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Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Foodborne Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Europe, 1980–2021 [PDF - 1.82 MB - 10 pages]
M. Elbaz et al.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection of the central nervous system that occurs in many parts of Europe and Asia. Humans mainly acquire TBE through tick bites, but TBE occasionally is contracted through consuming unpasteurized milk products from viremic livestock. We describe cases of TBE acquired through alimentary transmission in Europe during the past 4 decades. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 410 foodborne TBE cases, mostly from a region in central and eastern Europe. Most cases were reported during the warmer months (April–August) and were associated with ingesting unpasteurized dairy products from goats. The median incubation period was short, 3.5 days, and neuroinvasive disease was common (38.9%). The clinical attack rate was 14% (95% CI 12%–16%), and we noted major heterogeneity. Vaccination programs and public awareness campaigns could reduce the number of persons affected by this potentially severe disease.

EID Elbaz M, Gadoth A, Shepshelovich D, Shasha D, Rudoler N, Paran Y. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Foodborne Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Europe, 1980–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1945-1954. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220498
AMA Elbaz M, Gadoth A, Shepshelovich D, et al. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Foodborne Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Europe, 1980–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1945-1954. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220498.
APA Elbaz, M., Gadoth, A., Shepshelovich, D., Shasha, D., Rudoler, N., & Paran, Y. (2022). Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Foodborne Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Europe, 1980–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1945-1954. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220498.

Medscape CME Activity
Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fungal Infection Risk, United States, 2019 [PDF - 7.88 MB - 15 pages]
E. Rayens et al.

Fungal infections cause substantial rates of illness and death. Interest in the association between demographic factors and fungal infections is increasing. We analyzed 2019 US hospital discharge data to assess factors associated with fungal infection diagnosis, including race and ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We found male patients were 1.5–3.5 times more likely to have invasive fungal infections diagnosed than were female patients. Compared with hospitalizations of non-Hispanic White patients, Black, Hispanic, and Native American patients had 1.4–5.9 times the rates of cryptococcosis, pneumocystosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Hospitalizations associated with lower-income areas had increased rates of all fungal infections, except aspergillosis. Compared with younger patients, fungal infection diagnosis rates, particularly for candidiasis, were elevated among persons >65 years of age. Our findings suggest that differences in fungal infection diagnostic rates are associated with demographic and socioeconomic factors and highlight an ongoing need for increased physician evaluation of risk for fungal infections.

EID Rayens E, Rayens M, Norris KA. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fungal Infection Risk, United States, 2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1955-1969. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220391
AMA Rayens E, Rayens M, Norris KA. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fungal Infection Risk, United States, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1955-1969. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220391.
APA Rayens, E., Rayens, M., & Norris, K. A. (2022). Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fungal Infection Risk, United States, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1955-1969. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220391.

Seasonality of Common Human Coronaviruses, United States, 2014–2021 [PDF - 2.08 MB - 7 pages]
M. M. Shah et al.

The 4 common types of human coronaviruses (HCoVs)—2 alpha (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) and 2 beta (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43)—generally cause mild upper respiratory illness. Seasonal patterns and annual variation in predominant types of HCoVs are known, but parameters of expected seasonality have not been defined. We defined seasonality of HCoVs during July 2014–November 2021 in the United States by using a retrospective method applied to National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System data. In the 6 HCoV seasons before 2020–21, season onsets occurred October 21–November 12, peaks January 6–February 13, and offsets April 18–June 27; most (>93%) HCoV detection was within the defined seasonal onsets and offsets. The 2020–21 HCoV season onset was 11 weeks later than in prior seasons, probably associated with COVID-19 mitigation efforts. Better definitions of HCoV seasonality can be used for clinical preparedness and for determining expected patterns of emerging coronaviruses.

EID Shah MM, Winn A, Dahl RM, Kniss KL, Silk BJ, Killerby ME. Seasonality of Common Human Coronaviruses, United States, 2014–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1970-1976. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220396
AMA Shah MM, Winn A, Dahl RM, et al. Seasonality of Common Human Coronaviruses, United States, 2014–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1970-1976. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220396.
APA Shah, M. M., Winn, A., Dahl, R. M., Kniss, K. L., Silk, B. J., & Killerby, M. E. (2022). Seasonality of Common Human Coronaviruses, United States, 2014–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1970-1976. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220396.
Research

Rapid Increase in Suspected SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections, Clark County, Nevada, USA, December 2021 [PDF - 565 KB - 5 pages]
J. Ruff et al.

Genetic differences between SARS-CoV-2 variants raise concerns about reinfection. Public health authorities monitored the incidence of suspected reinfection in Clark County, Nevada, USA, during March 2020–March 2022. Suspected reinfections, defined as a second positive PCR test collected >90 days after an initial positive test, were monitored through an electronic disease surveillance system. We calculated the proportion of all new cases per week that were suspected reinfections and rates per 1,000 previously infected persons by demographic groups. The rate of suspected reinfection remained <2.7% until December 2021, then increased to ≈11%, corresponding with local Omicron variant detection. Reinfection rates were higher among adults 18–50 years of age, women, and minority groups, especially persons identifying as American Indian/Alaska Native. Suspected reinfection became more common in Clark County after introduction of the Omicron variant, and some demographic groups are disproportionately affected. Public health surveillance could clarify the SARS-CoV-2 reinfection burden in communities.

EID Ruff J, Zhang Y, Kappel M, Rathi S, Watkins K, Zhang L, et al. Rapid Increase in Suspected SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections, Clark County, Nevada, USA, December 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1977-1981. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221045
AMA Ruff J, Zhang Y, Kappel M, et al. Rapid Increase in Suspected SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections, Clark County, Nevada, USA, December 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1977-1981. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221045.
APA Ruff, J., Zhang, Y., Kappel, M., Rathi, S., Watkins, K., Zhang, L....Lockett, C. (2022). Rapid Increase in Suspected SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections, Clark County, Nevada, USA, December 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1977-1981. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221045.

Environmental Persistence of Monkeypox Virus on Surfaces in Household of Person with Travel-Associated Infection, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2021 [PDF - 710 KB - 8 pages]
C. N. Morgan et al.

