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Issue Cover for Volume 19, Number 12—December 2013

Volume 19, Number 12—December 2013

[PDF - 12.87 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

Review of Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Recommendations for One Health Initiative [PDF - 314 KB - 5 pages]
C. Rubin et al.

Human health is inextricably linked to the health of animals and the viability of ecosystems; this is a concept commonly known as One Health. Over the last 2 decades, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) have published consensus reports and workshop summaries addressing a variety of threats to animal, human, and ecosystem health. We reviewed a selection of these publications and identified recommendations from NRC and IOM/NRC consensus reports and from opinions expressed in workshop summaries that are relevant to implementation of the One Health paradigm shift. We grouped these recommendations and opinions into thematic categories to determine if sufficient attention has been given to various aspects of One Health. We conclude that although One Health themes have been included throughout numerous IOM and NRC publications, identified gaps remain that may warrant targeted studies related to the One Health approach.

EID Rubin C, Myers T, Stokes W, Dunham B, Harris S, Lautner B, et al. Review of Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Recommendations for One Health Initiative. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1913-1917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121659
AMA Rubin C, Myers T, Stokes W, et al. Review of Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Recommendations for One Health Initiative. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1913-1917. doi:10.3201/eid1912.121659.
APA Rubin, C., Myers, T., Stokes, W., Dunham, B., Harris, S., Lautner, B....Annelli, J. (2013). Review of Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Recommendations for One Health Initiative. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1913-1917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121659.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease–endemic Areas of New York, USA [PDF - 588 KB - 8 pages]
M. Y. El Khoury et al.

Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004–2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease–endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage.

EID El Khoury MY, Camargo JF, White JL, Backenson BP, Dupuis AP, Escuyer KL, et al. Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease–endemic Areas of New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1926-1933. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130903
AMA El Khoury MY, Camargo JF, White JL, et al. Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease–endemic Areas of New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1926-1933. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130903.
APA El Khoury, M. Y., Camargo, J. F., White, J. L., Backenson, B. P., Dupuis, A. P., Escuyer, K. L....Wong, S. J. (2013). Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease–endemic Areas of New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1926-1933. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130903.

Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States [PDF - 405 KB - 4 pages]
B. Knust and P. E. Rollin

In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.

EID Knust B, Rollin PE. Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1934-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131217
AMA Knust B, Rollin PE. Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1934-1937. doi:10.3201/eid1912.131217.
APA Knust, B., & Rollin, P. E. (2013). Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1934-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131217.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiologic Investigations into Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in Humans, South Africa, 2008–2011 [PDF - 528 KB - 8 pages]
B. N. Archer et al.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonosis posing a public health threat to humans in Africa. During sporadic RVF outbreaks in 2008–2009 and widespread epidemics in 2010–2011, 302 laboratory-confirmed human infections, including 25 deaths (case-fatality rate, 8%) were identified. Incidence peaked in late summer to early autumn each year, which coincided with incidence rate patterns in livestock. Most case-patients were adults (median age 43 years), men (262; 87%), who worked in farming, animal health or meat-related industries (83%). Most case-patients reported direct contact with animal tissues, blood, or other body fluids before onset of illness (89%); mosquitoes likely played a limited role in transmission of disease to humans. Close partnership with animal health and agriculture sectors allowed early recognition of human cases and appropriate preventive health messaging.

EID Archer BN, Thomas J, Weyer J, Cengimbo A, Landoh DE, Jacobs C, et al. Epidemiologic Investigations into Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in Humans, South Africa, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1918-1925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121527
AMA Archer BN, Thomas J, Weyer J, et al. Epidemiologic Investigations into Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in Humans, South Africa, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1918-1925. doi:10.3201/eid1912.121527.
APA Archer, B. N., Thomas, J., Weyer, J., Cengimbo, A., Landoh, D. E., Jacobs, C....Blumberg, L. (2013). Epidemiologic Investigations into Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in Humans, South Africa, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1918-1925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121527.
Research

Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice [PDF - 674 KB - 10 pages]
J. M. Torres et al.

We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations.

