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Issue Cover for Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012

Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012

[PDF - 5.17 MB - 175 pages]

Research

Medscape CME Activity
Determinants for Autopsy after Unexplained Deaths Possibly Resulting from Infectious Causes, United States [PDF - 234 KB - 7 pages]
L. Liu et al.

We analyzed US multiple cause-of-death data for 2003–2006 for demographic and clinical determinants for autopsy in unexplained deaths possibly resulting from infectious causes. For 96,242 deaths, the definition for unexplained death was met and autopsy status was recorded. Most decedents were male, 40–49 years of age, and white. To identify factors associated with unexplained death, we used data from Arizona records. Multivariate analysis of Arizona records suggested that decedents of races other than white and black and decedents who had clinicopathologic syndromes in the cardiovascular, sepsis/shock, and multisyndrome categories recorded on the death certificate were least likely to have undergone autopsy; children with unexplained death were the most likely to have undergone autopsy. Improved understanding of unexplained deaths can provide opportunities for further studies, strengthen collaboration between investigators of unexplained deaths, and improve knowledge and awareness of infectious diseases of public health concern.

EID Liu L, Callinan LS, Holman RC, Blau DM. Determinants for Autopsy after Unexplained Deaths Possibly Resulting from Infectious Causes, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):549-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111311
AMA Liu L, Callinan LS, Holman RC, et al. Determinants for Autopsy after Unexplained Deaths Possibly Resulting from Infectious Causes, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):549-555. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111311.
APA Liu, L., Callinan, L. S., Holman, R. C., & Blau, D. M. (2012). Determinants for Autopsy after Unexplained Deaths Possibly Resulting from Infectious Causes, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 549-555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111311.

Medscape CME Activity
Influenza-associated Hospitalizations by Industry, 2009–10 Influenza Season, United States [PDF - 183 KB - 7 pages]
S. E. Luckhaupt et al.

In response to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, data were collected on work status and industry of employment of 3,365 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2009–10 influenza season in the United States. The proportion of workers hospitalized for influenza was lower than their proportion in the general population, reflecting underlying protective characteristics of workers compared with nonworkers. The most commonly represented sectors were transportation and warehousing; administrative and support and waste management and remediation services; health care; and accommodation and food service.

EID Luckhaupt SE, Sweeney M, Funk R, Calvert GM, Nowell M, D’Mello T, et al. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations by Industry, 2009–10 Influenza Season, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):556-562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110337
AMA Luckhaupt SE, Sweeney M, Funk R, et al. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations by Industry, 2009–10 Influenza Season, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):556-562. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110337.
APA Luckhaupt, S. E., Sweeney, M., Funk, R., Calvert, G. M., Nowell, M., D’Mello, T....Jones, T. (2012). Influenza-associated Hospitalizations by Industry, 2009–10 Influenza Season, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 556-562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110337.

Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Q Fever, the Netherlands [PDF - 182 KB - 8 pages]
L. M. Kampschreur et al.

Since 2007, the Netherlands has experienced a large Q fever outbreak. To identify and quantify risk factors for development of chronic Q fever after Coxiella burnetii infection, we performed a case–control study. Comorbidity, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and demographic characteristics from 105 patients with proven (n = 44), probable (n = 28), or possible (n = 33) chronic Q fever were compared with 201 patients who had acute Q fever in 2009 but in whom chronic Q fever did not develop (controls). Independent risk factors for development of proven chronic Q fever were valvular surgery, vascular prosthesis, aneurysm, renal insufficiency, and older age.

EID Kampschreur LM, Dekker S, Hagenaars J, Lestrade PJ, Renders N, de Jager-Leclercq M, et al. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Q Fever, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):563-570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111478
AMA Kampschreur LM, Dekker S, Hagenaars J, et al. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Q Fever, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):563-570. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111478.
APA Kampschreur, L. M., Dekker, S., Hagenaars, J., Lestrade, P. J., Renders, N., de Jager-Leclercq, M....Oosterheert, J. (2012). Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Q Fever, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 563-570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111478.

Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico [PDF - 192 KB - 6 pages]
M. L. Milazzo et al.

To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico.

EID Milazzo ML, Cajimat M, Romo HE, Estrada-Franco JG, Iñiguez-Dávalos L, Bradley RD, et al. Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):571-576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111028
AMA Milazzo ML, Cajimat M, Romo HE, et al. Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):571-576. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111028.
APA Milazzo, M. L., Cajimat, M., Romo, H. E., Estrada-Franco, J. G., Iñiguez-Dávalos, L., Bradley, R. D....Fulhorst, C. F. (2012). Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 571-576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111028.

Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serotype O78:H in Family, Finland, 2009 [PDF - 167 KB - 5 pages]
T. Lienemann et al.

Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and bloody diarrhea but can lead to severe disease, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC serotype O78:H is rare among humans, and infections are often asymptomatic. We detected a sorbitol-fermenting STEC O78:H:stx1c:hlyA in blood and fecal samples of a 2-week-old boy who had bacteremia and HUS and in fecal samples of his asymptomatic family members. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and the virulence properties of this invasive STEC were investigated. Our findings demonstrate that contrary to earlier suggestions, STEC under certain conditions can invade the human bloodstream. Moreover, this study highlights the need to implement appropriate diagnostic methods for identifying the whole spectrum of STEC strains associated with HUS.

EID Lienemann T, Salo E, Rimhanen-Finne R, Rönnholm K, Taimisto M, Hirvonen JJ, et al. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serotype O78:H– in Family, Finland, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):577-581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111310
AMA Lienemann T, Salo E, Rimhanen-Finne R, et al. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serotype O78:H– in Family, Finland, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):577-581. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111310.
APA Lienemann, T., Salo, E., Rimhanen-Finne, R., Rönnholm, K., Taimisto, M., Hirvonen, J. J....Siitonen, A. (2012). Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serotype O78:H– in Family, Finland, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 577-581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111310.

Identification of Intermediate in Evolutionary Model of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 [PDF - 206 KB - 7 pages]
C. Jenke et al.

Highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 cause a spectrum of clinical signs that include diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The current evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H consists of a stepwise evolution scenario proceeding from O55:H7 to a node (hypothetical intermediate) that then branches into sorbitol-fermenting (SF) O157:H and non-SF (NSF) O157:H7. To identify this hypothetical intermediate, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by sequencing of 92 randomly distributed backbone genomic regions of 40 O157:H7/H isolates. Overall, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 75/92 partial open reading frames after sequencing 51,041 nt/strain. The EHEC O157:H7 strain LSU-61 from deer occupied an intermediate position between O55:H7 and both O157 branches (SF and NSF O157), complementing the stepwise evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H. The animal origin of this intermediate emphasizes the value of nonhuman reservoirs in the clarification of the evolution of human pathogens.

EID Jenke C, Leopold SR, Weniger T, Rothgänger J, Harmsen D, Karch H, et al. Identification of Intermediate in Evolutionary Model of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):582-588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111414
AMA Jenke C, Leopold SR, Weniger T, et al. Identification of Intermediate in Evolutionary Model of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):582-588. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111414.
APA Jenke, C., Leopold, S. R., Weniger, T., Rothgänger, J., Harmsen, D., Karch, H....Mellmann, A. (2012). Identification of Intermediate in Evolutionary Model of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 582-588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111414.

Emergence of Unusual G6P[6] Rotaviruses in Children, Burkina Faso, 2009–2010 [PDF - 318 KB - 9 pages]
J. Nordgren et al.

To obtain more information about rotavirus (ROTAV) genotypes in Burkina Faso, we characterized 100 ROTAVs isolated from fecal samples of children with acute gastroenteritis in the capital city of Ouagadougou, during December 2009–March 2010. Of note, 13% of the ROTAV-positive samples, including those with mixed infections, were positive for the unusual G6 genotype ROTAV strain. The genotypes identified were G9P[8], G6P[6], G1P[6], G3P[6], G1P[8], and G2P[4]. G9P[8] subgroup (SG)II strains dominated during the beginning of the ROTAV season, but later in the season, other G types associated with P[6] and SGI specificity emerged. This emergence was related to a shift in the overall age of infected children; ROTAV SGII infected younger children and induced more severe symptoms. The finding of a high incidence of G6P[6] strains highlights the need for long-term surveillance of ROTAV strains in Burkina Faso, especially when ROTAV vaccination is being considered in several African countries.

EID Nordgren J, Nitiema LW, Sharma S, Ouermi D, Traore AS, Simpore J, et al. Emergence of Unusual G6P[6] Rotaviruses in Children, Burkina Faso, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):589-597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110973
AMA Nordgren J, Nitiema LW, Sharma S, et al. Emergence of Unusual G6P[6] Rotaviruses in Children, Burkina Faso, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):589-597. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110973.
APA Nordgren, J., Nitiema, L. W., Sharma, S., Ouermi, D., Traore, A. S., Simpore, J....Svensson, L. (2012). Emergence of Unusual G6P[6] Rotaviruses in Children, Burkina Faso, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 589-597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110973.

Comparison of Escherichia coli ST131 Pulsotypes, by Epidemiologic Traits, 1967–2009 [PDF - 175 KB - 10 pages]
J. R. Johnson et al.

Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), an emerging disseminated public health threat, causes multidrug-resistant extraintestinal infections. Among 579 diverse E. coli ST131 isolates from 1967–2009, we compared pulsotypes (>94% similar XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles) by collection year, geographic origin, source, and antimicrobial drug–resistance traits. Of 170 pulsotypes, 65 had >2 isolates and accounted for 85% of isolates. Although extensively dispersed geographically, pulsotypes were significantly source specific (e.g., had little commonality between humans vs. foods and food animals). The most prevalent pulsotypes were associated with recent isolation, humans, and antimicrobial drug resistance. Predominant pulsotype 968 was associated specifically with fluoroquinolone resistance but not with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production or blaCTX-M-15. Thus, several highly successful antimicrobial drug–resistant lineages within E. coli ST131 have recently emerged and diffused extensively among locales while maintaining a comparatively restricted host/source range. Identification of factors contributing to this behavior of ST131 could help protect public health.

EID Johnson JR, Nicolas-Chanoine M, DebRoy C, Castanheira M, Robicsek A, Hansen G, et al. Comparison of Escherichia coli ST131 Pulsotypes, by Epidemiologic Traits, 1967–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):598-607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111627
AMA Johnson JR, Nicolas-Chanoine M, DebRoy C, et al. Comparison of Escherichia coli ST131 Pulsotypes, by Epidemiologic Traits, 1967–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):598-607. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111627.
APA Johnson, J. R., Nicolas-Chanoine, M., DebRoy, C., Castanheira, M., Robicsek, A., Hansen, G....Kuskowski, M. A. (2012). Comparison of Escherichia coli ST131 Pulsotypes, by Epidemiologic Traits, 1967–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 598-607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111627.
Historical Review

Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900 [PDF - 565 KB - 8 pages]
L. L. Pinault and F. F. Hunter

A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context.

EID Pinault LL, Hunter FF. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):615-622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111267
AMA Pinault LL, Hunter FF. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):615-622. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111267.
APA Pinault, L. L., & Hunter, F. F. (2012). Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 615-622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111267.

Dengue and US Military Operations from Spanish–American War through Today [PDF - 284 KB - 8 pages]
R. V. Gibbons et al.

Dengue is a major cause of illness among travelers and a threat to military troops operating in areas to which it is endemic. Before and during World War II, dengue frequently occurred in US military personnel in Asia and the South Pacific. From the 1960s into the 1990s, dengue often occurred in US troops in Vietnam, the Philippines, Somalia, and Haiti. We found attack rates as high as 80% and periods of convalescence up to 3-1/2 weeks beyond the acute illness. The increase in dengue throughout the world suggests that it will remain a problem for military personnel until an effective vaccine is licensed.

EID Gibbons RV, Streitz M, Babina T, Fried JR. Dengue and US Military Operations from Spanish–American War through Today. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):623-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110134
AMA Gibbons RV, Streitz M, Babina T, et al. Dengue and US Military Operations from Spanish–American War through Today. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):623-630. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110134.
APA Gibbons, R. V., Streitz, M., Babina, T., & Fried, J. R. (2012). Dengue and US Military Operations from Spanish–American War through Today. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 623-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110134.
Policy Review

Lessons Learned during Dengue Outbreaks in the United States, 2001–2011 [PDF - 306 KB - 7 pages]
A. A. Adalja et al.

Since 2001, three autochthonous dengue fever outbreaks have occurred in the United States: in Hawaii (2001); Brownsville, Texas (2005); and southern Florida (2009–2011). We sought to characterize and describe the response to these outbreaks from the perspectives of public health and vector control officials. By conducting a medical literature review through PubMed and news media searches through Google, we identified persons involved in managing each outbreak; 26 persons then participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews. After analyzing the 3 outbreaks, we found the following prominent themes in the response efforts: timely detection of illness; communication of up-to-date, correct information; and development of a rapid response that engages the community. We therefore recommend that public health authorities involve the clinical and laboratory community promptly, provide accurate information, and engage the local community in vector control and case identification and reporting.

EID Adalja AA, Sell T, Bouri N, Franco C. Lessons Learned during Dengue Outbreaks in the United States, 2001–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):608-614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110968
AMA Adalja AA, Sell T, Bouri N, et al. Lessons Learned during Dengue Outbreaks in the United States, 2001–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):608-614. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110968.
APA Adalja, A. A., Sell, T., Bouri, N., & Franco, C. (2012). Lessons Learned during Dengue Outbreaks in the United States, 2001–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 608-614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110968.
Dispatches

Bartonella spp. in Rats and Zoonoses, Los Angeles, California, USA [PDF - 253 KB - 3 pages]
V. Gundi et al.