In July 2021, we conducted environmental sampling at the residence of a person in Dallas, Texas, USA, who had travel-associated human West African monkeypox virus (MPXV-WA). Targeted environmental swab sampling was conducted 15 days after the person who had monkeypox left the household. Results indicate extensive MPXV-WA DNA contamination, and viable virus from 7 samples was successfully isolated in cell culture. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.94) between MPXV-WA PCR positivity of porous (9/10, 90%) vs. nonporous (19/21, 90.5%) surfaces, but there was a significant difference (p<0.01) between viable virus detected in cultures of porous (6/10, 60%) vs. nonporous (1/21, 5%) surfaces. These findings indicate that porous surfaces (e.g., bedding, clothing) may pose more of a MPXV exposure risk than nonporous surfaces (e.g., metal, plastic). Viable MPXV was detected on household surfaces after at least 15 days. However, low titers (<102 PFU) indicate a limited potential for indirect transmission.

EID Morgan CN, Whitehill F, Doty JB, Schulte J, Matheny A, Stringer J, et al. Environmental Persistence of Monkeypox Virus on Surfaces in Household of Person with Travel-Associated Infection, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1982-1989. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221047
AMA Morgan CN, Whitehill F, Doty JB, et al. Environmental Persistence of Monkeypox Virus on Surfaces in Household of Person with Travel-Associated Infection, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1982-1989. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221047.
APA Morgan, C. N., Whitehill, F., Doty, J. B., Schulte, J., Matheny, A., Stringer, J....McCollum, A. M. (2022). Environmental Persistence of Monkeypox Virus on Surfaces in Household of Person with Travel-Associated Infection, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1982-1989. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221047.

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Breakthrough by Omicron and Delta Variants, New York, USA [PDF - 926 KB - 9 pages]
A. C. Keyel et al.

Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants have greater potential than earlier variants to cause vaccine breakthrough infections. During emergence of the Delta and Omicron variants, a matched case–control analysis used a viral genomic sequence dataset linked with demographic and vaccination information from New York, USA, to examine associations between virus lineage and patient vaccination status, patient age, vaccine type, and time since vaccination. Case-patients were persons infected with the emerging virus lineage, and controls were persons infected with any other virus lineage. Infections in fully vaccinated and boosted persons were significantly associated with the Omicron lineage. Odds of infection with Omicron relative to Delta generally decreased with increasing patient age. A similar pattern was observed with vaccination status during Delta emergence but was not significant. Vaccines offered less protection against Omicron, thereby increasing the number of potential hosts for emerging variants.

EID Keyel AC, Russell A, Plitnick J, Rowlands JV, Lamson DM, Rosenberg E, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Breakthrough by Omicron and Delta Variants, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1990-1998. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221058
AMA Keyel AC, Russell A, Plitnick J, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Breakthrough by Omicron and Delta Variants, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1990-1998. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221058.
APA Keyel, A. C., Russell, A., Plitnick, J., Rowlands, J. V., Lamson, D. M., Rosenberg, E....St. George, K. (2022). SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Breakthrough by Omicron and Delta Variants, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1990-1998. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221058.

SARS-CoV-2 Secondary Attack Rates in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Household Contacts during Replacement of Delta with Omicron Variant, Spain [PDF - 837 KB - 10 pages]
I. López-Muñoz et al.

We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study of household contacts of symptomatic index case-patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the shift from Delta- to Omicron-dominant variants in Spain. We included 466 household contacts from 227 index cases. The secondary attack rate was 58.2% (95% CI 49.1%–62.6%) during the Delta-dominant period and 80.9% (95% CI 75.0%–86.9%) during the Omicron-dominant period. During the Delta-dominant period, unvaccinated contacts had higher probability of infection than vaccinated contacts (odds ratio 5.42, 95% CI 1.6–18.6), but this effect disappeared at ≈20 weeks after vaccination. Contacts showed a higher relative risk of infection (9.16, 95% CI 3.4–25.0) in the Omicron-dominant than Delta-dominant period when vaccinated within the previous 20 weeks. Our data suggest vaccine evasion might be a cause of rapid spread of the Omicron variant. We recommend a focus on developing vaccines with long-lasting protection against severe disease, rather than only against infectivity.

EID López-Muñoz I, Torrella A, Pérez-Quílez O, Castillo-Zuza A, Martró E, Bordoy AE, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Secondary Attack Rates in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Household Contacts during Replacement of Delta with Omicron Variant, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):1999-2008. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220494
AMA López-Muñoz I, Torrella A, Pérez-Quílez O, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Secondary Attack Rates in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Household Contacts during Replacement of Delta with Omicron Variant, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):1999-2008. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220494.
APA López-Muñoz, I., Torrella, A., Pérez-Quílez, O., Castillo-Zuza, A., Martró, E., Bordoy, A. E....Vallès, X. (2022). SARS-CoV-2 Secondary Attack Rates in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Household Contacts during Replacement of Delta with Omicron Variant, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 1999-2008. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220494.

Novel Zoonotic Avian Influenza A(H3N8) Virus in Chicken, Hong Kong, China [PDF - 1.79 MB - 7 pages]
T. Sit et al.

Zoonotic and pandemic influenza continue to pose threats to global public health. Pandemics arise when novel influenza A viruses, derived in whole or in part from animal or avian influenza viruses, adapt to transmit efficiently in a human population that has little population immunity to contain its onward transmission. Viruses of previous pandemic concern, such as influenza A(H7N9), arose from influenza A(H9N2) viruses established in domestic poultry acquiring a hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from influenza A viruses of aquatic waterfowl. We report a novel influenza A(H3N8) virus in chicken that has emerged in a similar manner and that has been recently reported to cause zoonotic disease. Although they are H3 subtype, these avian viruses are antigenically distant from contemporary human influenza A(H3N2) viruses, and there is little cross-reactive immunity in the human population. It is essential to heighten surveillance for these avian A(H3N8) viruses in poultry and in humans.