EID Torres JM, Castilla J, Pintado B, Gutiérrez-Adan A, Andréoletti O, Aguilar-Calvo P, et al. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1938-1947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130106
AMA Torres JM, Castilla J, Pintado B, et al. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1938-1947. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130106.
APA Torres, J. M., Castilla, J., Pintado, B., Gutiérrez-Adan, A., Andréoletti, O., Aguilar-Calvo, P....Espinosa, J. (2013). Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1938-1947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130106.

Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009–2011 [PDF - 635 KB - 9 pages]
H. T. Nguyen et al.

We assessed drug susceptibilities of 125 avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam during 2009–2011. Of 25 clade 1.1 viruses, all possessed a marker of resistance to M2 blockers amantadine and rimantadine; 24 were inhibited by neuraminidase inhibitors. One clade 1.1 virus contained the R430W neuraminidase gene and reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, zanamivir, and laninamivir 12-, 73-, and 29-fold, respectively. Three of 30 clade 2.3.4 viruses contained a I223T mutation and showed 7-fold reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. One of 70 clade 2.3.2.1 viruses had the H275Y marker of oseltamivir resistance and exhibited highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and peramivir; antiviral agents DAS181 and favipiravir inhibited H275Y mutant virus replication in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Replicative fitness of the H275Y mutant virus was comparable to that of wildtype virus. These findings highlight the role of drug susceptibility monitoring of H5N1 subtype viruses circulating among birds to inform antiviral stockpiling decisions for pandemic preparedness.

EID Nguyen HT, Nguyen T, Mishin VP, Sleeman K, Balish A, Jones J, et al. Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1963-1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130705
AMA Nguyen HT, Nguyen T, Mishin VP, et al. Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1963-1971. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130705.
APA Nguyen, H. T., Nguyen, T., Mishin, V. P., Sleeman, K., Balish, A., Jones, J....Gubareva, L. V. (2013). Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1963-1971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130705.

Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal [PDF - 626 KB]
D. Dean et al.

Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness. Commercial assays do not discriminate among all Chlamydiaceae species that might be involved in trachoma. We investigated whether a commercial Micro-ArrayTube could discriminate Chlamydiaceae species in DNA extracted directly from conjunctival samples from 101 trachoma patients in Nepal. To evaluate organism viability, we extracted RNA, reverse transcribed it, and subjected it to quantitative real-time PCR. We found that 71 (70.3%) villagers were infected. ArrayTube sensitivity was 91.7% and specificity was 100% compared with that of real-time PCR. Concordance between genotypes detected by microarray and ompA genotyping was 100%. Species distribution included 54 (76%) single infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. suis, or C. pecorum, and 17 (24%) mixed infections that includied C. pneumoniae. Ocular infections were caused by 5 Chlamydiaceae species. Additional studies of trachoma pathogenesis involving Chlamydiaceae species other than C. trachomatis and their zoonotic origins are needed.

EID Dean D, Rothschild J, Ruettger A, Kandel R, Sachse K. Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1948-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130656
AMA Dean D, Rothschild J, Ruettger A, et al. Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1948-1955. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130656.
APA Dean, D., Rothschild, J., Ruettger, A., Kandel, R., & Sachse, K. (2013). Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1948-1955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130656.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Surveillance during National Influenza Vaccination Campaign, New York, USA, 2009 [PDF - 428 KB - 7 pages]
G. P. Giambrone et al.

The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) collected information about hospitalized patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during October 2009–May 2010, statewide (excluding New York City), to examine a possible relationship with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. NYSDOH established a Clinical Network of neurologists and 150 hospital neurology units. Hospital discharge data from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) were used to evaluate completeness of reporting from the Clinical Network. A total of 140 confirmed or probable GBS cases were identified: 81 (58%) from both systems, 10 (7%) from Clinical Network only, and 49 (35%) from SPARCS-only. Capture–recapture methods estimated that 6 cases might have been missed by both systems. Clinical Network median reporting time was 12 days versus 131 days for SPARCS. In public health emergencies in New York State, a Clinical Network may provide timely data, but in our study such data were less complete than traditional hospital discharge data.