Bartonella spp. were detected in rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in downtown Los Angeles, California, USA. Of 200 rats tested, putative human pathogens, B. rochalimae and B. tribocorum were found in 37 (18.5%) and 115 (57.5%) rats, respectively. These bacteria among rodents in a densely populated urban area are a public health concern.

EID Gundi V, Billeter SA, Rood MP, Kosoy MY. Bartonella spp. in Rats and Zoonoses, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):631-633. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110816
AMA Gundi V, Billeter SA, Rood MP, et al. Bartonella spp. in Rats and Zoonoses, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):631-633. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110816.
APA Gundi, V., Billeter, S. A., Rood, M. P., & Kosoy, M. Y. (2012). Bartonella spp. in Rats and Zoonoses, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 631-633. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110816.

Detection of Plasmodium spp. in Human Feces [PDF - 218 KB - 3 pages]
M. Jirků et al.

Comparison of diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. in humans from Uganda and the Central African Republic showed that parasites can be efficiently detected by PCR in fecal samples. These results, which rely solely on PCR-based examination of feces, validate numerous estimates of the prevalence of malaria in great apes.

EID Jirků M, Pomajbíková K, Petrželková KJ, Hůzová Z, Modrý D, Lukeš J. Detection of Plasmodium spp. in Human Feces. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):634-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110984
AMA Jirků M, Pomajbíková K, Petrželková KJ, et al. Detection of Plasmodium spp. in Human Feces. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):634-636. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110984.
APA Jirků, M., Pomajbíková, K., Petrželková, K. J., Hůzová, Z., Modrý, D., & Lukeš, J. (2012). Detection of Plasmodium spp. in Human Feces. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 634-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110984.

Increase in Extraintestinal Infections Caused by Salmonella enterica Subspecies II–IV [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
S. L. Abbott et al.

To garner information regarding site of infection and age and sex of persons infected with Salmonella enterica subspecies II–IV, we retrospectively analyzed data on Salmonella spp. infections in California, USA, 1985–2009. These subspecies were found to cause significantly more frequent invasive disease (e.g., bacteremia) than did Salmonella subspecies I strains.

EID Abbott SL, Ni F, Janda J. Increase in Extraintestinal Infections Caused by Salmonella enterica Subspecies II–IV. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):637-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111386
AMA Abbott SL, Ni F, Janda J. Increase in Extraintestinal Infections Caused by Salmonella enterica Subspecies II–IV. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):637-639. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111386.
APA Abbott, S. L., Ni, F., & Janda, J. (2012). Increase in Extraintestinal Infections Caused by Salmonella enterica Subspecies II–IV. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 637-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111386.

Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
H. Bodur et al.

To investigate Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Turkey, we conducted a seroepidemiologic survey during January–April 2009. Seroprevalence of infection was 10% in a sample from an outbreak region and increased with patient age, indicating that the virus had been previously present in Turkey. We also estimated that 88% of infections were subclinical.

EID Bodur H, Akinci E, Ascioglu S, Öngürü P, Uyar Y. Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):640-642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111374
AMA Bodur H, Akinci E, Ascioglu S, et al. Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):640-642. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111374.
APA Bodur, H., Akinci, E., Ascioglu, S., Öngürü, P., & Uyar, Y. (2012). Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 640-642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111374.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010 [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]
B. Knust et al.

We evaluated Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) surveillance data from southern Kazakhstan during 2009–2010 and found both spatial and temporal association between reported tick bites and CCHF cases. Public health measures should center on preventing tick bites, increasing awareness of CCHF signs and symptoms, and adopting hospital infection control practices.

EID Knust B, Medetov ZB, Kyraubayev KB, Bumburidi Y, Erickson B, MacNeil A, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):643-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111503
AMA Knust B, Medetov ZB, Kyraubayev KB, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):643-645. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111503.
APA Knust, B., Medetov, Z. B., Kyraubayev, K. B., Bumburidi, Y., Erickson, B., MacNeil, A....Ospanov, K. S. (2012). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 643-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111503.

Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States [PDF - 310 KB - 4 pages]
L. Stevens et al.

A high proportion of triatomine insects, vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi trypanosomes, collected in Arizona and California and examined using a novel assay had fed on humans. Other triatomine insects were positive for T. cruzi parasite infection, which indicates that the potential exists for vector transmission of Chagas disease in the United States.

EID Stevens L, Dorn PL, Hobson J, de la Rua NM, Lucero DE, Klotz JH, et al. Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):646-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111396
AMA Stevens L, Dorn PL, Hobson J, et al. Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):646-649. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111396.
APA Stevens, L., Dorn, P. L., Hobson, J., de la Rua, N. M., Lucero, D. E., Klotz, J. H....Klotz, S. A. (2012). Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 646-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111396.

