascalis H, Temmam S, Hervé S, Saulnier A, Turpin M, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pigs, Réunion Island. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1665-1668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120398
AMA Cardinale E, Pascalis H, Temmam S, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pigs, Réunion Island. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1665-1668. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120398.
APA Cardinale, E., Pascalis, H., Temmam, S., Hervé, S., Saulnier, A., Turpin, M....Simon, G. (2012). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pigs, Réunion Island. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1665-1668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120398.

Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA [PDF - 230 KB - 3 pages]
J. Birge and S. Sonnesyn

Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis.

EID Birge J, Sonnesyn S. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1669-1671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120621
AMA Birge J, Sonnesyn S. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1669-1671. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120621.
APA Birge, J., & Sonnesyn, S. (2012). Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1669-1671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120621.

Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates [PDF - 268 KB - 4 pages]
E. A. Karlsson et al.

To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza.

EID Karlsson EA, Engel GA, Feeroz M, San S, Rompis A, Lee B, et al. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1672-1675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120214
AMA Karlsson EA, Engel GA, Feeroz M, et al. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1672-1675. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120214.
APA Karlsson, E. A., Engel, G. A., Feeroz, M., San, S., Rompis, A., Lee, B....Jones-Engel, L. (2012). Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1672-1675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120214.

Human Polyomaviruses in Children Undergoing Transplantation, United States, 2008–2010 [PDF - 206 KB - 4 pages]
E. A. Siebrasse et al.

Immunocompromised patients are at risk for disease caused by infection by some polyomaviruses. To define the prevalence of polyomaviruses in children undergoing transplantation, we collected samples from a longitudinal cohort and tested for the 9 known human polyomaviruses. All were detected; several were present in previously unreported specimen types.

EID Siebrasse EA, Bauer I, Holtz LR, Le B, Lassa-Claxton S, Canter C, et al. Human Polyomaviruses in Children Undergoing Transplantation, United States, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1676-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120359
AMA Siebrasse EA, Bauer I, Holtz LR, et al. Human Polyomaviruses in Children Undergoing Transplantation, United States, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1676-1679. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120359.
APA Siebrasse, E. A., Bauer, I., Holtz, L. R., Le, B., Lassa-Claxton, S., Canter, C....Wang, D. (2012). Human Polyomaviruses in Children Undergoing Transplantation, United States, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1676-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120359.

Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
N. J. Cohen et al.

Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer.

EID Cohen NJ, Slaten DD, Marano N, Tappero JW, Wellman M, Albert RJ, et al. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1680-1682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120676
AMA Cohen NJ, Slaten DD, Marano N, et al. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1680-1682. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120676.
APA Cohen, N. J., Slaten, D. D., Marano, N., Tappero, J. W., Wellman, M., Albert, R. J....Tauxe, R. V. (2012). Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1680-1682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120676.

Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana [PDF - 252 KB - 4 pages]
J. Drexler et al.

Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission.

EID Drexler J, Reber U, Muth D, Herzog P, Annan A, Ebach F, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1650-1653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111373
AMA Drexler J, Reber U, Muth D, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1650-1653. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111373.
APA Drexler, J., Reber, U., Muth, D., Herzog, P., Annan, A., Ebach, F....Eis-Hübinger, A. (2012). Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1650-1653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111373.
Letters

Trypanososma brucei rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness, Uganda [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
L. Berrang-Ford et al.
EID Berrang-Ford L, Wamboga C, Kakembo A. Trypanososma brucei rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1686-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111213
AMA Berrang-Ford L, Wamboga C, Kakembo A. Trypanososma brucei rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1686-1687. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111213.
APA Berrang-Ford, L., Wamboga, C., & Kakembo, A. (2012). Trypanososma brucei rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1686-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111213.

Rickettsia felis in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Libreville, Gabon [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
C. Socolovschi et al.
EID Socolovschi C, Pagés F, Raoult D. Rickettsia felis in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Libreville, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1687-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120178
AMA Socolovschi C, Pagés F, Raoult D. Rickettsia felis in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Libreville, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1687-1689. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120178.
APA Socolovschi, C., Pagés, F., & Raoult, D. (2012). Rickettsia felis in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Libreville, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1687-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120178.