EID Giambrone GP, Zansky SM, Eidson M, Duncan PG, McNutt L, Birkhead GS. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Surveillance during National Influenza Vaccination Campaign, New York, USA, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1956-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130643
AMA Giambrone GP, Zansky SM, Eidson M, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Surveillance during National Influenza Vaccination Campaign, New York, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1956-1962. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130643.
APA Giambrone, G. P., Zansky, S. M., Eidson, M., Duncan, P. G., McNutt, L., & Birkhead, G. S. (2013). Guillain-Barré Syndrome Surveillance during National Influenza Vaccination Campaign, New York, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1956-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130643.
Dispatches

Powassan Virus in Mammals, Alaska and New Mexico, USA, and Russia, 2004–2007 [PDF - 494 KB - 5 pages]
E. R. Deardorff et al.

Powassan virus is endemic to the United States, Canada, and the Russian Far East. We report serologic evidence of circulation of this virus in Alaska, New Mexico, and Siberia. These data support further studies of viral ecology in rapidly changing Arctic environments.

EID Deardorff ER, Nofchissey RA, Cook JA, Hope AG, Tsvetkova A, Talbot SL, et al. Powassan Virus in Mammals, Alaska and New Mexico, USA, and Russia, 2004–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2012-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130319
AMA Deardorff ER, Nofchissey RA, Cook JA, et al. Powassan Virus in Mammals, Alaska and New Mexico, USA, and Russia, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2012-2016. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130319.
APA Deardorff, E. R., Nofchissey, R. A., Cook, J. A., Hope, A. G., Tsvetkova, A., Talbot, S. L....Ebel, G. D. (2013). Powassan Virus in Mammals, Alaska and New Mexico, USA, and Russia, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2012-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130319.

Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010 [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
F. Monaco et al.

During May–July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009–2010.

EID Monaco F, Pinoni C, Cosseddu G, Khaiseb S, Calistri P, Molini U, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2025-2027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130593
AMA Monaco F, Pinoni C, Cosseddu G, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2025-2027. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130593.
APA Monaco, F., Pinoni, C., Cosseddu, G., Khaiseb, S., Calistri, P., Molini, U....Lelli, R. (2013). Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2025-2027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130593.

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil [PDF - 441 KB - 4 pages]
F. L. de Assis et al.

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.

EID de Assis FL, Vinhote WM, Barbosa JD, de Oliveira C, de Oliveira C, Campos KF, et al. Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2017-2020. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130589
AMA de Assis FL, Vinhote WM, Barbosa JD, et al. Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2017-2020. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130589.
APA de Assis, F. L., Vinhote, W. M., Barbosa, J. D., de Oliveira, C., de Oliveira, C., Campos, K. F....Abrahão, J. S. (2013). Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2017-2020. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130589.

Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012 [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
S. AbuBakar et al.

An outbreak of fever associated with myalgia and myositis occurred in 2012 among 89 of 92 college students and teachers who visited Pangkor Island, Malaysia. The Sarcocystis nesbitti 18S rRNA gene and sarcocysts were obtained from muscle tissues of 2 students. Our findings indicate emergence of S. nesbitti infections in humans in Malaysia.

EID AbuBakar S, Teoh B, Sam S, Chang L, Johari J, Hooi P, et al. Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1989-1991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120530
AMA AbuBakar S, Teoh B, Sam S, et al. Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1989-1991. doi:10.3201/eid1912.120530.
APA AbuBakar, S., Teoh, B., Sam, S., Chang, L., Johari, J., Hooi, P....Tan, C. (2013). Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1989-1991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120530.

Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
T. Ng et al.

We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown.

EID Ng T, Driscoll C, Carlos M, Prioleau A, Schmieder R, Dwivedi B, et al. Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1978-1980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121506
AMA Ng T, Driscoll C, Carlos M, et al. Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1978-1980. doi:10.3201/eid1912.121506.
APA Ng, T., Driscoll, C., Carlos, M., Prioleau, A., Schmieder, R., Dwivedi, B....Delwart, E. (2013). Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1978-1980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121506.

Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States [PDF - 487 KB - 4 pages]
D. G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis et al.

We investigated 32 families of persons with acute toxoplasmosis in which >1 other family member was tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection; 18 (56%) families had >1 additional family member with acute infection. Family members of persons with acute toxoplasmosis should be screened for infection, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons.

