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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 12—December 2014

Volume 20, Number 12—December 2014

[PDF - 6.75 MB - 239 pages]

Research

Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy, a Unique Prion Variant with Inefficient Transmission Properties [PDF - 646 KB - 11 pages]
A. B. Diack et al.

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) can occur in persons of all codon 129 genotypes in the human prion protein gene (PRNP) and is characterized by a unique biochemical profile when compared with other human prion diseases. We investigated transmission properties of VPSPr by inoculating transgenic mice expressing human PRNP with brain tissue from 2 persons with the valine-homozygous (VV) and 1 with the heterozygous methionine/valine codon 129 genotype. No clinical signs or vacuolar pathology were observed in any inoculated mice. Small deposits of prion protein accumulated in the brains of inoculated mice after challenge with brain material from VV VPSPr patients. Some of these deposits resembled microplaques that occur in the brains of VPSPr patients. Comparison of these transmission properties with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the same lines of mice indicated that VPSPr has distinct biological properties. Moreover, we established that VPSPr has limited potential for human-to-human transmission.

EID Diack AB, Ritchie D, Peden AH, Brown D, Boyle A, Morabito L, et al. Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy, a Unique Prion Variant with Inefficient Transmission Properties. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):1969-1979. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140214
AMA Diack AB, Ritchie D, Peden AH, et al. Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy, a Unique Prion Variant with Inefficient Transmission Properties. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):1969-1979. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140214.
APA Diack, A. B., Ritchie, D., Peden, A. H., Brown, D., Boyle, A., Morabito, L....Manson, J. C. (2014). Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy, a Unique Prion Variant with Inefficient Transmission Properties. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 1969-1979. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140214.

Geographic Divergence of Bovine and Human Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes, New Zealand [PDF - 825 KB - 10 pages]
P. Jaros et al.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern worldwide. To compare the local and large-scale geographic distributions of genotypes of STEC O157:H7 isolates obtained from various bovine and human sources during 2008–2011, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Shiga toxin–encoding bacteriophage insertion (SBI) typing. Using multivariate methods, we compared isolates from the North and South Islands of New Zealand with isolates from Australia and the United States. The STEC O157:H7 population structure differed substantially between the 2 islands and showed evidence of finer scale spatial structuring, which is consistent with highly localized transmission rather than disseminated foodborne outbreaks. The distribution of SBI types differed markedly among isolates from New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Our findings also provide evidence for the historic introduction into New Zealand of a subset of globally circulating STEC O157:H7 strains that have continued to evolve and be transmitted locally between cattle and humans.

EID Jaros P, Cookson AL, Campbell DM, Duncan GE, Prattley D, Carter PE, et al. Geographic Divergence of Bovine and Human Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):1980-1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140281
AMA Jaros P, Cookson AL, Campbell DM, et al. Geographic Divergence of Bovine and Human Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):1980-1989. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140281.
APA Jaros, P., Cookson, A. L., Campbell, D. M., Duncan, G. E., Prattley, D., Carter, P. E....French, N. P. (2014). Geographic Divergence of Bovine and Human Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 1980-1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140281.

Medscape CME Activity
Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa, France [PDF - 609 KB - 9 pages]
H. Guet-Revillet et al.

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a skin disease characterized by recurrent nodules or abscesses and chronic suppurating lesions. In the absence of clear pathophysiology, HS is considered to be an inflammatory disease and has no satisfactory medical treatment. Recently, prolonged antimicrobial treatments were shown to improve or resolve HS lesions. We prospectively studied the microbiology of 102 HS lesions sampled from 82 patients using prolonged bacterial cultures and bacterial metagenomics on 6 samples. Staphylococcus lugdunensis was cultured as a unique or predominant isolate from 58% of HS nodules and abscesses, and a polymicrobial anaerobic microflora comprising strict anaerobes, milleri group streptococci, and actinomycetes was found in 24% of abscesses or nodules and in 87% of chronic suppurating lesions. These data show that bacteria known to cause soft tissue and skin infections are associated with HS lesions. Whether these pathogens are the cause of the lesions or are secondary infectious agents, these findings support targeted antimicrobial treatment of HS.

EID Guet-Revillet H, Coignard-Biehler H, Jais J, Quesne G, Frapy E, Poirée S, et al. Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):1990-1998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140064
AMA Guet-Revillet H, Coignard-Biehler H, Jais J, et al. Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):1990-1998. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140064.
APA Guet-Revillet, H., Coignard-Biehler, H., Jais, J., Quesne, G., Frapy, E., Poirée, S....Join-Lambert, O. (2014). Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 1990-1998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140064.

Replication and Shedding of MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract of Inoculated Dromedary Camels [PDF - 546 KB - 7 pages]
D. R. Adney et al.

In 2012, a novel coronavirus associated with severe respiratory disease in humans emerged in the Middle East. Epidemiologic investigations identified dromedary camels as the likely source of zoonotic transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here we provide experimental support for camels as a reservoir for MERS-CoV. We inoculated 3 adult camels with a human isolate of MERS-CoV and a transient, primarily upper respiratory tract infection developed in each of the 3 animals. Clinical signs of the MERS-CoV infection were benign, but each of the camels shed large quantities of virus from the upper respiratory tract. We detected infectious virus in nasal secretions through 7 days postinoculation, and viral RNA up to 35 days postinoculation. The pattern of shedding and propensity for the upper respiratory tract infection in dromedary camels may help explain the lack of systemic illness among naturally infected camels and the means of efficient camel-to-camel and camel-to-human transmission.