Bartonella spp. Infection Rate and B. grahamii in Ticks [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
E. Janecek et al.
EID Janecek E, Mietze A, Goethe R, Schnieder T, Strube C. Bartonella spp. Infection Rate and B. grahamii in Ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1689-1690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120390
AMA Janecek E, Mietze A, Goethe R, et al. Bartonella spp. Infection Rate and B. grahamii in Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1689-1690. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120390.
APA Janecek, E., Mietze, A., Goethe, R., Schnieder, T., & Strube, C. (2012). Bartonella spp. Infection Rate and B. grahamii in Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1689-1690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120390.

Human Parvovirus 4 Viremia in Young Children, Ghana [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
J. May et al.
EID May J, Drexler J, Reber U, Sarpong N, Adjei O, Panning M, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 Viremia in Young Children, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1690-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111836
AMA May J, Drexler J, Reber U, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 Viremia in Young Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1690-1692. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111836.
APA May, J., Drexler, J., Reber, U., Sarpong, N., Adjei, O., Panning, M....Eis-Hübinger, A. (2012). Human Parvovirus 4 Viremia in Young Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1690-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111836.

Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
M. Phoba et al.
EID Phoba M, Lunguya O, Mayimon D, Lewo di Mputu P, Bertrand S, Vanhoof R, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1692-1694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120525
AMA Phoba M, Lunguya O, Mayimon D, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1692-1694. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120525.
APA Phoba, M., Lunguya, O., Mayimon, D., Lewo di Mputu, P., Bertrand, S., Vanhoof, R....Jacobs, J. (2012). Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1692-1694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120525.

Co-Circulation and Persistence of Genetically Distinct Saffold Viruses, Denmark [PDF - 183 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nielsen et al.
EID Nielsen A, Gyhrs M, Holmes EC, Cui J. Co-Circulation and Persistence of Genetically Distinct Saffold Viruses, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1694-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120793
AMA Nielsen A, Gyhrs M, Holmes EC, et al. Co-Circulation and Persistence of Genetically Distinct Saffold Viruses, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1694-1696. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120793.
APA Nielsen, A., Gyhrs, M., Holmes, E. C., & Cui, J. (2012). Co-Circulation and Persistence of Genetically Distinct Saffold Viruses, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1694-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120793.

Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Bats, Madagascar and Union of the Comoros [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
E. Lagadec et al.
EID Lagadec E, Gomard Y, Guernier V, Dietrich M, Pascalis H, Temmam S, et al. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Bats, Madagascar and Union of the Comoros. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1696-1698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111898
AMA Lagadec E, Gomard Y, Guernier V, et al. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Bats, Madagascar and Union of the Comoros. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1696-1698. doi:10.3201/eid1810.111898.
APA Lagadec, E., Gomard, Y., Guernier, V., Dietrich, M., Pascalis, H., Temmam, S....Dellagi, K. (2012). Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Bats, Madagascar and Union of the Comoros. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1696-1698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.111898.

West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis Imported into Germany [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
J. Schultze-Amberger et al.
EID Schultze-Amberger J, Emmerich P, Günther S, Schmidt-Chanasit J. West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis Imported into Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1698-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120204
AMA Schultze-Amberger J, Emmerich P, Günther S, et al. West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis Imported into Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1698-1700. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120204.
APA Schultze-Amberger, J., Emmerich, P., Günther, S., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2012). West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis Imported into Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1698-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120204.

Scarlet Fever Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2011 [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
E. Lau et al.
EID Lau E, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ, Ip D, Wu JT. Scarlet Fever Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1700-1702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120062
AMA Lau E, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ, et al. Scarlet Fever Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1700-1702. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120062.
APA Lau, E., Nishiura, H., Cowling, B. J., Ip, D., & Wu, J. T. (2012). Scarlet Fever Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1700-1702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120062.