EID Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Maldonado Y, Montoya JG. Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1981-1984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121892
AMA Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Maldonado Y, Montoya JG. Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1981-1984. doi:10.3201/eid1912.121892.
APA Contopoulos-Ioannidis, D. G., Maldonado, Y., & Montoya, J. G. (2013). Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1981-1984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121892.

Surveillance for Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Beijing, China, 2013 [PDF - 452 KB - 3 pages]
P. Yang et al.

During surveillance for pneumonia of unknown etiology and sentinel hospital–based surveillance in Beijing, China, we detected avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in 4 persons who had pneumonia, influenza-like illness, or asymptomatic infections. Samples from poultry workers, associated poultry environments, and wild birds suggest that this virus might not be present in Beijing.

EID Yang P, Pang X, Deng Y, Ma C, Zhang D, Sun Y, et al. Surveillance for Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Beijing, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2041-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130983
AMA Yang P, Pang X, Deng Y, et al. Surveillance for Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Beijing, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2041-2043. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130983.
APA Yang, P., Pang, X., Deng, Y., Ma, C., Zhang, D., Sun, Y....Wang, Q. (2013). Surveillance for Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Beijing, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2041-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130983.

Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds [PDF - 343 KB - 3 pages]
S. H. Olson et al.

We examined 48 published studies for which sample sizes could be ascertained to determine the historic prevalence of influenza A(H7N9) virus in wild bird populations and reviewed GenBank data to further establish its distribution. Low prevalence (0.0093%) in Asia suggests > 30,000 samples would be required to detect the H7N9 subtype in wild birds.

EID Olson SH, Gilbert M, Cheng M, Mazet J, Joly DO. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2031-2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130649
AMA Olson SH, Gilbert M, Cheng M, et al. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2031-2033. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130649.
APA Olson, S. H., Gilbert, M., Cheng, M., Mazet, J., & Joly, D. O. (2013). Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2031-2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130649.

Novel Variants of Clade 2.3.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses, China [PDF - 504 KB - 4 pages]
M. Gu et al.

We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009–2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.

EID Gu M, Zhao G, Zhao K, Zhong L, Huang J, Wan H, et al. Novel Variants of Clade 2.3.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2021-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130340
AMA Gu M, Zhao G, Zhao K, et al. Novel Variants of Clade 2.3.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2021-2024. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130340.
APA Gu, M., Zhao, G., Zhao, K., Zhong, L., Huang, J., Wan, H....Liu, X. (2013). Novel Variants of Clade 2.3.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2021-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130340.

Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia [PDF - 399 KB - 3 pages]
S. Gierer et al.

We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

EID Gierer S, Hofmann-Winkler H, Albuali WH, Bertram S, Al-Rubaish AM, Yousef AA, et al. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2034-2036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130701
AMA Gierer S, Hofmann-Winkler H, Albuali WH, et al. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2034-2036. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130701.
APA Gierer, S., Hofmann-Winkler, H., Albuali, W. H., Bertram, S., Al-Rubaish, A. M., Yousef, A. A....Pöhlmann, S. (2013). Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2034-2036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130701.

Novel Orthoreovirus from Mink, China, 2011 [PDF - 646 KB - 4 pages]
H. Lian et al.

We identified a novel mink orthoreovirus, MRV1HB-A, which seems to be closely related to human strain MRV2tou05, which was isolated from 2 children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy in 2005. Evolution of this virus should be closely monitored so that prevention and control measures can be taken should it become more virulent.

EID Lian H, Liu Y, Zhang S, Zhang F, Hu R. Novel Orthoreovirus from Mink, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1985-1988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130043
AMA Lian H, Liu Y, Zhang S, et al. Novel Orthoreovirus from Mink, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1985-1988. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130043.
APA Lian, H., Liu, Y., Zhang, S., Zhang, F., & Hu, R. (2013). Novel Orthoreovirus from Mink, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1985-1988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130043.

Novel Cause of Tuberculosis in Meerkats, South Africa [PDF - 3.19 MB - 4 pages]
S. Parsons et al.