Genomic Analysis of emm59 Group A Streptococcus Invasive Strains, United States [PDF - 221 KB - 3 pages]
N. Fittipaldi et al.

Genomic analysis of type emm59 group A Streptococcus invasive strains isolated in the United States discovered higher than anticipated genetic heterogeneity among strains and identified a heretofore unrecognized monoclonal cluster of invasive infections in the San Francisco Bay area. Heightened monitoring for a potential shift in the epidemic behavior of emm59 group A Streptococcus is warranted.

EID Fittipaldi N, Olsen RJ, Beres SB, Van Beneden C, Musser JM. Genomic Analysis of emm59 Group A Streptococcus Invasive Strains, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):650-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111803
AMA Fittipaldi N, Olsen RJ, Beres SB, et al. Genomic Analysis of emm59 Group A Streptococcus Invasive Strains, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):650-652. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111803.
APA Fittipaldi, N., Olsen, R. J., Beres, S. B., Van Beneden, C., & Musser, J. M. (2012). Genomic Analysis of emm59 Group A Streptococcus Invasive Strains, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 650-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111803.

Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis as M. tuberculosis Complex Subspecies [PDF - 328 KB - 3 pages]
J. van Ingen et al.

The oryx bacilli are Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms for which phylogenetic position and host range are unsettled. We characterized 22 isolates by molecular methods and propose elevation to subspecies status as M. orygis. M. orygis is a causative agent of tuberculosis in animals and humans from Africa and South Asia.

EID van Ingen J, Rahim Z, Mulder A, Boeree MJ, Simeone R, Brosch R, et al. Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis as M. tuberculosis Complex Subspecies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):653-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110888
AMA van Ingen J, Rahim Z, Mulder A, et al. Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis as M. tuberculosis Complex Subspecies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):653-655. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110888.
APA van Ingen, J., Rahim, Z., Mulder, A., Boeree, M. J., Simeone, R., Brosch, R....van Soolingen, D. (2012). Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis as M. tuberculosis Complex Subspecies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 653-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110888.

Cosavirus Infection in Persons with and without Gastroenteritis, Brazil [PDF - 327 KB - 4 pages]
A. Stöcker et al.

To determine possible cosavirus association with clinical disease, we used real-time reverse transcription PCR to test children and HIV-positive adults in Brazil with and without gastroenteritis. Thirteen (3.6%) of 359 children with gastroenteritis tested positive, as did 69 (33.8%) of 204 controls. Low prevalence, frequent viral co-infections, and low fecal cosavirus RNA concentrations argue against human pathogenicity.

EID Stöcker A, Souza B, Ribeiro T, Netto E, Araujo L, Corrêa J, et al. Cosavirus Infection in Persons with and without Gastroenteritis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):656-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111415
AMA Stöcker A, Souza B, Ribeiro T, et al. Cosavirus Infection in Persons with and without Gastroenteritis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):656-659. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111415.
APA Stöcker, A., Souza, B., Ribeiro, T., Netto, E., Araujo, L., Corrêa, J....Drexler, J. (2012). Cosavirus Infection in Persons with and without Gastroenteritis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 656-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111415.

Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype and Association with MDR TB [PDF - 378 KB - 4 pages]
J. de Steenwinkel et al.

To determine differences in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to withstand antituberculosis drug treatment, we compared the activity of antituberculosis drugs against susceptible Beijing and East-African/Indian genotype M. tuberculosis strains. Beijing genotype strains showed high rates of mutation within a wide range of drug concentrations, possibly explaining this genotype’s association with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

EID de Steenwinkel J, ten Kate MT, de Knegt GJ, Kremer K, Aarnoutse RE, Boeree MJ, et al. Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype and Association with MDR TB. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):660-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110912
AMA de Steenwinkel J, ten Kate MT, de Knegt GJ, et al. Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype and Association with MDR TB. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):660-663. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110912.
APA de Steenwinkel, J., ten Kate, M. T., de Knegt, G. J., Kremer, K., Aarnoutse, R. E., Boeree, M. J....Bakker-Woudenberg, I. (2012). Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype and Association with MDR TB. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 660-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110912.

Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet [PDF - 478 KB - 4 pages]
D. A. Marston et al.

Evidence in support of a novel lyssavirus was obtained from brain samples of an African civet in Tanzania. Results of phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences from representative Lyssavirus species and this novel lyssavirus provided strong empirical evidence that this is a new lyssavirus species, designated Ikoma lyssavirus.