EID Sit T, Sun W, Tse A, Brackman CJ, Cheng S, Tang A, et al. Novel Zoonotic Avian Influenza A(H3N8) Virus in Chicken, Hong Kong, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2009-2015. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221067
AMA Sit T, Sun W, Tse A, et al. Novel Zoonotic Avian Influenza A(H3N8) Virus in Chicken, Hong Kong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2009-2015. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221067.
APA Sit, T., Sun, W., Tse, A., Brackman, C. J., Cheng, S., Tang, A....Poon, L. (2022). Novel Zoonotic Avian Influenza A(H3N8) Virus in Chicken, Hong Kong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2009-2015. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221067.

Improving Estimates of Social Contact Patterns for Airborne Transmission of Respiratory Pathogens [PDF - 5.25 MB - 11 pages]
N. McCreesh et al.

Data on social contact patterns are widely used to parameterize age-mixing matrices in mathematical models of infectious diseases. Most studies focus on close contacts only (i.e., persons spoken with face-to-face). This focus may be appropriate for studies of droplet and short-range aerosol transmission but neglects casual or shared air contacts, who may be at risk from airborne transmission. Using data from 2 provinces in South Africa, we estimated age mixing patterns relevant for droplet transmission, nonsaturating airborne transmission, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, an airborne infection where saturation of household contacts occurs. Estimated contact patterns by age did not vary greatly between the infection types, indicating that widespread use of close contact data may not be resulting in major inaccuracies. However, contact in persons >50 years of age was lower when we considered casual contacts, and therefore the contribution of older age groups to airborne transmission may be overestimated.

EID McCreesh N, Mohlamonyane M, Edwards A, Olivier S, Dikgale K, Dayi N, et al. Improving Estimates of Social Contact Patterns for Airborne Transmission of Respiratory Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2016-2026. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.212567
AMA McCreesh N, Mohlamonyane M, Edwards A, et al. Improving Estimates of Social Contact Patterns for Airborne Transmission of Respiratory Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2016-2026. doi:10.3201/eid2810.212567.
APA McCreesh, N., Mohlamonyane, M., Edwards, A., Olivier, S., Dikgale, K., Dayi, N....Middelkoop, K. (2022). Improving Estimates of Social Contact Patterns for Airborne Transmission of Respiratory Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2016-2026. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.212567.

Importation and Circulation of Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Serotype 2, Senegal, 2020–2021 [PDF - 2.02 MB - 8 pages]
M. Faye et al.

Environmental surveillance for poliovirus is increasingly used in poliovirus eradication efforts as a supplement to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance was officially established in 2017 in Senegal, where no poliovirus had been detected since 2010. We tested sewage samples from 2 sites in Dakar monthly for polioviruses. We identified a vaccine-derived poliovirus serotype 2 on January 19, 2021, from a sample collected on December 24, 2020; by December 31, 2021, we had detected 70 vaccine-derived poliovirus serotype 2 isolates circulating in 7 of 14 regions in Senegal. Sources included 18 AFP cases, 20 direct contacts, 17 contacts in the community, and 15 sewage samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of 2 clusters and provided evidence on the virus introduction from Guinea. Because novel oral polio vaccine serotype 2 was used for response activities throughout Senegal, we recommend expanding environmental surveillance into other regions.

EID Faye M, Kébé O, Diop B, Ndiaye N, Dosseh A, Sam A, et al. Importation and Circulation of Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Serotype 2, Senegal, 2020–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2027-2034. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220847
AMA Faye M, Kébé O, Diop B, et al. Importation and Circulation of Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Serotype 2, Senegal, 2020–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2027-2034. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220847.
APA Faye, M., Kébé, O., Diop, B., Ndiaye, N., Dosseh, A., Sam, A....Faye, O. (2022). Importation and Circulation of Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Serotype 2, Senegal, 2020–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2027-2034. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220847.

Shortening Duration of Swine Exhibitions to Reduce Risk for Zoonotic Transmission of Influenza A Virus [PDF - 1017 KB - 8 pages]
D. S. McBride et al.

Reducing zoonotic influenza A virus (IAV) risk in the United States necessitates mitigation of IAV in exhibition swine. We evaluated the effectiveness of shortening swine exhibitions to <72 hours to reduce IAV risk. We longitudinally sampled every pig daily for the full duration of 16 county fairs during 2014–2015 (39,768 nasal wipes from 6,768 pigs). In addition, we estimated IAV prevalence at 195 fairs during 2018–2019 to test the hypothesis that <72-hour swine exhibitions would have lower IAV prevalence. In both studies, we found that shortening duration drastically reduces IAV prevalence in exhibition swine at county fairs. Reduction of viral load in the barn within a county fair is critical to reduce the risk for interspecies IAV transmission and pandemic potential. Therefore, we encourage fair organizers to shorten swine shows to protect the health of both animals and humans.

EID McBride DS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Spurck MM, Bliss NT, Kenah E, et al. Shortening Duration of Swine Exhibitions to Reduce Risk for Zoonotic Transmission of Influenza A Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2035-2042. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220649
AMA McBride DS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, et al. Shortening Duration of Swine Exhibitions to Reduce Risk for Zoonotic Transmission of Influenza A Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2035-2042. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220649.
APA McBride, D. S., Nolting, J. M., Nelson, S. W., Spurck, M. M., Bliss, N. T., Kenah, E....Bowman, A. S. (2022). Shortening Duration of Swine Exhibitions to Reduce Risk for Zoonotic Transmission of Influenza A Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2035-2042. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220649.

Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 Gene Deletions and Relatedness to Other Global Isolates, Djibouti, 2019–2020 [PDF - 1.08 MB - 8 pages]
E. Rogier et al.