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6 [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
K. Flett et al.
EID Flett K, Youngster I, Huang J, McAdam A, Sandora TJ, Rennick M, et al. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1702-1704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120813
AMA Flett K, Youngster I, Huang J, et al. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1702-1704. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120813.
APA Flett, K., Youngster, I., Huang, J., McAdam, A., Sandora, T. J., Rennick, M....Ahmed, A. A. (2012). Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1702-1704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120813.

Duffy Phenotype and Plasmodium vivax infections in Humans and Apes, Africa [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
R. Culleton and P. Ferreira
EID Culleton R, Ferreira P. Duffy Phenotype and Plasmodium vivax infections in Humans and Apes, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1704-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120120
AMA Culleton R, Ferreira P. Duffy Phenotype and Plasmodium vivax infections in Humans and Apes, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1704-1705. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120120.
APA Culleton, R., & Ferreira, P. (2012). Duffy Phenotype and Plasmodium vivax infections in Humans and Apes, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1704-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120120.

Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Mississippi, USA [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
F. Ferrari et al.
EID Ferrari F, Goddard J, Paddock CD, Varela-Stokes AS. Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Mississippi, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1705-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120250
AMA Ferrari F, Goddard J, Paddock CD, et al. Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Mississippi, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1705-1707. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120250.
APA Ferrari, F., Goddard, J., Paddock, C. D., & Varela-Stokes, A. S. (2012). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Mississippi, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1705-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120250.

Attributing Cause of Death for Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection [PDF - 164 KB - 2 pages]
R. Gilca et al.
EID Gilca R, Frenette C, Thériault N, Fortin É, Villeneuve J. Attributing Cause of Death for Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1707-1708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120202
AMA Gilca R, Frenette C, Thériault N, et al. Attributing Cause of Death for Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1707-1708. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120202.
APA Gilca, R., Frenette, C., Thériault, N., Fortin, É., & Villeneuve, J. (2012). Attributing Cause of Death for Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1707-1708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120202.

Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis [PDF - 163 KB - 2 pages]
N. C. Gey van Pittius et al.
EID Gey van Pittius NC, van Helden PD, Warren RM. Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1708-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120569
AMA Gey van Pittius NC, van Helden PD, Warren RM. Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1708-1709. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120569.
APA Gey van Pittius, N. C., van Helden, P. D., & Warren, R. M. (2012). Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1708-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120569.

Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand [PDF - 229 KB - 2 pages]
S. On et al.
EID On S, Cornelius AJ, Bullman S, Corcoran D, O’Leary J, Byrne D, et al. Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1709-1710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120369
AMA On S, Cornelius AJ, Bullman S, et al. Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1709-1710. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120369.
APA On, S., Cornelius, A. J., Bullman, S., Corcoran, D., O’Leary, J., Byrne, D....Sleator, R. D. (2012). Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1709-1710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120369.
Another Dimension

A Natural History of Infective Endocarditis, Preceded by Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease and Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia [PDF - 217 KB - 2 pages]
N. L. Merridew
EID Merridew NL. A Natural History of Infective Endocarditis, Preceded by Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease and Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1684-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.ad1810
AMA Merridew NL. A Natural History of Infective Endocarditis, Preceded by Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease and Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1684-1685. doi:10.3201/eid1810.ad1810.
APA Merridew, N. L. (2012). A Natural History of Infective Endocarditis, Preceded by Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease and Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1684-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.ad1810.
About the Cover

Human minus Three Pieces of Hair [PDF - 216 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Human minus Three Pieces of Hair. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1711-1712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.ac1810
AMA Potter P. Human minus Three Pieces of Hair. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1711-1712. doi:10.3201/eid1810.ac1810.
APA Potter, P. (2012). Human minus Three Pieces of Hair. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1711-1712. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.ac1810.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Tetanus [PDF - 132 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Tetanus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.et1810
AMA Etymologia: Tetanus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(10):1635. doi:10.3201/eid1810.et1810.
APA (2012). Etymologia: Tetanus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.et1810.
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Page updated: January 22, 2013
Page reviewed: January 22, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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