EID Marston DA, Horton DL, Ngeleja C, Hampson K, McElhinney LM, Banyard AC, et al. Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):664-667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111553
AMA Marston DA, Horton DL, Ngeleja C, et al. Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):664-667. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111553.
APA Marston, D. A., Horton, D. L., Ngeleja, C., Hampson, K., McElhinney, L. M., Banyard, A. C....Lembo, T. (2012). Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 664-667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111553.

Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil [PDF - 290 KB - 3 pages]
R. Cordeiro et al.

To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

EID Cordeiro R, Rocha de Castro e Silva K, Brilhante R, Moura F, Duarte N, Marques F, et al. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):668-670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111641
AMA Cordeiro R, Rocha de Castro e Silva K, Brilhante R, et al. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):668-670. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111641.
APA Cordeiro, R., Rocha de Castro e Silva, K., Brilhante, R., Moura, F., Duarte, N., Marques, F....Sidrim, J. (2012). Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 668-670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111641.

Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010 [PDF - 217 KB - 3 pages]
F. Gobbi et al.

In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures

EID Gobbi F, Barzon L, Capelli G, Angheben A, Pacenti M, Napoletano G, et al. Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):671-673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110753
AMA Gobbi F, Barzon L, Capelli G, et al. Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):671-673. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110753.
APA Gobbi, F., Barzon, L., Capelli, G., Angheben, A., Pacenti, M., Napoletano, G....Bisoffi, Z. (2012). Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 671-673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110753.

De Novo Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Enterococcal Infections [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
T. Kelesidis et al.

Potential emergence of enterococcal daptomycin nonsusceptibility among patients with no prior exposure to daptomycin poses clinical and public health challenges. We found that development of infections with daptomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci in these patients could be associated with sporadic emergence and clonal spread.

EID Kelesidis T, Humphries R, Uslan DZ, Pegues D. De Novo Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Enterococcal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):674-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110932
AMA Kelesidis T, Humphries R, Uslan DZ, et al. De Novo Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Enterococcal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):674-676. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110932.
APA Kelesidis, T., Humphries, R., Uslan, D. Z., & Pegues, D. (2012). De Novo Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Enterococcal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 674-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110932.

Dengue in Patients with Central Nervous System Manifestations, Brazil [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
F. Araújo et al.

We investigated the prevalence of dengue in patients with suspected viral meningitis/meningoencephalitis in a dengue-endemic area. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed positive results and a 6.74× greater likelihood of identifying positive fluid in patients who died. Our findings support testing patients with neurologic manifestations for the virus in dengue-endemic areas.

EID Araújo F, Nogueira R, Araújo M, Perdigão A, Cavalcanti L, Brilhante R, et al. Dengue in Patients with Central Nervous System Manifestations, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):677-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111522
AMA Araújo F, Nogueira R, Araújo M, et al. Dengue in Patients with Central Nervous System Manifestations, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):677-679. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111522.
APA Araújo, F., Nogueira, R., Araújo, M., Perdigão, A., Cavalcanti, L., Brilhante, R....Sidrim, J. (2012). Dengue in Patients with Central Nervous System Manifestations, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 677-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111522.

Human Parvovirus 4 Infection, Cameroon [PDF - 271 KB - 4 pages]
M. Lavoie et al.

In a post hoc analysis of samples collected in 2009, we determined seroprevalence of parvovirus 4 (PARV4) among elderly Cameroonians. PARV4 seropositivity was associated with receipt of intravenous antimalarial drugs, intramuscular streptomycin, or an intramuscular contraceptive, but not hepatitis C virus seropositivity. Findings suggest parenteral acquisition of some PARV4 infections.

EID Lavoie M, Sharp CP, Pépin J, Pennington C, Foupouapouognigni Y, Pybus OG, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 Infection, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):680-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110628
AMA Lavoie M, Sharp CP, Pépin J, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 Infection, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):680-683. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110628.
APA Lavoie, M., Sharp, C. P., Pépin, J., Pennington, C., Foupouapouognigni, Y., Pybus, O. G....Simmonds, P. (2012). Human Parvovirus 4 Infection, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 680-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110628.

Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008 [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
P. J. Carson et al.

To determine risk for West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in North Dakota, we tested plasma samples from blood donors for WNV IgG and compared infection rates with reported WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. We estimate that 1 in 244 WNV infections leads to neuroinvasive disease; risk is substantially increased among men and older persons.