Deletions of pfhrp2 and paralogue pfhrp3 (pfhrp2/3) genes threaten Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis by rapid diagnostic test. We examined 1,002 samples from suspected malaria patients in Djibouti City, Djibouti, to investigate pfhrp2/3 deletions. We performed assays for Plasmodium antigen carriage, pfhrp2/3 genotyping, and sequencing for 7 neutral microsatellites to assess relatedness. By PCR assay, 311 (31.0%) samples tested positive for P. falciparum infection, and 296 (95.2%) were successfully genotyped; 37 (12.5%) samples were pfhrp2+/pfhrp3+, 51 (17.2%) were pfhrp2+/pfhrp3–, 5 (1.7%) were pfhrp2–/pfhrp3+, and 203 (68.6%) were pfhrp2–/pfhrp3–. Histidine-rich protein 2/3 antigen concentrations were reduced with corresponding gene deletions. Djibouti P. falciparum is closely related to Ethiopia and Eritrea parasites (pairwise GST 0.68 [Ethiopia] and 0.77 [Eritrea]). P. falciparum with deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes were highly prevalent in Djibouti City in 2019–2020; they appear to have arisen de novo within the Horn of Africa and have not been imported.

EID Rogier E, McCaffery JN, Mohamed M, Herman C, Nace D, Daniels R, et al. Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 Gene Deletions and Relatedness to Other Global Isolates, Djibouti, 2019–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2043-2050. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220695
AMA Rogier E, McCaffery JN, Mohamed M, et al. Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 Gene Deletions and Relatedness to Other Global Isolates, Djibouti, 2019–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2043-2050. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220695.
APA Rogier, E., McCaffery, J. N., Mohamed, M., Herman, C., Nace, D., Daniels, R....Cunningham, J. (2022). Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 Gene Deletions and Relatedness to Other Global Isolates, Djibouti, 2019–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2043-2050. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220695.

Transmission Dynamics and Effectiveness of Control Measures during COVID-19 Surge, Taiwan, April–August 2021 [PDF - 2.88 MB - 9 pages]
A. R. Akhmetzhanov et al.

An unprecedented surge of COVID-19 cases in Taiwan in May 2021 led the government to implement strict nationwide control measures beginning May 15. During the surge, the government was able to bring the epidemic under control without a complete lockdown despite the cumulative case count reaching >14,400 and >780 deaths. We investigated the effectiveness of the public health and social measures instituted by the Taiwan government by quantifying the change in the effective reproduction number, which is a summary measure of the ability of the pathogen to spread through the population. The control measures that were instituted reduced the effective reproduction number from 2.0–3.3 to 0.6–0.7. This decrease was correlated with changes in mobility patterns in Taiwan, demonstrating that public compliance, active case finding, and contact tracing were effective measures in preventing further spread of the disease.

EID Akhmetzhanov AR, Cheng H, Linton NM, Ponce L, Jian S, Lin H. Transmission Dynamics and Effectiveness of Control Measures during COVID-19 Surge, Taiwan, April–August 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2051-2059. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220456
AMA Akhmetzhanov AR, Cheng H, Linton NM, et al. Transmission Dynamics and Effectiveness of Control Measures during COVID-19 Surge, Taiwan, April–August 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2051-2059. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220456.
APA Akhmetzhanov, A. R., Cheng, H., Linton, N. M., Ponce, L., Jian, S., & Lin, H. (2022). Transmission Dynamics and Effectiveness of Control Measures during COVID-19 Surge, Taiwan, April–August 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2051-2059. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220456.
Dispatches

Two Cases of Lassa Fever Successfully Treated with Ribavirin and Adjunct Dexamethasone for Concomitant Infections [PDF - 496 KB - 4 pages]
S. Okogbenin et al.

Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever treated with supportive care and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin. The pathophysiology, especially the role of hyperinflammation, of this disease is unknown. We report successful remission of complicated Lassa fever in 2 patients in Nigeria who received the antiinflammatory agent dexamethasone and standard ribavirin.

EID Okogbenin S, Erameh C, Okoeguale J, Edeawe O, Ekuaze E, Iraoyah K, et al. Two Cases of Lassa Fever Successfully Treated with Ribavirin and Adjunct Dexamethasone for Concomitant Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2060-2063. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220625
AMA Okogbenin S, Erameh C, Okoeguale J, et al. Two Cases of Lassa Fever Successfully Treated with Ribavirin and Adjunct Dexamethasone for Concomitant Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2060-2063. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220625.
APA Okogbenin, S., Erameh, C., Okoeguale, J., Edeawe, O., Ekuaze, E., Iraoyah, K....Omansen, T. (2022). Two Cases of Lassa Fever Successfully Treated with Ribavirin and Adjunct Dexamethasone for Concomitant Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2060-2063. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220625.

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, Etiologic Agent of Snake Fungal Disease, in Europe since Late 1950s [PDF - 1.97 MB - 5 pages]
F. C. Origgi et al.

The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is the etiologic agent of snake fungal disease. Recent findings date US occurrence at least as far back as 1945. We analyzed 22 free-ranging snakes with gross lesions consistent with snake fungal disease from museum collections from Europe. We found 5 positive samples, the oldest collected in 1959.

EID Origgi FC, Pisano S, Glaizot O, Hertwig ST, Schmitz A, Ursenbacher S. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, Etiologic Agent of Snake Fungal Disease, in Europe since Late 1950s. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2064-2068. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220564
AMA Origgi FC, Pisano S, Glaizot O, et al. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, Etiologic Agent of Snake Fungal Disease, in Europe since Late 1950s. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2064-2068. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220564.
APA Origgi, F. C., Pisano, S., Glaizot, O., Hertwig, S. T., Schmitz, A., & Ursenbacher, S. (2022). Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, Etiologic Agent of Snake Fungal Disease, in Europe since Late 1950s. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2064-2068. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220564.

Dialysis Water Supply Faucet as Reservoir for Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PDF - 1.58 MB - 5 pages]
C. Prestel et al.

During June 2017–November 2019, a total 36 patients with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring Verona-integron–encoded metallo-β-lactamase were identified in a city in western Texas, USA. A faucet contaminated with the organism, identified through environmental sampling, in a specialty care room was the likely source for infection in a subset of patients.

