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Medscape CME Activity

Medscape, LLC is pleased to provide online continuing medical education (CME) for selected journal articles, allowing clinicians the opportunity to earn Medscape CME credit. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide Medscape CME for physicians. The activities listed below have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of Medscape, LLC and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Volume 23—2017

Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii and C. auris, Tel Aviv, Israel PDF Version [PDF - 2.69 MB - 9 pages]
R. Ben-Ami et al.
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Clinical features and experimentally deduced virulence indicate that C. auris has the greater lethal potential.

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Candida auris and C. haemulonii are closely related, multidrug-resistant emerging fungal pathogens that are not readily distinguishable with phenotypic assays. We studied C. auris and C. haemulonii clinical isolates from 2 hospitals in central Israel. C. auris was isolated in 5 patients with nosocomial bloodstream infection, and C. haemulonii was found as a colonizer of leg wounds at a peripheral vascular disease clinic. Liberal use of topical miconazole and close contact among patients were implicated in C. haemulonii transmission. C. auris exhibited higher thermotolerance, virulence in a mouse infection model, and ATP-dependent drug efflux activity than C. haemulonii. Comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences found that C. auris strains from Israel were phylogenetically distinct from isolates from East Asia, South Africa and Kuwait, whereas C. haemulonii strains from different countries were closely interrelated. Our findings highlight the pathogenicity of C. auris and underscore the need to limit its spread.

    Cite This Article
EID Ben-Ami R, Berman J, Novikov A, Bash E, Shachor-Meyouhas Y, Zakin S, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii and C. auris, Tel Aviv, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(2):195-203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2302.161486
AMA Ben-Ami R, Berman J, Novikov A, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii and C. auris, Tel Aviv, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(2):195-203. doi:10.3201/eid2302.161486.
APA Ben-Ami, R., Berman, J., Novikov, A., Bash, E., Shachor-Meyouhas, Y., Zakin, S....Finn, T. (2017). Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii and C. auris, Tel Aviv, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(2), 195-203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2302.161486.
Medscape CME Activity
Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States PDF Version [PDF - 464 KB - 4 pages]
C. D. Odio et al.
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Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways.

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EID Odio CD, Marciano BE, Galgiani JN, Holland SM. Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(2):311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2302.160505
AMA Odio CD, Marciano BE, Galgiani JN, et al. Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(2):311. doi:10.3201/eid2302.160505.
APA Odio, C. D., Marciano, B. E., Galgiani, J. N., & Holland, S. M. (2017). Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(2), 311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2302.160505.

Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 1.77 MB - 7 pages]
S. Strollo et al.
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Highest hospitalization rates were for men ≥65 years of age, and rates decreased during 2005−2012.

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Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis–associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002–2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005–2012 for men (annual change –3.9%) and women (annual change –4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease.

    Cite This Article
EID Strollo S, Lionakis MS, Adjemian J, Steiner CA, Prevots D. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):7-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161198
AMA Strollo S, Lionakis MS, Adjemian J, et al. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):7-13. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161198.
APA Strollo, S., Lionakis, M. S., Adjemian, J., Steiner, C. A., & Prevots, D. (2017). Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 7-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161198.
Medscape CME Activity
Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 956 KB - 10 pages]
X. Cui et al.
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Differences between recipients and nonrecipients and the small number of higher risk patients confounded assessment.

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We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009–2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0–5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6–11) received treatment. AIG-IV recipients had surgery more often and, among survivors, had longer hospital stays than did nonrecipients. AIG-IV recipients were sicker than nonrecipients. This difference and the small number of higher risk patients confound assessment of AIG-IV effectiveness in this outbreak.

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EID Cui X, Nolen LD, Sun J, Booth M, Donaldson L, Quinn CP, et al. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):56-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160608
AMA Cui X, Nolen LD, Sun J, et al. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):56-65. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160608.
APA Cui, X., Nolen, L. D., Sun, J., Booth, M., Donaldson, L., Quinn, C. P....Eichacker, P. Q. (2017). Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 56-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160608.

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