The organism that causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) has been poorly characterized. Our genetic analysis showed it to be a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and closely related to the dassie bacillus. We have named this epidemiologically and genetically unique strain M. suricattae.

EID Parsons S, Drewe JA, Gey van Pittius NC, Warren RM, van Helden PD. Novel Cause of Tuberculosis in Meerkats, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2004-2007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130268
AMA Parsons S, Drewe JA, Gey van Pittius NC, et al. Novel Cause of Tuberculosis in Meerkats, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2004-2007. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130268.
APA Parsons, S., Drewe, J. A., Gey van Pittius, N. C., Warren, R. M., & van Helden, P. D. (2013). Novel Cause of Tuberculosis in Meerkats, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2004-2007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130268.

Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany [PDF - 429 KB - 4 pages]
V. Ntoukas et al.

Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.

EID Ntoukas V, Tappe D, Pfütze D, Simon M, Holzmann T. Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2008-2011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130284
AMA Ntoukas V, Tappe D, Pfütze D, et al. Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2008-2011. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130284.
APA Ntoukas, V., Tappe, D., Pfütze, D., Simon, M., & Holzmann, T. (2013). Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2008-2011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130284.

Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark [PDF - 546 KB - 3 pages]
J. S. Krog et al.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety of species.

EID Krog JS, Breum S, Jensen TH, Larsen LE. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2028-2030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130614
AMA Krog JS, Breum S, Jensen TH, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2028-2030. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130614.
APA Krog, J. S., Breum, S., Jensen, T. H., & Larsen, L. E. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2028-2030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130614.

Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012 [PDF - 410 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kobayashi et al.

We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

EID Kobayashi M, Takayama I, Kageyama T, Tsukagoshi H, Saitoh M, Ishioka T, et al. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1972-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120944
AMA Kobayashi M, Takayama I, Kageyama T, et al. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1972-1974. doi:10.3201/eid1912.120944.
APA Kobayashi, M., Takayama, I., Kageyama, T., Tsukagoshi, H., Saitoh, M., Ishioka, T....Kozawa, K. (2013). Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1972-1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120944.

Myocarditis after Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Treatment for Ehrlichiosis [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]
S. U. Nayak and G. L. Simon

The manifestations of human monocytic ehrlichiosis range from a mild febrile syndrome to a severe multisystem illness. Myocardial involvement is uncommon. We report a woman, 78 years of age, who was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole after a tick bite, in whom myocarditis was subsequently diagnosed. She recovered completely after doxycycline therapy.

EID Nayak SU, Simon GL. Myocarditis after Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Treatment for Ehrlichiosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1975-1977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121459
AMA Nayak SU, Simon GL. Myocarditis after Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Treatment for Ehrlichiosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1975-1977. doi:10.3201/eid1912.121459.
APA Nayak, S. U., & Simon, G. L. (2013). Myocarditis after Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Treatment for Ehrlichiosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1975-1977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121459.

Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012 [PDF - 561 KB - 4 pages]
J. C. Rhyan et al.

Bovine brucellosis has been nearly eliminated from livestock in the United States. Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain reservoirs for the disease. During 1990–2002, no known cases occurred in Greater Yellowstone Area livestock. Since then, 17 transmission events from wildlife to livestock have been investigated.

EID Rhyan JC, Nol P, Quance C, Gertonson A, Belfrage J, Harris L, et al. Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1992-1995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130167
AMA Rhyan JC, Nol P, Quance C, et al. Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1992-1995. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130167.
APA Rhyan, J. C., Nol, P., Quance, C., Gertonson, A., Belfrage, J., Harris, L....Robbe-Austerman, S. (2013). Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1992-1995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130167.

Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in Dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011–2012 [PDF - 604 KB - 4 pages]
D. Otranto et al.

Onchocerca lupi infection is reported primarily in symptomatic dogs. We aimed to determine the infection in dogs from areas of Greece and Portugal with reported cases. Of 107 dogs, 9 (8%) were skin snip–positive for the parasite. DNA sequences of parasites in specimens from distinct dog populations differed genetically from thoses in GenBank.