EID Prestel C, Moulton-Meissner H, Gable P, Stanton RA, Glowicz J, Franco L, et al. Dialysis Water Supply Faucet as Reservoir for Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2069-2073. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220731
AMA Prestel C, Moulton-Meissner H, Gable P, et al. Dialysis Water Supply Faucet as Reservoir for Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2069-2073. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220731.
APA Prestel, C., Moulton-Meissner, H., Gable, P., Stanton, R. A., Glowicz, J., Franco, L....Walters, M. (2022). Dialysis Water Supply Faucet as Reservoir for Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2069-2073. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220731.

Ten-Week Follow-Up of Monkeypox Case-Patient, Sweden, 2022 [PDF - 812 KB - 4 pages]
A. Pettke et al.

A previously healthy male patient had detectable monkeypox virus DNA in saliva 76 days after laboratory confirmation of infection. A comprehensive characterization of viral kinetics and a detailed follow-up indicated a declining risk for transmission during the weeks after monkeypox symptoms appeared.

EID Pettke A, Filén F, Widgren K, Jacks A, Glans H, Andreasson S, et al. Ten-Week Follow-Up of Monkeypox Case-Patient, Sweden, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2074-2077. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221107
AMA Pettke A, Filén F, Widgren K, et al. Ten-Week Follow-Up of Monkeypox Case-Patient, Sweden, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2074-2077. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221107.
APA Pettke, A., Filén, F., Widgren, K., Jacks, A., Glans, H., Andreasson, S....Asgeirsson, H. (2022). Ten-Week Follow-Up of Monkeypox Case-Patient, Sweden, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2074-2077. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221107.

Early Estimates of Monkeypox Incubation Period, Generation Time, and Reproduction Number, Italy, May–June 2022 [PDF - 1.40 MB - 4 pages]
G. Guzzetta et al.

We analyzed the first 255 PCR-confirmed cases of monkeypox in Italy in 2022. Preliminary estimates indicate mean incubation period of 9.1 (95% CI 6.5–10.9) days, mean generation time of 12.5 (95% CI 7.5–17.3) days, and reproduction number among men who have sex with men of 2.43 (95% CI 1.82–3.26).

EID Guzzetta G, Mammone A, Ferraro F, Caraglia A, Rapiti A, Marziano V, et al. Early Estimates of Monkeypox Incubation Period, Generation Time, and Reproduction Number, Italy, May–June 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2078-2081. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221126
AMA Guzzetta G, Mammone A, Ferraro F, et al. Early Estimates of Monkeypox Incubation Period, Generation Time, and Reproduction Number, Italy, May–June 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2078-2081. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221126.
APA Guzzetta, G., Mammone, A., Ferraro, F., Caraglia, A., Rapiti, A., Marziano, V....Merler, S. (2022). Early Estimates of Monkeypox Incubation Period, Generation Time, and Reproduction Number, Italy, May–June 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2078-2081. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221126.

Epidemiology of Early Monkeypox Virus Transmission in Sexual Networks of Gay and Bisexual Men, England, 2022 [PDF - 844 KB - 5 pages]
A. Vusirikala et al.

After community transmission of monkeypox virus was identified in Europe, interviews of 45 case-patients from England indicated transmission in international sexual networks of gay and bisexual men since April 2022. Interventions targeting sex-on-premises venues, geospatial dating applications, and sexual health services are likely to be critical for outbreak control.

EID Vusirikala A, Charles H, Balasegaram S, Macdonald N, Kumar D, Barker-Burnside C, et al. Epidemiology of Early Monkeypox Virus Transmission in Sexual Networks of Gay and Bisexual Men, England, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2082-2086. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220960
AMA Vusirikala A, Charles H, Balasegaram S, et al. Epidemiology of Early Monkeypox Virus Transmission in Sexual Networks of Gay and Bisexual Men, England, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2082-2086. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220960.
APA Vusirikala, A., Charles, H., Balasegaram, S., Macdonald, N., Kumar, D., Barker-Burnside, C....Prochazka, M. (2022). Epidemiology of Early Monkeypox Virus Transmission in Sexual Networks of Gay and Bisexual Men, England, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2082-2086. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220960.

Nosocomial COVID-19 Incidence and Secondary Attack Rates among Patients of Tertiary Care Center, Zurich, Switzerland [PDF - 937 KB - 4 pages]
A. Wolfensberger et al.

Of 1,118 patients with COVID-19 at a university hospital in Switzerland during October 2020–June 2021, we found 83 (7.4%) had probable or definite healthcare-associated COVID-19. After in-hospital exposure, we estimated secondary attack rate at 23.3%. Transmission was associated with longer contact times and with lower cycle threshold values among index patients.

EID Wolfensberger A, Kufner V, Zaheri M, Zeeb M, Nortes I, Schreiber PW, et al. Nosocomial COVID-19 Incidence and Secondary Attack Rates among Patients of Tertiary Care Center, Zurich, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2087-2090. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220321
AMA Wolfensberger A, Kufner V, Zaheri M, et al. Nosocomial COVID-19 Incidence and Secondary Attack Rates among Patients of Tertiary Care Center, Zurich, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2087-2090. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220321.
APA Wolfensberger, A., Kufner, V., Zaheri, M., Zeeb, M., Nortes, I., Schreiber, P. W....Zingg, W. (2022). Nosocomial COVID-19 Incidence and Secondary Attack Rates among Patients of Tertiary Care Center, Zurich, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2087-2090. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220321.

Endofungal Mycetohabitans rhizoxinica Bacteremia Associated with Rhizopus microsporus Respiratory Tract Infection [PDF - 1.69 MB - 5 pages]
S. Yang et al.

We report Mycetohabitans rhizoxinica bacteremia in a 65-year-old woman in California, USA, who was undergoing chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for multiple myeloma. Acute brain infarction and pneumonia developed; Rhizopus microsporus mold was isolated from tracheal suction. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed bacteria in blood as genetically identical to endofungal bacteria inside the mold.

EID Yang S, Anikst V, Adamson PC. Endofungal Mycetohabitans rhizoxinica Bacteremia Associated with Rhizopus microsporus Respiratory Tract Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2091-2095. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220507
AMA Yang S, Anikst V, Adamson PC. Endofungal Mycetohabitans rhizoxinica Bacteremia Associated with Rhizopus microsporus Respiratory Tract Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2091-2095. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220507.
APA Yang, S., Anikst, V., & Adamson, P. C. (2022). Endofungal Mycetohabitans rhizoxinica Bacteremia Associated with Rhizopus microsporus Respiratory Tract Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2091-2095. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220507.