EID Carson PJ, Borchardt SM, Custer B, Prince HE, Dunn-Williams J, Winkelman V, et al. Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):684-686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111313
AMA Carson PJ, Borchardt SM, Custer B, et al. Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):684-686. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111313.
APA Carson, P. J., Borchardt, S. M., Custer, B., Prince, H. E., Dunn-Williams, J., Winkelman, V....Busch, M. P. (2012). Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 684-686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111313.
Letters

West Nile Virus Lineage 2 from Blood Donor, Greece [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
A. Papa et al.
EID Papa A, Politis C, Tsoukala A, Eglezou A, Bakaloudi V, Hatzitaki M, et al. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 from Blood Donor, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):688-689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110771
AMA Papa A, Politis C, Tsoukala A, et al. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 from Blood Donor, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):688-689. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110771.
APA Papa, A., Politis, C., Tsoukala, A., Eglezou, A., Bakaloudi, V., Hatzitaki, M....Tsergouli, K. (2012). West Nile Virus Lineage 2 from Blood Donor, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 688-689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110771.

Tuberculosis Screening before Anti–Hepatitis C Virus Therapy in Prisons [PDF - 200 KB - 3 pages]
S. Babudieri et al.
EID Babudieri S, Soddu A, Murino M, Molicotti P, Muredda AA, Madeddu G, et al. Tuberculosis Screening before Anti–Hepatitis C Virus Therapy in Prisons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111016
AMA Babudieri S, Soddu A, Murino M, et al. Tuberculosis Screening before Anti–Hepatitis C Virus Therapy in Prisons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):689-691. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111016.
APA Babudieri, S., Soddu, A., Murino, M., Molicotti, P., Muredda, A. A., Madeddu, G....Mura, M. (2012). Tuberculosis Screening before Anti–Hepatitis C Virus Therapy in Prisons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111016.

Deficient Reporting in Avian Influenza Surveillance, Mali [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
S. Molia et al.
EID Molia S, Kamissoko B, Sidibé M, Diakité A, Diall M, N’Diaye M. Deficient Reporting in Avian Influenza Surveillance, Mali. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):691-693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111102
AMA Molia S, Kamissoko B, Sidibé M, et al. Deficient Reporting in Avian Influenza Surveillance, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):691-693. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111102.
APA Molia, S., Kamissoko, B., Sidibé, M., Diakité, A., Diall, M., & N’Diaye, M. (2012). Deficient Reporting in Avian Influenza Surveillance, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 691-693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111102.

Myxozoan Parasite in Brain of Critically Endangered Frog [PDF - 216 KB - 3 pages]
A. Hartigan et al.
EID Hartigan A, Sangster C, Rose K, Phalen DN, Šlapeta J. Myxozoan Parasite in Brain of Critically Endangered Frog. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):693-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111606
AMA Hartigan A, Sangster C, Rose K, et al. Myxozoan Parasite in Brain of Critically Endangered Frog. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):693-695. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111606.
APA Hartigan, A., Sangster, C., Rose, K., Phalen, D. N., & Šlapeta, J. (2012). Myxozoan Parasite in Brain of Critically Endangered Frog. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 693-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111606.

Mayaro Virus Infection in Traveler Returning from Amazon Basin, Northern Peru [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
A. Neumayr et al.
EID Neumayr A, Gabriel M, Fritz J, Günther S, Hatz C, Schmidt-Chanasit J, et al. Mayaro Virus Infection in Traveler Returning from Amazon Basin, Northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):695-696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111717
AMA Neumayr A, Gabriel M, Fritz J, et al. Mayaro Virus Infection in Traveler Returning from Amazon Basin, Northern Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):695-696. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111717.
APA Neumayr, A., Gabriel, M., Fritz, J., Günther, S., Hatz, C., Schmidt-Chanasit, J....Blum, J. (2012). Mayaro Virus Infection in Traveler Returning from Amazon Basin, Northern Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 695-696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111717.

Meningoencephalitis Complicating Relapsing Fever in Traveler Returning from Senegal [PDF - 135 KB - 2 pages]
E. Bottieau et al.
EID Bottieau E, Verbruggen E, Aubry C, Socolovschi C, Vlieghe E. Meningoencephalitis Complicating Relapsing Fever in Traveler Returning from Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):697-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111771
AMA Bottieau E, Verbruggen E, Aubry C, et al. Meningoencephalitis Complicating Relapsing Fever in Traveler Returning from Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):697-698. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111771.
APA Bottieau, E., Verbruggen, E., Aubry, C., Socolovschi, C., & Vlieghe, E. (2012). Meningoencephalitis Complicating Relapsing Fever in Traveler Returning from Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 697-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111771.