EID Adney DR, van Doremalen N, Brown VR, Bushmaker T, Scott D, de Wit E, et al. Replication and Shedding of MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract of Inoculated Dromedary Camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):1999-2005. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141280
AMA Adney DR, van Doremalen N, Brown VR, et al. Replication and Shedding of MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract of Inoculated Dromedary Camels. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):1999-2005. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141280.
APA Adney, D. R., van Doremalen, N., Brown, V. R., Bushmaker, T., Scott, D., de Wit, E....Munster, V. J. (2014). Replication and Shedding of MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract of Inoculated Dromedary Camels. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 1999-2005. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141280.

Transmission Characteristics of Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy [PDF - 608 KB - 8 pages]
S. Notari et al.

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), a recently identified and seemingly sporadic human prion disease, is distinct from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) but shares features of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). However, contrary to exclusively inherited GSS, no prion protein (PrP) gene variations have been detected in VPSPr, suggesting that VPSPr might be the long-sought sporadic form of GSS. The VPSPr atypical features raised the issue of transmissibility, a prototypical property of prion diseases. We inoculated VPSPr brain homogenate into transgenic mice expressing various levels of human PrP (PrPC). On first passage, 54% of challenged mice showed histopathologic lesions, and 34% harbored abnormal PrP similar to that of VPSPr. Surprisingly, no prion disease was detected on second passage. We concluded that VPSPr is transmissible; thus, it is an authentic prion disease. However, we speculate that normal human PrPC is not an efficient conversion substrate (or mouse brain not a favorable environment) and therefore cannot sustain replication beyond the first passage.

EID Notari S, Xiao X, Espinosa J, Cohen Y, Qing L, Aguilar-Calvo P, et al. Transmission Characteristics of Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2006-2014. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140548
AMA Notari S, Xiao X, Espinosa J, et al. Transmission Characteristics of Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2006-2014. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140548.
APA Notari, S., Xiao, X., Espinosa, J., Cohen, Y., Qing, L., Aguilar-Calvo, P....Gambetti, P. (2014). Transmission Characteristics of Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2006-2014. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140548.

Medscape CME Activity
Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011 [PDF - 567 KB - 8 pages]
E. Newman et al.

Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008–2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments.

EID Newman E, Johnstone P, Bridge H, Wright D, Jameson L, Bosworth A, et al. Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2015-2022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131830
AMA Newman E, Johnstone P, Bridge H, et al. Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2015-2022. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131830.
APA Newman, E., Johnstone, P., Bridge, H., Wright, D., Jameson, L., Bosworth, A....Hewson, R. (2014). Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2015-2022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131830.

Molecular Evolution of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus [PDF - 686 KB - 11 pages]
M. Muniraju et al.

Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity.

EID Muniraju M, Munir M, Parthiban AR, Banyard A, Bao J, Wang Z, et al. Molecular Evolution of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2023-2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140684
AMA Muniraju M, Munir M, Parthiban AR, et al. Molecular Evolution of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2023-2033. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140684.
APA Muniraju, M., Munir, M., Parthiban, A. R., Banyard, A., Bao, J., Wang, Z....Parida, S. (2014). Molecular Evolution of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2023-2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140684.

Circulation of Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, Guangdong Province, China, 2013 [PDF - 980 KB - 7 pages]
C. Ke et al.

Influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in eastern China in February 2013 and continues to circulate in this region, but its ecology is poorly understood. In April 2013, the Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented environmental and human syndromic surveillance for the virus. Environmental samples from poultry markets in 21 city CDCs (n = 8,942) and respiratory samples from persons with influenza-like illness or pneumonia (n = 32,342) were tested; viruses isolated from 6 environmental samples and 16 patients were sequenced. Sequence analysis showed co-circulation of 4 influenza A(H7N9) virus strains that evolved by reassortment with avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses circulating in this region. In addition, an increase in human cases starting in late 2013 coincided with an increase in influenza A H7 virus isolates detected by environmental surveillance. Co-circulation of multiple avian influenza viruses that can infect humans highlights the need for increased surveillance of poultry and potential environmental sources.

EID Ke C, Lu J, Wu J, Guan D, Zou L, Song T, et al. Circulation of Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, Guangdong Province, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2034-2040. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140765
AMA Ke C, Lu J, Wu J, et al. Circulation of Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, Guangdong Province, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2034-2040. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140765.
APA Ke, C., Lu, J., Wu, J., Guan, D., Zou, L., Song, T....Zhang, Y. (2014). Circulation of Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, Guangdong Province, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2034-2040. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140765.

Effects of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Providers on Antibiotic Selection, United States [PDF - 667 KB - 7 pages]
G. V. Sanchez et al.