Non–SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses in Athletes at Major Winter Sport Events, 2021 and 2022 [PDF - 646 KB - 4 pages]
M. Valtonen et al.

We performed prospective studies on respiratory viral infections among Team Finland participants during the 2021 Oberstdorf World Ski Championships and the 2022 Beijing Olympic Games. We enrolled 73 athletes and 110 staff members. Compared with similar studies we conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic, illnesses and virus detections dropped by 10-fold.

EID Valtonen M, Waris M, Luoto R, Mjøsund K, Kaikkonen M, Heinonen OJ, et al. Non–SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses in Athletes at Major Winter Sport Events, 2021 and 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2096-2099. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220478
AMA Valtonen M, Waris M, Luoto R, et al. Non–SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses in Athletes at Major Winter Sport Events, 2021 and 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2096-2099. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220478.
APA Valtonen, M., Waris, M., Luoto, R., Mjøsund, K., Kaikkonen, M., Heinonen, O. J....Ruuskanen, O. (2022). Non–SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses in Athletes at Major Winter Sport Events, 2021 and 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2096-2099. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220478.

Molecular Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in Antarctica [PDF - 1.29 MB - 5 pages]
L. Moreira et al.

We detected Histoplasma capsulatum in soil and penguin excreta in the Antarctic Peninsula by sequencing after performing species-specific PCR, confirming previous observations that this pathogen occurs more broadly than suspected. This finding highlights the need for surveillance of emerging agents of systemic mycoses and their transmission among regions, animals, and humans in Antarctica.

EID Moreira L, Meyer W, Chame M, Brandão M, Vivoni A, Portugal J, et al. Molecular Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in Antarctica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2100-2104. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220046
AMA Moreira L, Meyer W, Chame M, et al. Molecular Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in Antarctica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2100-2104. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220046.
APA Moreira, L., Meyer, W., Chame, M., Brandão, M., Vivoni, A., Portugal, J....Trilles, L. (2022). Molecular Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in Antarctica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2100-2104. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220046.

Anisakiasis Annual Incidence and Causative Species, Japan, 2018–2019 [PDF - 756 KB - 4 pages]
H. Sugiyama et al.

Using data from 2018–2019 health insurance claims, we estimated the average annual incidence of anisakiasis in Japan to be 19,737 cases. Molecular identification of larvae revealed that most (88.4%) patients were infected with the species Anisakis simplex sensu stricto. Further insights into the pathogenesis of various anisakiasis forms are needed.

EID Sugiyama H, Shiroyama M, Yamamoto I, Ishikawa T, Morishima Y. Anisakiasis Annual Incidence and Causative Species, Japan, 2018–2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2105-2108. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220627
AMA Sugiyama H, Shiroyama M, Yamamoto I, et al. Anisakiasis Annual Incidence and Causative Species, Japan, 2018–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2105-2108. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220627.
APA Sugiyama, H., Shiroyama, M., Yamamoto, I., Ishikawa, T., & Morishima, Y. (2022). Anisakiasis Annual Incidence and Causative Species, Japan, 2018–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2105-2108. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220627.
Research Letters

Emerging Tickborne Bacteria in Cattle from Colombia [PDF - 706 KB - 3 pages]
A. Ramírez-Hernández et al.

Ehrlichia minasensis is a new pathogenic bacterial species that infects cattle, and Borrelia theileri causes bovine borreliosis. We detected E. minasensis and B. theileri DNA in cattle from southwestern Colombia by using PCR. E. minasensis and B. theileri should be considered potential etiologies of febrile syndrome in cattle from Colombia.

EID Ramírez-Hernández A, Arroyave E, Faccini-Martínez ÁA, Martínez-Diaz HC, Betancourt-Ruiz P, Olaya-M L, et al. Emerging Tickborne Bacteria in Cattle from Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2109-2111. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220657
AMA Ramírez-Hernández A, Arroyave E, Faccini-Martínez ÁA, et al. Emerging Tickborne Bacteria in Cattle from Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2109-2111. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220657.
APA Ramírez-Hernández, A., Arroyave, E., Faccini-Martínez, Á. A., Martínez-Diaz, H. C., Betancourt-Ruiz, P., Olaya-M, L....Walker, D. H. (2022). Emerging Tickborne Bacteria in Cattle from Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2109-2111. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220657.

Cluster of Donor-Derived Cryptococcosis after Liver and Kidney Transplantation [PDF - 1013 KB - 3 pages]
M. Sha et al.

Cryptococcosis infection after transplantation is easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. We report a cluster of donor-derived cryptococcosis infection in liver and kidney transplant recipients from the same donor in China. Infections occurred within 1 month after transplantation, and were confirmed by using biopsies and blood tests.

EID Sha M, Shen C, Tong Y, Xia Q. Cluster of Donor-Derived Cryptococcosis after Liver and Kidney Transplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2112-2114. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220522
AMA Sha M, Shen C, Tong Y, et al. Cluster of Donor-Derived Cryptococcosis after Liver and Kidney Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2112-2114. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220522.
APA Sha, M., Shen, C., Tong, Y., & Xia, Q. (2022). Cluster of Donor-Derived Cryptococcosis after Liver and Kidney Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2112-2114. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220522.

Pulmonary Paragonimiasis in Native Community, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, 2022 [PDF - 658 KB - 3 pages]
J. Diaz et al.

Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by several species of the Paragonimus fluke. Clinical manifestations can mimic tuberculosis and contribute to diagnostic delay. We report a cluster of paragonimiasis in a community in Ecuador, where active surveillance was set up after detection of the first 2 cases.