Serologic Evidence of Orthopoxvirus Infection in Buffaloes, Brazil [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
F. Lopes de Assis et al.
EID Lopes de Assis F, Pereira G, Oliveira C, Rodrigues G, Cotta M, Silva-Fernandes A, et al. Serologic Evidence of Orthopoxvirus Infection in Buffaloes, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):698-700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111800
AMA Lopes de Assis F, Pereira G, Oliveira C, et al. Serologic Evidence of Orthopoxvirus Infection in Buffaloes, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):698-700. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111800.
APA Lopes de Assis, F., Pereira, G., Oliveira, C., Rodrigues, G., Cotta, M., Silva-Fernandes, A....Abrahão, J. (2012). Serologic Evidence of Orthopoxvirus Infection in Buffaloes, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 698-700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111800.

Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York and New Jersey, USA [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Mediavilla et al.
EID Mediavilla JR, Chen L, Uhlemann A, Hanson BM, Rosenthal M, Stanak K, et al. Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York and New Jersey, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):700-702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111419
AMA Mediavilla JR, Chen L, Uhlemann A, et al. Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York and New Jersey, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):700-702. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111419.
APA Mediavilla, J. R., Chen, L., Uhlemann, A., Hanson, B. M., Rosenthal, M., Stanak, K....Kreiswirth, B. N. (2012). Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York and New Jersey, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 700-702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111419.

Rickettsia monacensis as Cause of Mediterranean Spotted Fever–like Illness, Italy [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
G. Madeddu et al.
EID Madeddu G, Mancini F, Caddeo A, Ciervo A, Babudieri S, Maida I, et al. Rickettsia monacensis as Cause of Mediterranean Spotted Fever–like Illness, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111583
AMA Madeddu G, Mancini F, Caddeo A, et al. Rickettsia monacensis as Cause of Mediterranean Spotted Fever–like Illness, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):702-704. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111583.
APA Madeddu, G., Mancini, F., Caddeo, A., Ciervo, A., Babudieri, S., Maida, I....Mura, M. (2012). Rickettsia monacensis as Cause of Mediterranean Spotted Fever–like Illness, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111583.

Leishmania Resistance to Miltefosine Associated with Genetic Marker [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
S. Cojean et al.
EID Cojean S, Houzé S, Haouchine D, Huteau F, Lariven S, Hubert V, et al. Leishmania Resistance to Miltefosine Associated with Genetic Marker. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):704-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110841
AMA Cojean S, Houzé S, Haouchine D, et al. Leishmania Resistance to Miltefosine Associated with Genetic Marker. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):704-706. doi:10.3201/eid1804.110841.
APA Cojean, S., Houzé, S., Haouchine, D., Huteau, F., Lariven, S., Hubert, V....Matheron, S. (2012). Leishmania Resistance to Miltefosine Associated with Genetic Marker. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 704-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.110841.

Prolonged KI Polyomavirus Infection in Immunodeficient Child [PDF - 164 KB - 3 pages]
V. Falcone et al.
EID Falcone V, Panning M, Strahm B, Vraetz T, Bierbaum S, Neumann-Haefelin D, et al. Prolonged KI Polyomavirus Infection in Immunodeficient Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):706-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111588
AMA Falcone V, Panning M, Strahm B, et al. Prolonged KI Polyomavirus Infection in Immunodeficient Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):706-708. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111588.
APA Falcone, V., Panning, M., Strahm, B., Vraetz, T., Bierbaum, S., Neumann-Haefelin, D....Huzly, D. (2012). Prolonged KI Polyomavirus Infection in Immunodeficient Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 706-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111588.

High Virulence of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars of All Ages [PDF - 120 KB - 1 page]
S. Blome et al.
EID Blome S, Gabriel C, Dietze K, Breithaupt A, Beer M. High Virulence of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars of All Ages. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111813
AMA Blome S, Gabriel C, Dietze K, et al. High Virulence of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars of All Ages. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):708. doi:10.3201/eid1804.111813.
APA Blome, S., Gabriel, C., Dietze, K., Breithaupt, A., & Beer, M. (2012). High Virulence of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars of All Ages. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.111813.
Another Dimension

Leaving the Hospital [PDF - 189 KB - 1 page]
A. Silver
EID Silver A. Leaving the Hospital. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.ad1804
AMA Silver A. Leaving the Hospital. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):687. doi:10.3201/eid1804.ad1804.
APA Silver, A. (2012). Leaving the Hospital. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.ad1804.
About the Cover

Military Magic or Nature’s Fool [PDF - 160 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Military Magic or Nature’s Fool. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):709-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.ac1804
AMA Potter P. Military Magic or Nature’s Fool. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(4):709-710. doi:10.3201/eid1804.ac1804.
APA Potter, P. (2012). Military Magic or Nature’s Fool. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(4), 709-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1804.ac1804.
Online Reports

Multidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses
M. Humblet et al.

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health.

Page created: March 19, 2012
Page updated: May 02, 2012
Page reviewed: May 02, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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