EID Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Giannelli A, Latrofa M, Papadopoulos E, Cardoso L, et al. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in Dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2000-2003. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130264
AMA Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Giannelli A, et al. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in Dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2000-2003. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130264.
APA Otranto, D., Dantas-Torres, F., Giannelli, A., Latrofa, M., Papadopoulos, E., Cardoso, L....Cortes, H. (2013). Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in Dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2000-2003. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130264.

Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania [PDF - 456 KB - 4 pages]
T. Lembo et al.

We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance.

EID Lembo T, Oura C, Parida S, Hoare R, Frost L, Fyumagwa R, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2037-2040. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130973
AMA Lembo T, Oura C, Parida S, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2037-2040. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130973.
APA Lembo, T., Oura, C., Parida, S., Hoare, R., Frost, L., Fyumagwa, R....Batten, C. (2013). Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2037-2040. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130973.

Concomitant Human Infections with 2 Cowpox Virus Strains in Related Cases, France, 2011 [PDF - 557 KB - 4 pages]
C. Ducournau et al.

We investigated 4 related human cases of cowpox virus infection reported in France during 2011. Three patients were infected by the same strain, probably transmitted by imported pet rats, and the fourth patient was infected by another strain. The 2 strains were genetically related to viruses previously isolated from humans with cowpox infection in Europe.

EID Ducournau C, Ferrier-Rembert A, Ferraris O, Joffre A, Favier A, Flusin O, et al. Concomitant Human Infections with 2 Cowpox Virus Strains in Related Cases, France, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1996-1999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130256
AMA Ducournau C, Ferrier-Rembert A, Ferraris O, et al. Concomitant Human Infections with 2 Cowpox Virus Strains in Related Cases, France, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1996-1999. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130256.
APA Ducournau, C., Ferrier-Rembert, A., Ferraris, O., Joffre, A., Favier, A., Flusin, O....Peyrefitte, C. N. (2013). Concomitant Human Infections with 2 Cowpox Virus Strains in Related Cases, France, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1996-1999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130256.
Letters

New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 in Carbapenem-Resistant Salmonella Strain, China [PDF - 334 KB - 3 pages]
J. Huang et al.
EID Huang J, Wang M, Ding H, Ye M, Hu F, Guo Q, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 in Carbapenem-Resistant Salmonella Strain, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2049-2051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130051
AMA Huang J, Wang M, Ding H, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 in Carbapenem-Resistant Salmonella Strain, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2049-2051. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130051.
APA Huang, J., Wang, M., Ding, H., Ye, M., Hu, F., Guo, Q....Wang, M. (2013). New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 in Carbapenem-Resistant Salmonella Strain, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2049-2051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130051.

Hepatitis E and Lymphocytic Leukemia in Man, Italy [PDF - 366 KB - 3 pages]
M. T. Giordani et al.
EID Giordani MT, Fabris P, Brunetti E, Goblirsch S, Romanò L. Hepatitis E and Lymphocytic Leukemia in Man, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2054-2056. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130521
AMA Giordani MT, Fabris P, Brunetti E, et al. Hepatitis E and Lymphocytic Leukemia in Man, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2054-2056. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130521.
APA Giordani, M. T., Fabris, P., Brunetti, E., Goblirsch, S., & Romanò, L. (2013). Hepatitis E and Lymphocytic Leukemia in Man, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2054-2056. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130521.

Vaccinia Virus in Household Environment during Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak, Brazil [PDF - 459 KB - 3 pages]
F. L. Assis et al.
EID Assis FL, Borges IA, Mesquita VS, Ferreira PC, Trindade GS, Kroon EG, et al. Vaccinia Virus in Household Environment during Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2045-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120937
AMA Assis FL, Borges IA, Mesquita VS, et al. Vaccinia Virus in Household Environment during Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2045-2047. doi:10.3201/eid1912.120937.
APA Assis, F. L., Borges, I. A., Mesquita, V. S., Ferreira, P. C., Trindade, G. S., Kroon, E. G....Abrahão, J. S. (2013). Vaccinia Virus in Household Environment during Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2045-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120937.