EID Diaz J, Anselmi M, Calvopiña M, Vera M, Cabrera Y, Perlaza JJ, et al. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis in Native Community, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2114-2116. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220927
AMA Diaz J, Anselmi M, Calvopiña M, et al. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis in Native Community, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2114-2116. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220927.
APA Diaz, J., Anselmi, M., Calvopiña, M., Vera, M., Cabrera, Y., Perlaza, J. J....Buonfrate, D. (2022). Pulmonary Paragonimiasis in Native Community, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2114-2116. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220927.

Haematospirillum jordaniae Cellulitis and Bacteremia [PDF - 839 KB - 4 pages]
E. Pal et al.

We isolated Haematospirillum jordaniae from a positive blood culture from a 57-year-old man in Slovenia who had bacteremia and bullous cellulitis of lower extremities. The infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. Our findings signal the need for increased awareness about the clinical course of H. jordaniae and its potential effects as a human pathogen.

EID Pal E, Štrumbelj I, Kišek T, Kolenc M, Pirš M, Rus K, et al. Haematospirillum jordaniae Cellulitis and Bacteremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2116-2119. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220326
AMA Pal E, Štrumbelj I, Kišek T, et al. Haematospirillum jordaniae Cellulitis and Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2116-2119. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220326.
APA Pal, E., Štrumbelj, I., Kišek, T., Kolenc, M., Pirš, M., Rus, K....Avšič-Županc, T. (2022). Haematospirillum jordaniae Cellulitis and Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2116-2119. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220326.

Infection Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic Healthcare Workers, Sweden, June 2022 [PDF - 289 KB - 3 pages]
K. Blom et al.

Given the recent surge in SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infections, we performed a quantitative PCR screening survey during June 28–29, 2022, in Stockholm, Sweden, to investigate SARS-CoV-2 point prevalence in a group with high exposure risk. Results showed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2.3% of healthcare workers who were asymptomatic at time of sampling.

EID Blom K, Havervall S, Marking U, Norin N, Bacchus P, Groenheit R, et al. Infection Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic Healthcare Workers, Sweden, June 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2119-2121. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221093
AMA Blom K, Havervall S, Marking U, et al. Infection Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic Healthcare Workers, Sweden, June 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2119-2121. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221093.
APA Blom, K., Havervall, S., Marking, U., Norin, N., Bacchus, P., Groenheit, R....Klingström, J. (2022). Infection Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic Healthcare Workers, Sweden, June 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2119-2121. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221093.

Human Monkeypox without Viral Prodrome or Sexual Exposure, California, USA, 2022 [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
A. Karan et al.

We report human monkeypox in a man who returned to the United States from the United Kingdom and reported no sexual contact. He had vesicular and pustular skin lesions but no anogenital involvement. The potential modes of transmission may have implications for the risk of spread and for epidemic control.

EID Karan A, Styczynski AR, Huang C, Sahoo MK, Srinivasan K, Pinsky BA, et al. Human Monkeypox without Viral Prodrome or Sexual Exposure, California, USA, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2121-2123. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221191
AMA Karan A, Styczynski AR, Huang C, et al. Human Monkeypox without Viral Prodrome or Sexual Exposure, California, USA, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2121-2123. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221191.
APA Karan, A., Styczynski, A. R., Huang, C., Sahoo, M. K., Srinivasan, K., Pinsky, B. A....Salinas, J. L. (2022). Human Monkeypox without Viral Prodrome or Sexual Exposure, California, USA, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2121-2123. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221191.

Introduction and Differential Diagnosis of Monkeypox in Argentina, 2022 [PDF - 320 KB - 3 pages]
A. Lewis et al.

We report detection of cases of monkeypox virus infection in Argentina in the context of a marked increase in confounding cases of atypical hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome caused by enterovirus coxsackie A6. We recommend performing an accurate differential virological diagnosis for exanthematous disease in suspected monkeypox cases.

EID Lewis A, Josiowicz A, Hirmas Riade S, Tous M, Palacios G, Cisterna DM. Introduction and Differential Diagnosis of Monkeypox in Argentina, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2123-2125. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221075
AMA Lewis A, Josiowicz A, Hirmas Riade S, et al. Introduction and Differential Diagnosis of Monkeypox in Argentina, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2123-2125. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221075.
APA Lewis, A., Josiowicz, A., Hirmas Riade, S., Tous, M., Palacios, G., & Cisterna, D. M. (2022). Introduction and Differential Diagnosis of Monkeypox in Argentina, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2123-2125. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221075.

Renewed Risk for Epidemic Typhus Related to War and Massive Population Displacement, Ukraine [PDF - 264 KB - 2 pages]
P. N. Newton et al.

Epidemic typhus, caused by Rickettsia prowazekii bacteria and transmitted through body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), was a major public health threat in Eastern Europe as a consequence of World War II. In 2022, war and the resulting population displacement in Ukraine risks the return of this serious disease.

EID Newton PN, Fournier P, Tappe D, Richards AL. Renewed Risk for Epidemic Typhus Related to War and Massive Population Displacement, Ukraine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2125-2126. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220776
AMA Newton PN, Fournier P, Tappe D, et al. Renewed Risk for Epidemic Typhus Related to War and Massive Population Displacement, Ukraine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2125-2126. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220776.
APA Newton, P. N., Fournier, P., Tappe, D., & Richards, A. L. (2022). Renewed Risk for Epidemic Typhus Related to War and Massive Population Displacement, Ukraine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2125-2126. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220776.

Effectiveness of Booster and Influenza Vaccines against COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers, Taiwan [PDF - 538 KB - 5 pages]
J. Y. Sim et al.

Among previously uninfected healthcare workers in Taiwan, mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccine was associated with lower odds of COVID-19 after primary recombinant vaccine. Symptom-triggered testing revealed that tetravalent influenza vaccine was associated with higher odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 vaccination continues to be most effective against SARS-CoV-2.

EID Sim JY, Wu P, Cheng C, Chao Y, Yu C. Effectiveness of Booster and Influenza Vaccines against COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2126-2130. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221134
AMA Sim JY, Wu P, Cheng C, et al. Effectiveness of Booster and Influenza Vaccines against COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2126-2130. doi:10.3201/eid2810.221134.
APA Sim, J. Y., Wu, P., Cheng, C., Chao, Y., & Yu, C. (2022). Effectiveness of Booster and Influenza Vaccines against COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2126-2130. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.221134.