Appropriate selection of antibiotic drugs is critical to optimize treatment of infections and limit the spread of antibiotic resistance. To better inform public health efforts to improve prescribing of antibiotic drugs, we conducted in-depth interviews with 36 primary care providers in the United States (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to explore knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices regarding antibiotic drug resistance and antibiotic drug selection for common infections. Participants were generally familiar with guideline recommendations for antibiotic drug selection for common infections, but did not always comply with them. Reasons for nonadherence included the belief that nonrecommended agents are more likely to cure an infection, concern for patient or parent satisfaction, and fear of infectious complications. Providers inconsistently defined broad- and narrow-spectrum antibiotic agents. There was widespread concern for antibiotic resistance; however, it was not commonly considered when selecting therapy. Strategies to encourage use of first-line agents are needed in addition to limiting unnecessary prescribing of antibiotic drugs.

EID Sanchez GV, Roberts RM, Albert AP, Johnson DD, Hicks LA. Effects of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Providers on Antibiotic Selection, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2041-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140331
AMA Sanchez GV, Roberts RM, Albert AP, et al. Effects of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Providers on Antibiotic Selection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2041-2047. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140331.
APA Sanchez, G. V., Roberts, R. M., Albert, A. P., Johnson, D. D., & Hicks, L. A. (2014). Effects of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Providers on Antibiotic Selection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2041-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140331.

Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence [PDF - 367 KB - 7 pages]
K. L. Morgan et al.

Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases.

EID Morgan KL, Handel IG, Tanya VN, Hamman SM, Nfon C, Bergman IE, et al. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2048-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140931
AMA Morgan KL, Handel IG, Tanya VN, et al. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2048-2054. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140931.
APA Morgan, K. L., Handel, I. G., Tanya, V. N., Hamman, S. M., Nfon, C., Bergman, I. E....Bronsvoort, B. (2014). Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2048-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140931.

Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru [PDF - 629 KB - 9 pages]
C. M. Barbu et al.

Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003–2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009–2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35–138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15–2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53–0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control.

EID Barbu CM, Buttenheim AM, Pumahuanca M, Calderón JE, Salazar R, Carrión M, et al. Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2055-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131820
AMA Barbu CM, Buttenheim AM, Pumahuanca M, et al. Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2055-2063. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131820.
APA Barbu, C. M., Buttenheim, A. M., Pumahuanca, M., Calderón, J. E., Salazar, R., Carrión, M....Levy, M. Z. (2014). Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2055-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131820.
Dispatches

Two Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Canada [PDF - 395 KB - 4 pages]
C. N. Krakowetz et al.

We developed PCR-based assays to distinguish a human pathogenic strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ap-ha, from Ap-variant 1, a strain not associated with human infection. The assays were validated on A. phagocytophilum-infected blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) collected in Canada. The relative prevalence of these 2 strains in I. scapularis ticks differed among geographic regions.

EID Krakowetz CN, Dibernardo A, Lindsay L, Chilton NB. Two Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2064-2067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140172
AMA Krakowetz CN, Dibernardo A, Lindsay L, et al. Two Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2064-2067. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140172.
APA Krakowetz, C. N., Dibernardo, A., Lindsay, L., & Chilton, N. B. (2014). Two Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2064-2067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140172.

Francisella tularensis Bacteria Associated with Feline Tularemia in the United States [PDF - 566 KB - 4 pages]
M. A. Larson et al.

Tularemia in the United States was examined by reviewing 106 Francisella tularensis isolates, mostly from Nebraska, collected during 1998–2012: 48% of Nebraska cases were cat-associated; 7/8 human cases were caused by subtype A.I. A vaccine is needed to reduce feline-associated tularemia, and cat owners should protect against bites/scratches and limit their pet’s outdoor access.

EID Larson MA, Fey PD, Hinrichs SH, Iwen PC. Francisella tularensis Bacteria Associated with Feline Tularemia in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2068-2071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131101
AMA Larson MA, Fey PD, Hinrichs SH, et al. Francisella tularensis Bacteria Associated with Feline Tularemia in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2068-2071. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131101.
APA Larson, M. A., Fey, P. D., Hinrichs, S. H., & Iwen, P. C. (2014). Francisella tularensis Bacteria Associated with Feline Tularemia in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2068-2071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131101.

Gouleako and Herbert Viruses in Pigs, Republic of Korea, 2013 [PDF - 536 KB - 4 pages]
H. Chung et al.

Several viruses in the family Bunyaviridae are pathogenic to animals and cause vector-borne zoonoses. In 2013, investigation of cause of death of 9 pigs on 1 farm in the Republic of Korea found infection with Gouleako and Herbert viruses. Subsequent investigation revealed high prevalence of these viruses among pigs throughout the country.

EID Chung H, Nguyen V, Goede D, Park C, Kim A, Moon H, et al. Gouleako and Herbert Viruses in Pigs, Republic of Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2072-2075. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131742
AMA Chung H, Nguyen V, Goede D, et al. Gouleako and Herbert Viruses in Pigs, Republic of Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2072-2075. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131742.
APA Chung, H., Nguyen, V., Goede, D., Park, C., Kim, A., Moon, H....Park, B. (2014). Gouleako and Herbert Viruses in Pigs, Republic of Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2072-2075. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131742.

Human Infection with Influenza Virus A(H10N8) from Live Poultry Markets, China, 2014 [PDF - 545 KB - 4 pages]
T. Zhang et al.

Human infection with avian influenza virus A(H10N8) was initially reported in China in December 2013. We characterized H10N8 strains from a human patient and from poultry in live markets that infected persons had visited. Results of genome sequencing and virus characterization suggest that the virus strains that infected humans originated from these markets.