Q Fever Surveillance in Ruminants, Thailand, 2012 [PDF - 327 KB - 3 pages]
S. L. Yingst et al.
EID Yingst SL, Opaschaitat P, Kanitpun R, Thammasart S, Ekgatat M, Jirathanawat V, et al. Q Fever Surveillance in Ruminants, Thailand, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2056-2058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130624
AMA Yingst SL, Opaschaitat P, Kanitpun R, et al. Q Fever Surveillance in Ruminants, Thailand, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2056-2058. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130624.
APA Yingst, S. L., Opaschaitat, P., Kanitpun, R., Thammasart, S., Ekgatat, M., Jirathanawat, V....Wongwicharn, P. (2013). Q Fever Surveillance in Ruminants, Thailand, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2056-2058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130624.

Bicolored White-toothed Shrews as Reservoir for Borna Disease Virus, Bavaria, Germany [PDF - 677 KB - 3 pages]
M. Bourg et al.
EID Bourg M, Herzog S, Encarnação JA, Nobach D, Lange-Herbst H, Eickmann M, et al. Bicolored White-toothed Shrews as Reservoir for Borna Disease Virus, Bavaria, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2064-2066. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131076
AMA Bourg M, Herzog S, Encarnação JA, et al. Bicolored White-toothed Shrews as Reservoir for Borna Disease Virus, Bavaria, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2064-2066. doi:10.3201/eid1912.131076.
APA Bourg, M., Herzog, S., Encarnação, J. A., Nobach, D., Lange-Herbst, H., Eickmann, M....Herden, C. (2013). Bicolored White-toothed Shrews as Reservoir for Borna Disease Virus, Bavaria, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2064-2066. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131076.

Unexpected Brucella suis Biovar 2 Infection in a Dairy Cow, Belgium [PDF - 292 KB - 2 pages]
D. Fretin et al.
EID Fretin D, Mori M, Czaplicki G, Quinet C, Maquet B, Godfroid J, et al. Unexpected Brucella suis Biovar 2 Infection in a Dairy Cow, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2053-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130506
AMA Fretin D, Mori M, Czaplicki G, et al. Unexpected Brucella suis Biovar 2 Infection in a Dairy Cow, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2053-2054. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130506.
APA Fretin, D., Mori, M., Czaplicki, G., Quinet, C., Maquet, B., Godfroid, J....Saegerman, C. (2013). Unexpected Brucella suis Biovar 2 Infection in a Dairy Cow, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2053-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130506.

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variants with High Pathogenicity, China [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
J. Wang et al.
EID Wang J, Zhao P, Guo L, Liu Y, Du Y, Ren S, et al. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variants with High Pathogenicity, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2048-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121088
AMA Wang J, Zhao P, Guo L, et al. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variants with High Pathogenicity, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2048-2049. doi:10.3201/eid1912.121088.
APA Wang, J., Zhao, P., Guo, L., Liu, Y., Du, Y., Ren, S....Wu, J. (2013). Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variants with High Pathogenicity, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2048-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.121088.

Concurrent Parasitic Infections in a Renal Transplant Patient [PDF - 398 KB - 2 pages]
G. S. Visvesvara et al.
EID Visvesvara GS, Arrowood MJ, Qvarnstrom Y, Sriram R, Bandea R, Wilkins PP, et al. Concurrent Parasitic Infections in a Renal Transplant Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2044-2045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120926
AMA Visvesvara GS, Arrowood MJ, Qvarnstrom Y, et al. Concurrent Parasitic Infections in a Renal Transplant Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2044-2045. doi:10.3201/eid1912.120926.
APA Visvesvara, G. S., Arrowood, M. J., Qvarnstrom, Y., Sriram, R., Bandea, R., Wilkins, P. P....Weitzman, G. (2013). Concurrent Parasitic Infections in a Renal Transplant Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2044-2045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.120926.

Treponemal Infection in Nonhuman Primates as Possible Reservoir for Human Yaws [PDF - 367 KB - 3 pages]
S. Knauf et al.
EID Knauf S, Liu H, Harper KN. Treponemal Infection in Nonhuman Primates as Possible Reservoir for Human Yaws. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2058-2060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130863
AMA Knauf S, Liu H, Harper KN. Treponemal Infection in Nonhuman Primates as Possible Reservoir for Human Yaws. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2058-2060. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130863.
APA Knauf, S., Liu, H., & Harper, K. N. (2013). Treponemal Infection in Nonhuman Primates as Possible Reservoir for Human Yaws. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2058-2060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130863.