Three-Dose Primary Series of Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine for Persons Living with HIV, Hong Kong [PDF - 402 KB - 3 pages]
D. Chan et al.

In a cohort of persons living with HIV in Hong Kong, surrogate virus neutralization testing for COVID-19 yielded a median level of 89% after the third dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, compared with 37% after the second dose. These results support using a 3-dose primary series for enhanced immune protection.

EID Chan D, Wong N, Wong B, Chan J, Lee S. Three-Dose Primary Series of Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine for Persons Living with HIV, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2130-2132. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220691
AMA Chan D, Wong N, Wong B, et al. Three-Dose Primary Series of Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine for Persons Living with HIV, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2130-2132. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220691.
APA Chan, D., Wong, N., Wong, B., Chan, J., & Lee, S. (2022). Three-Dose Primary Series of Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine for Persons Living with HIV, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2130-2132. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220691.

Rickettsial Infections Causing Acute Febrile Illness in Urban Slums, Brazil [PDF - 318 KB - 3 pages]
J. B. Fournier et al.

We conducted enhanced acute febrile illness surveillance in an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. We found that rickettsial infection accounted for 3.5% of urgent care visits for acute fever. Our results suggest that rickettsiae might be an underrecognized, treatable cause of acute febrile illness in impoverished urban populations in Brazil.

EID Fournier JB, Blanton LS, Nery N, Wunder EA, Costa F, Reis MG, et al. Rickettsial Infections Causing Acute Febrile Illness in Urban Slums, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2132-2134. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220497
AMA Fournier JB, Blanton LS, Nery N, et al. Rickettsial Infections Causing Acute Febrile Illness in Urban Slums, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2132-2134. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220497.
APA Fournier, J. B., Blanton, L. S., Nery, N., Wunder, E. A., Costa, F., Reis, M. G....Ko, A. I. (2022). Rickettsial Infections Causing Acute Febrile Illness in Urban Slums, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2132-2134. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220497.

Identifying Contact Risks for SARS-CoV-2 Transmission to Healthcare Workers during Outbreak on COVID-19 Ward [PDF - 341 KB - 4 pages]
M. Zeeb et al.

We assessed the risk for different exposures to SARS-CoV-2 during a COVID-19 outbreak among healthcare workers on a hospital ward in late 2020. We found working with isolated COVID-19 patients did not increase the risk of COVID-19 among workers, but working shifts with presymptomatic healthcare coworkers did.

EID Zeeb M, Weissberg D, Rampini SK, Müller R, Scheier T, Zingg W, et al. Identifying Contact Risks for SARS-CoV-2 Transmission to Healthcare Workers during Outbreak on COVID-19 Ward. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2134-2137. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220266
AMA Zeeb M, Weissberg D, Rampini SK, et al. Identifying Contact Risks for SARS-CoV-2 Transmission to Healthcare Workers during Outbreak on COVID-19 Ward. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2134-2137. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220266.
APA Zeeb, M., Weissberg, D., Rampini, S. K., Müller, R., Scheier, T., Zingg, W....Wolfensberger, A. (2022). Identifying Contact Risks for SARS-CoV-2 Transmission to Healthcare Workers during Outbreak on COVID-19 Ward. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2134-2137. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220266.

Sindbis Virus Antibody Seroprevalence in Central Plateau Populations, South Africa [PDF - 538 KB - 3 pages]
N. Kennedy et al.

We report a higher percentage of Sindbis virus-specific IgG in serum from patients attending a rheumatology clinic (18.8%) compared with healthy residents (9.6%) and patients with acute febrile illness (9.4%) in Free State Province, South Africa. Sindbis virus infection should be considered a potential cause of arthritis in South Africa.

EID Kennedy N, Goedhals D, Vawda S, Bester P, Burt F. Sindbis Virus Antibody Seroprevalence in Central Plateau Populations, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2137-2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.211798
AMA Kennedy N, Goedhals D, Vawda S, et al. Sindbis Virus Antibody Seroprevalence in Central Plateau Populations, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2137-2139. doi:10.3201/eid2810.211798.
APA Kennedy, N., Goedhals, D., Vawda, S., Bester, P., & Burt, F. (2022). Sindbis Virus Antibody Seroprevalence in Central Plateau Populations, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2137-2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.211798.
Books and Media

Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development [PDF - 354 KB - 1 page]
E. Y. Cramer and A. A. Lover
EID Cramer EY, Lover AA. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2140. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220740
AMA Cramer EY, Lover AA. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2140. doi:10.3201/eid2810.220740.
APA Cramer, E. Y., & Lover, A. A. (2022). Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2140. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.220740.
About the Cover

A Head of State Leading by Example [PDF - 2.86 MB - 3 pages]
T. Chorba and J. Esparza
EID Chorba T, Esparza J. A Head of State Leading by Example. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2141-2143. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.ac2810
AMA Chorba T, Esparza J. A Head of State Leading by Example. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2141-2143. doi:10.3201/eid2810.ac2810.
APA Chorba, T., & Esparza, J. (2022). A Head of State Leading by Example. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2141-2143. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.ac2810.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 26, No. 9 [PDF - 101 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 26, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.c32810
AMA Correction: Vol. 26, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2139. doi:10.3201/eid2810.c32810.
APA (2022). Correction: Vol. 26, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.c32810.

Correction: Vol. 28, No. 8 [PDF - 101 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 28, No. 8. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.c22810
AMA Correction: Vol. 28, No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2139. doi:10.3201/eid2810.c22810.
APA (2022). Correction: Vol. 28, No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.c22810.

Correction: Vol. 27, No. 3 [PDF - 101 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 27, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(10):2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.c12810
AMA Correction: Vol. 27, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(10):2139. doi:10.3201/eid2810.c12810.
APA (2022). Correction: Vol. 27, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(10), 2139. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2810.c12810.
Page created: September 21, 2022
Page updated: September 22, 2022
Page reviewed: September 22, 2022
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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