EID Zhang T, Bi Y, Tian H, Li X, Liu D, Wu Y, et al. Human Infection with Influenza Virus A(H10N8) from Live Poultry Markets, China, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2076-2079. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140911
AMA Zhang T, Bi Y, Tian H, et al. Human Infection with Influenza Virus A(H10N8) from Live Poultry Markets, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2076-2079. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140911.
APA Zhang, T., Bi, Y., Tian, H., Li, X., Liu, D., Wu, Y....Xu, B. (2014). Human Infection with Influenza Virus A(H10N8) from Live Poultry Markets, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2076-2079. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140911.

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka [PDF - 654 KB - 5 pages]
H. Perera et al.

After multiple discrete introductions of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus into Sri Lanka, the virus was transmitted among humans, then swine. The spread of virus between geographically distant swine farms is consistent with virus dispersal associated with a vehicle used for swine transportation, although this remains unproven.

EID Perera H, Vijaykrishna D, Premarathna AG, Jayamaha C, Wickramasinghe G, Cheung CL, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2080-2084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140842
AMA Perera H, Vijaykrishna D, Premarathna AG, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2080-2084. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140842.
APA Perera, H., Vijaykrishna, D., Premarathna, A. G., Jayamaha, C., Wickramasinghe, G., Cheung, C. L....Hakawi, A. M. (2014). Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2080-2084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140842.

Novel Amdoparvovirus Infecting Farmed Raccoon Dogs and Arctic Foxes [PDF - 446 KB - 4 pages]
X. Shao et al.

A new amdoparvovirus, named raccoon dog and fox amdoparvovirus (RFAV), was identified in farmed sick raccoon dogs and arctic foxes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RFAV belongs to a new species within the genus Amdoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae. An RFAV strain was isolated in Crandell feline kidney cell culture.

EID Shao X, Wen Y, Ba H, Zhang X, Yue Z, Wang K, et al. Novel Amdoparvovirus Infecting Farmed Raccoon Dogs and Arctic Foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2085-2088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140289
AMA Shao X, Wen Y, Ba H, et al. Novel Amdoparvovirus Infecting Farmed Raccoon Dogs and Arctic Foxes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2085-2088. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140289.
APA Shao, X., Wen, Y., Ba, H., Zhang, X., Yue, Z., Wang, K....Yang, F. (2014). Novel Amdoparvovirus Infecting Farmed Raccoon Dogs and Arctic Foxes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2085-2088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140289.

Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion, South Korea [PDF - 449 KB - 4 pages]
S. Park et al.

Since 1992, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been one of the most common porcine diarrhea–associated viruses in South Korea. We conducted a large-scale investigation of the incidence of PEDV in pigs with diarrhea in South Korea and consequently identified and characterized a novel PEDV variant with a large genomic deletion.

EID Park S, Kim S, Song D, Park B. Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2089-2092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131642
AMA Park S, Kim S, Song D, et al. Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2089-2092. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131642.
APA Park, S., Kim, S., Song, D., & Park, B. (2014). Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2089-2092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131642.

MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983–1997 [PDF - 392 KB - 3 pages]
M. A. Müller et al.

To analyze the distribution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)–seropositive dromedary camels in eastern Africa, we tested 189 archived serum samples accumulated during the past 30 years. We identified MERS-CoV neutralizing antibodies in 81.0% of samples from the main camel-exporting countries, Sudan and Somalia, suggesting long-term virus circulation in these animals.

EID Müller MA, Corman V, Jores J, Meyer B, Younan M, Liljander AM, et al. MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983–1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2093-2095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141026
AMA Müller MA, Corman V, Jores J, et al. MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983–1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2093-2095. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141026.
APA Müller, M. A., Corman, V., Jores, J., Meyer, B., Younan, M., Liljander, A. M....Park, S. (2014). MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983–1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2093-2095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141026.

Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Infection in Cats [PDF - 494 KB - 4 pages]
S. Su et al.

Interspecies transmission of equine influenza A(H3N8) virus has resulted in establishment of a canine influenza virus. To determine if something similar could happen with cats, we experimentally infected 14 cats with the equine influenza A(H3N8) virus. All showed clinical signs, shed virus, and transmitted the virus to a contact cohort.

EID Su S, Wang L, Fu X, He S, Hong M, Zhou P, et al. Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Infection in Cats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2096-2099. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140867
AMA Su S, Wang L, Fu X, et al. Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Infection in Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2096-2099. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140867.
APA Su, S., Wang, L., Fu, X., He, S., Hong, M., Zhou, P....Li, S. (2014). Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Infection in Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2096-2099. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140867.

Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France [PDF - 354 KB - 3 pages]
F. Grenouillet et al.

In 2011 and 2012, liver infections caused by Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were diagnosed in 2 humans in France. In 2012, a nationwide slaughterhouse survey identified 7 E. ortleppi infections in cattle. The foci for these infections were spatially distinct. The prevalence of E. ortleppi infections in France may be underestimated.

EID Grenouillet F, Umhang G, Arbez-Gindre F, Mantion G, Delabrousse E, Millon L, et al. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2100-2102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140641
AMA Grenouillet F, Umhang G, Arbez-Gindre F, et al. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2100-2102. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140641.
APA Grenouillet, F., Umhang, G., Arbez-Gindre, F., Mantion, G., Delabrousse, E., Millon, L....Boué, F. (2014). Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2100-2102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140641.

Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil [PDF - 506 KB - 4 pages]
N. Encinas-Nagel et al.

Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection.

EID Encinas-Nagel N, Enderlein D, Piepenbring A, Herden C, Heffels-Redmann U, Felippe P, et al. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2103-2106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140920
AMA Encinas-Nagel N, Enderlein D, Piepenbring A, et al. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2103-2106. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140920.
APA Encinas-Nagel, N., Enderlein, D., Piepenbring, A., Herden, C., Heffels-Redmann, U., Felippe, P....Lierz, M. (2014). Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2103-2106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140920.

Human Hantavirus Infections in the Netherlands [PDF - 409 KB - 4 pages]
J. Sane et al.

We report the recent epidemiology and estimated seroprevalence of human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands. Sixty-two cases were reported during December 2008–December 2013. The estimated seroprevalence in the screened municipalities in 2006–2007 was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%–2.3%). Findings suggest that hantavirus infections are underdiagnosed in the Netherlands.

EID Sane J, Reimerink J, Harms M, Bakker J, Mughini-Gras L, Schimmer B, et al. Human Hantavirus Infections in the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2107-2110. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131886
AMA Sane J, Reimerink J, Harms M, et al. Human Hantavirus Infections in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2107-2110. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131886.
APA Sane, J., Reimerink, J., Harms, M., Bakker, J., Mughini-Gras, L., Schimmer, B....van Pelt, W. (2014). Human Hantavirus Infections in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2107-2110. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131886.

Mycobacterium Species Related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis from Cows with Bovine Nodular Thelitis [PDF - 532 KB - 4 pages]
D. Pin et al.

Bovine nodular thelitis is a granulomatous dermatitis associated with infection with acid-fast bacteria. To identify the mycobacterium responsible for this infection, we conducted phylogenetic investigations based on partial sequencing of 6 genes. These bacteria were identified as an undescribed Mycobacterium species that was phylogenetically related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis.

EID Pin D, Guérin-Faublée V, Garreau V, Breysse F, Dumitrescu O, Flandrois J, et al. Mycobacterium Species Related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis from Cows with Bovine Nodular Thelitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2111-2114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140184
AMA Pin D, Guérin-Faublée V, Garreau V, et al. Mycobacterium Species Related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis from Cows with Bovine Nodular Thelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2111-2114. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140184.
APA Pin, D., Guérin-Faublée, V., Garreau, V., Breysse, F., Dumitrescu, O., Flandrois, J....Lina, G. (2014). Mycobacterium Species Related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis from Cows with Bovine Nodular Thelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2111-2114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140184.

Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Chimpanzees, United States [PDF - 408 KB - 4 pages]
O. M. Slater et al.

Zoonotic disease transmission and infections are of particular concern for humans and closely related great apes. In 2009, an outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection was associated with the death of a captive chimpanzee in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Biosecurity and surveillance for this virus in captive great ape populations should be considered.

EID Slater OM, Terio KA, Zhang Y, Erdman DD, Schneider E, Kuypers J, et al. Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Chimpanzees, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2115-2118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140408
AMA Slater OM, Terio KA, Zhang Y, et al. Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Chimpanzees, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2115-2118. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140408.
APA Slater, O. M., Terio, K. A., Zhang, Y., Erdman, D. D., Schneider, E., Kuypers, J....Gamble, K. C. (2014). Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Chimpanzees, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2115-2118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140408.

Putative New West Nile Virus Lineage in Uranotaenia unguiculata Mosquitoes, Austria, 2013 [PDF - 486 KB - 4 pages]
K. Pachler et al.

West Nile virus (WNV) is becoming more widespread and markedly effecting public health. We sequenced the complete polyprotein gene of a divergent WNV strain newly detected in a pool of Uranotaenia unguiculata mosquitoes in Austria. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the new strain constitutes a ninth WNV lineage or a sublineage of WNV lineage 4.

EID Pachler K, Lebl K, Berer D, Rudolf I, Hubalek Z, Nowotny N. Putative New West Nile Virus Lineage in Uranotaenia unguiculata Mosquitoes, Austria, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2119-2122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140921
AMA Pachler K, Lebl K, Berer D, et al. Putative New West Nile Virus Lineage in Uranotaenia unguiculata Mosquitoes, Austria, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2119-2122. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140921.
APA Pachler, K., Lebl, K., Berer, D., Rudolf, I., Hubalek, Z., & Nowotny, N. (2014). Putative New West Nile Virus Lineage in Uranotaenia unguiculata Mosquitoes, Austria, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2119-2122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140921.

Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014 [PDF - 369 KB - 3 pages]
S. Zientara et al.

During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected.

EID Zientara S, Sailleau C, Viarouge C, Höper D, Beer M, Jenckel M, et al. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2123-2125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140924
AMA Zientara S, Sailleau C, Viarouge C, et al. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2123-2125. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140924.
APA Zientara, S., Sailleau, C., Viarouge, C., Höper, D., Beer, M., Jenckel, M....Bréard, E. (2014). Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2123-2125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140924.

Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013 [PDF - 390 KB - 3 pages]
J. Liu et al.

To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV.

EID Liu J, Wen H, Fang L, Zhang Z, He S, Xue Z, et al. Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2126-2128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141013
AMA Liu J, Wen H, Fang L, et al. Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2126-2128. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141013.
APA Liu, J., Wen, H., Fang, L., Zhang, Z., He, S., Xue, Z....Yu, X. (2014). Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2126-2128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141013.

Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus [PDF - 353 KB - 4 pages]
C. M. Prat et al.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is present or emerging in dengue virus–endemic areas. Infections caused by these viruses share some common signs/symptoms, but prognosis, patient care, and persistent symptoms differ. Thus, accurate diagnostic methods are essential for differentiating the infections. We evaluated 4 CHIKV serologic diagnostic tests, 2 of which showed poor sensitivity and specificity.

EID Prat CM, Flusin O, Panella AJ, Tenebray B, Lanciotti R, Leparc-Goffart I. Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2129-2132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141269
AMA Prat CM, Flusin O, Panella AJ, et al. Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2129-2132. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141269.
APA Prat, C. M., Flusin, O., Panella, A. J., Tenebray, B., Lanciotti, R., & Leparc-Goffart, I. (2014). Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2129-2132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141269.

Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Cardiac Valves of Healthy Coyotes, California, USA [PDF - 504 KB - 4 pages]
S. P. Kehoe et al.
EID Kehoe SP, Chomel BB, Stuckey MJ, Kasten RW, Balakrishnan N, Sacks BN, et al. Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Cardiac Valves of Healthy Coyotes, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2133-2136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140578
AMA Kehoe SP, Chomel BB, Stuckey MJ, et al. Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Cardiac Valves of Healthy Coyotes, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2133-2136. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140578.
APA Kehoe, S. P., Chomel, B. B., Stuckey, M. J., Kasten, R. W., Balakrishnan, N., Sacks, B. N....Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2014). Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Cardiac Valves of Healthy Coyotes, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2133-2136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140578.

Reduction of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs in Raccoon Latrines, Suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA [PDF - 555 KB - 4 pages]
K. Page et al.

Baylisascaris procyonis, a common roundworm of raccoons, causes severe or fatal human infections, often in suburban areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of a baiting strategy requiring minimal labor, we distributed medicated baits near raccoon latrines in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA. This strategy lowered B. procyonis prevalence in raccoons, possibly reducing risk to humans.

EID Page K, Smyser TJ, Dunkerton E, Gavard E, Larkin B, Gehrt S. Reduction of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs in Raccoon Latrines, Suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2137-2140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140977
AMA Page K, Smyser TJ, Dunkerton E, et al. Reduction of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs in Raccoon Latrines, Suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2137-2140. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140977.
APA Page, K., Smyser, T. J., Dunkerton, E., Gavard, E., Larkin, B., & Gehrt, S. (2014). Reduction of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs in Raccoon Latrines, Suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2137-2140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140977.

Triatoma sanguisuga Blood Meals and Potential for Chagas Disease, Louisiana, USA [PDF - 553 KB - 3 pages]
E. Waleckx et al.

To evaluate human risk for Chagas disease, we molecularly identified blood meal sources and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among 49 Triatoma sanguisuga kissing bugs in Louisiana, USA. Humans accounted for the second most frequent blood source. Of the bugs that fed on humans, ≈40% were infected with T. cruzi, revealing transmission potential.

EID Waleckx E, Suarez J, Richards B, Dorn PL. Triatoma sanguisuga Blood Meals and Potential for Chagas Disease, Louisiana, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2141-2143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131576
AMA Waleckx E, Suarez J, Richards B, et al. Triatoma sanguisuga Blood Meals and Potential for Chagas Disease, Louisiana, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2141-2143. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131576.
APA Waleckx, E., Suarez, J., Richards, B., & Dorn, P. L. (2014). Triatoma sanguisuga Blood Meals and Potential for Chagas Disease, Louisiana, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2141-2143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131576.

Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Isolated from Bactrian Camel, Mongolia [PDF - 406 KB - 4 pages]
M. Yondon et al.

Because little is known about the ecology of influenza viruses in camels, 460 nasal swab specimens were collected from healthy (no overt illness) Bactrian camels in Mongolia during 2012. One specimen was positive for influenza A virus (A/camel/Mongolia/335/2012[H3N8]), which is phylogenetically related to equine influenza A(H3N8) viruses and probably represents natural horse-to-camel transmission.

EID Yondon M, Zayat B, Nelson MI, Heil GL, Anderson BD, Lin X, et al. Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Isolated from Bactrian Camel, Mongolia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2144-2147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140435
AMA Yondon M, Zayat B, Nelson MI, et al. Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Isolated from Bactrian Camel, Mongolia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2144-2147. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140435.
APA Yondon, M., Zayat, B., Nelson, M. I., Heil, G. L., Anderson, B. D., Lin, X....Gray, G. C. (2014). Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Isolated from Bactrian Camel, Mongolia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2144-2147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140435.

Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia [PDF - 406 KB - 4 pages]
A. J. Hall et al.

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection.