Porcine Hokovirus in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon [PDF - 365 KB - 3 pages]
C. Adlhoch et al.
EID Adlhoch C, Kaiser M, Kingsley MT, Schwarz N, Ulrich M, de Paula VS, et al. Porcine Hokovirus in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2060-2062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130891
AMA Adlhoch C, Kaiser M, Kingsley MT, et al. Porcine Hokovirus in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2060-2062. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130891.
APA Adlhoch, C., Kaiser, M., Kingsley, M. T., Schwarz, N., Ulrich, M., de Paula, V. S....Ellerbrok, H. (2013). Porcine Hokovirus in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2060-2062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130891.

Evaluation of 3 Electronic Methods Used to Detect Influenza Diagnoses during 2009 Pandemic [PDF - 314 KB - 2 pages]
S. Mulpuru et al.
EID Mulpuru S, Smith T, Lawrence N, Wilson K, Forster A. Evaluation of 3 Electronic Methods Used to Detect Influenza Diagnoses during 2009 Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2062-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131012
AMA Mulpuru S, Smith T, Lawrence N, et al. Evaluation of 3 Electronic Methods Used to Detect Influenza Diagnoses during 2009 Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2062-2063. doi:10.3201/eid1912.131012.
APA Mulpuru, S., Smith, T., Lawrence, N., Wilson, K., & Forster, A. (2013). Evaluation of 3 Electronic Methods Used to Detect Influenza Diagnoses during 2009 Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2062-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131012.

Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Endangered Tibetan Antelope, China, 2012 [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Yu et al.
EID Yu Z, Wang T, Sun H, Xia Z, Zhang K, Chu D, et al. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Endangered Tibetan Antelope, China, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2051-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130067
AMA Yu Z, Wang T, Sun H, et al. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Endangered Tibetan Antelope, China, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2051-2053. doi:10.3201/eid1912.130067.
APA Yu, Z., Wang, T., Sun, H., Xia, Z., Zhang, K., Chu, D....Xia, X. (2013). Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Endangered Tibetan Antelope, China, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2051-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.130067.
Books and Media

Foodborne Infections and Intoxications [PDF - 262 KB - 1 page]
H. Redel
EID Redel H. Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131335
AMA Redel H. Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2067. doi:10.3201/eid1912.131335.
APA Redel, H. (2013). Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.131335.
About the Cover

Savage Nature and Ecologic Exchange [PDF - 319 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Savage Nature and Ecologic Exchange. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2068-2069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.ac1912
AMA Potter P. Savage Nature and Ecologic Exchange. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):2068-2069. doi:10.3201/eid1912.ac1912.
APA Potter, P. (2013). Savage Nature and Ecologic Exchange. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 2068-2069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.ac1912.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Sarcocystis nesbitti [PDF - 302 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Sarcocystis nesbitti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.et1912
AMA Etymologia: Sarcocystis nesbitti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(12):1974. doi:10.3201/eid1912.et1912.
APA (2013). Etymologia: Sarcocystis nesbitti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(12), 1974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1912.et1912.
Conference Summaries

Toward Proof of Concept of a One Health Approach to Disease Prediction and Control
P. M. Rabinowitz et al.

A One Health approach considers the role of changing environments with regard to infectious and chronic disease risks affecting humans and nonhuman animals. Recent disease emergence events have lent support to a One Health approach. In 2010, the Stone Mountain Working Group on One Health Proof of Concept assembled and evaluated the evidence regarding proof of concept of the One Health approach to disease prediction and control. Aspects examined included the feasibility of integrating human, animal, and environmental health and whether such integration could improve disease prediction and control efforts. They found evidence to support each of these concepts but also identified the need for greater incorporation of environmental and ecosystem factors into disease assessments and interventions. The findings of the Working Group argue for larger controlled studies to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the One Health approach.

Page created: December 11, 2013
Page updated: January 06, 2014
Page reviewed: January 06, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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