EID Hall AJ, Tokars JI, Badreddine SA, Saad Z, Furukawa E, Al Masri M, et al. Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2148-2151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141211
AMA Hall AJ, Tokars JI, Badreddine SA, et al. Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2148-2151. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141211.
APA Hall, A. J., Tokars, J. I., Badreddine, S. A., Saad, Z., Furukawa, E., Al Masri, M....Memish, Z. A. (2014). Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2148-2151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141211.

Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China [PDF - 524 KB - 3 pages]
Q. Ma et al.

Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.

EID Ma Q, Jiang W, Liu S, Wang S, Zhuang Q, Hou G, et al. Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2152-2154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140733
AMA Ma Q, Jiang W, Liu S, et al. Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2152-2154. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140733.
APA Ma, Q., Jiang, W., Liu, S., Wang, S., Zhuang, Q., Hou, G....Chen, J. (2014). Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2152-2154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140733.

Two Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Northern Spain [PDF - 349 KB - 3 pages]
E. Pérez-Trallero et al.

In the province of Gipuzkoa, Spain (≈700,000 inhabitants), 7–12 episodes of human listeriosis were recorded annually during 2009–2012. However, during January 2013–February 2014, 27 episodes were detected, including 11 pregnancy-associated cases. Fifteen cases in 2 epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks were caused by a rare type of Listeria monocytogenes, sequence type 87 serotype 1/2b.

EID Pérez-Trallero E, Zigorraga C, Artieda J, Alkorta M, Marimón JM. Two Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Northern Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2155-2157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140993
AMA Pérez-Trallero E, Zigorraga C, Artieda J, et al. Two Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Northern Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2155-2157. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140993.
APA Pérez-Trallero, E., Zigorraga, C., Artieda, J., Alkorta, M., & Marimón, J. M. (2014). Two Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Northern Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2155-2157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140993.

Reemergence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, South Korea, 2000–2011 [PDF - 989 KB - 4 pages]
J. Park et al.

Five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have occurred in South Korea during 2000–2011. Macro-analysis of these outbreaks showed a correlation with outbreaks in countries in eastern Asia. Genetic analyses of food-and-mouth disease viruses in South Korea showed a correlation with viruses that are prevalent in neighboring countries.

EID Park J, Lee K, Kim S, Lee H, Ko Y, Tark D, et al. Reemergence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2158-2161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.130518
AMA Park J, Lee K, Kim S, et al. Reemergence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2158-2161. doi:10.3201/eid2012.130518.
APA Park, J., Lee, K., Kim, S., Lee, H., Ko, Y., Tark, D....Kim, B. (2014). Reemergence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2158-2161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.130518.
Letters

Third Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States [PDF - 274 KB - 2 pages]
D. Marthaler et al.
EID Marthaler D, Bruner L, Collins J, Rossow K. Third Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2162-2163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140908
AMA Marthaler D, Bruner L, Collins J, et al. Third Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2162-2163. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140908.
APA Marthaler, D., Bruner, L., Collins, J., & Rossow, K. (2014). Third Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2162-2163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140908.

Schistosomiasis in Cattle in Corsica, France [PDF - 275 KB - 2 pages]
D. Calavas and P. Martin
EID Calavas D, Martin P. Schistosomiasis in Cattle in Corsica, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2163-2164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141474
AMA Calavas D, Martin P. Schistosomiasis in Cattle in Corsica, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2163-2164. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141474.
APA Calavas, D., & Martin, P. (2014). Schistosomiasis in Cattle in Corsica, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2163-2164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141474.

HIV-Associated Disseminated Emmonsiosis, Johannesburg, South Africa [PDF - 282 KB - 3 pages]
W. G. van Hougenhouck-Tulleken et al.
EID van Hougenhouck-Tulleken WG, Papavarnavas NS, Nel JS, Blackburn LY, Govender NP, Spencer DC, et al. HIV-Associated Disseminated Emmonsiosis, Johannesburg, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2164-2166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140902
AMA van Hougenhouck-Tulleken WG, Papavarnavas NS, Nel JS, et al. HIV-Associated Disseminated Emmonsiosis, Johannesburg, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2164-2166. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140902.
APA van Hougenhouck-Tulleken, W. G., Papavarnavas, N. S., Nel, J. S., Blackburn, L. Y., Govender, N. P., Spencer, D. C....Lippincott, C. K. (2014). HIV-Associated Disseminated Emmonsiosis, Johannesburg, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2164-2166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140902.

Ecosystem Effects of Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Iberian Peninsula [PDF - 354 KB - 3 pages]
M. Delibes-Mateos et al.
EID Delibes-Mateos M, Ferreira C, Carro F, Escudero MA, Gortázar C. Ecosystem Effects of Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Iberian Peninsula. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2166-2168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140517
AMA Delibes-Mateos M, Ferreira C, Carro F, et al. Ecosystem Effects of Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Iberian Peninsula. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2166-2168. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140517.
APA Delibes-Mateos, M., Ferreira, C., Carro, F., Escudero, M. A., & Gortázar, C. (2014). Ecosystem Effects of Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Iberian Peninsula. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2166-2168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140517.

Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
S. I. Brummitt et al.
EID Brummitt SI, Barbour AG, Hue F, Kjemtrup A. Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2168-2170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140655
AMA Brummitt SI, Barbour AG, Hue F, et al. Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2168-2170. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140655.
APA Brummitt, S. I., Barbour, A. G., Hue, F., & Kjemtrup, A. (2014). Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2168-2170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140655.

Zoonotic Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms in Raccoons, China [PDF - 427 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Xie et al.
EID Xie Y, Zhou X, Li M, Liu T, Gu X, Wang T, et al. Zoonotic Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms in Raccoons, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2170-2172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140970
AMA Xie Y, Zhou X, Li M, et al. Zoonotic Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms in Raccoons, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2170-2172. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140970.
APA Xie, Y., Zhou, X., Li, M., Liu, T., Gu, X., Wang, T....Yang, G. (2014). Zoonotic Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms in Raccoons, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2170-2172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140970.

Novel Divergent Rhabdovirus in Feces of Red Fox, Spain [PDF - 395 KB - 3 pages]
R. Bodewes et al.
EID Bodewes R, Ruiz-Gonzalez A, Schürch AC, Osterhaus A, Smits SL. Novel Divergent Rhabdovirus in Feces of Red Fox, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2172-2174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140236
AMA Bodewes R, Ruiz-Gonzalez A, Schürch AC, et al. Novel Divergent Rhabdovirus in Feces of Red Fox, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2172-2174. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140236.
APA Bodewes, R., Ruiz-Gonzalez, A., Schürch, A. C., Osterhaus, A., & Smits, S. L. (2014). Novel Divergent Rhabdovirus in Feces of Red Fox, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2172-2174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140236.

Ngari Virus in Goats during Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Mauritania, 2010 [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
M. Eiden et al.
EID Eiden M, Vina-Rodriguez A, El Mamy BO, Isselmou K, Ziegler U, Höper D, et al. Ngari Virus in Goats during Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Mauritania, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2174-2176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140787
AMA Eiden M, Vina-Rodriguez A, El Mamy BO, et al. Ngari Virus in Goats during Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Mauritania, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2174-2176. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140787.
APA Eiden, M., Vina-Rodriguez, A., El Mamy, B. O., Isselmou, K., Ziegler, U., Höper, D....Groschup, M. H. (2014). Ngari Virus in Goats during Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Mauritania, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2174-2176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140787.

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Eastern Asia [PDF - 352 KB - 3 pages]
A. Banyard et al.
EID Banyard A, Wang Z, Parida S. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Eastern Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2176-2178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140907
AMA Banyard A, Wang Z, Parida S. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2176-2178. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140907.
APA Banyard, A., Wang, Z., & Parida, S. (2014). Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2176-2178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140907.

Possible Exiguobacterium sibiricum Skin Infection in Human [PDF - 322 KB - 2 pages]
D. Tena et al.
EID Tena D, Martínez N, Casanova J, García J, Román E, Medina M, et al. Possible Exiguobacterium sibiricum Skin Infection in Human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2178-2179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140493
AMA Tena D, Martínez N, Casanova J, et al. Possible Exiguobacterium sibiricum Skin Infection in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2178-2179. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140493.
APA Tena, D., Martínez, N., Casanova, J., García, J., Román, E., Medina, M....Sáez-Nieto, J. (2014). Possible Exiguobacterium sibiricum Skin Infection in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2178-2179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140493.

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 in Yak, Northwestern China [PDF - 332 KB - 3 pages]
F. Xu et al.
EID Xu F, Pan Y, Baloch A, Tian L, Wang M, Na W, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 in Yak, Northwestern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2182-2184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131599
AMA Xu F, Pan Y, Baloch A, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 in Yak, Northwestern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2182-2184. doi:10.3201/eid2012.131599.
APA Xu, F., Pan, Y., Baloch, A., Tian, L., Wang, M., Na, W....Zeng, Q. (2014). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 in Yak, Northwestern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2182-2184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.131599.

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Tunisia, 2012–2013 [PDF - 509 KB - 3 pages]
S. Sghaier et al.
EID Sghaier S, Cosseddu G, Ben Hassen S, Hammami S, Ammar H, Petrini A, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Tunisia, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2184-2186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141116
AMA Sghaier S, Cosseddu G, Ben Hassen S, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Tunisia, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2184-2186. doi:10.3201/eid2012.141116.
APA Sghaier, S., Cosseddu, G., Ben Hassen, S., Hammami, S., Ammar, H., Petrini, A....Monaco, F. (2014). Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Tunisia, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2184-2186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.141116.

Hepacivirus Infection in Domestic Horses, Brazil, 2011–2013 [PDF - 426 KB - 3 pages]
B. Gemaque et al.
About the Cover

Variation Is the Exploration of Possibilities [PDF - 343 KB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Variation Is the Exploration of Possibilities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2187-2188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.ac2012
AMA Breedlove B. Variation Is the Exploration of Possibilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2187-2188. doi:10.3201/eid2012.ac2012.
APA Breedlove, B. (2014). Variation Is the Exploration of Possibilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2187-2188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.ac2012.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Peste des Petits Ruminants [PDF - 262 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Peste des Petits Ruminants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(12):2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.et2012
AMA Etymologia: Peste des Petits Ruminants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(12):2033. doi:10.3201/eid2012.et2012.
APA (2014). Etymologia: Peste des Petits Ruminants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(12), 2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.et2012.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 20, No. 1 [PDF - 316 KB - 1 page]
Page created: May 05, 2015
Page updated: May 05, 2015
Page reviewed: May 05, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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