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Hepatitis Spotlight

World Hepatitis Day is recognized annually on July 28th, the birthday of Dr. Baruch Blumberg (1925-2011). Dr. Blumberg discovered the hepatitis B virus in 1967 and two years later developed the first hepatitis B vaccine and for these achievements won the Nobel Prize.

Viral hepatitis is caused by infection of one of five viruses – hepatitis A, B, C, D or E. All hepatitis viruses can cause inflammation of the liver. Chronic hepatitis B virus and chronic hepatitis C virus can lead to liver disease, liver failure, and even liver cancer. Viral hepatitis is a major global health threat with around  325 million people living with chronic hepatitis B or C virus.

2018

Detection and Characterization of Human Pegivirus 2, Vietnam
Nguyen To Anh et al. (Volume 24, Number 11) Human Pegivirus in Patients with Encephalitis of Unclear Etiology, Poland
Iwona Bukowska-Ośko et al. (Volume 24, Number 10) Autochthonous Hepatitis E during Pregnancy, France
Elise Bouthry et al. (Volume 24, Number 8) Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008–2011
Floortje Elfrink et al. (Volume 24, Number 6) Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine
Caroline Charre et al. (Volume 24, Number 5) Second Human Pegivirus in Hepatitis C Virus–Infected and Hepatitis C Virus/HIV-1–Co-infected Persons Who Inject Drugs, China
Haiying Wang et al. (Volume 24, Number 5) Region-Specific, Life-Threatening Diseases among International Travelers from Israel, 2004–2015
Chen Avni et al. (Volume 24, Number 4) New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product
Thomas J. Divers et al. (Volume 24, Number 2)

2017

New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany
Wendy K. Jo et al. (Volume 23, Number 12) Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa
Marion Vermeulen et al. (Volume 23, Number 9) Outcomes for 2 Children after Peripartum Acquisition of Zika Virus Infection, French Polynesia, 2013–2014
Marianne Besnard et al. (Volume 23, Number 8) Concurrent Infection with Hepatitis C Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae
Thomas J. Marrie et al. (Volume 23, Number 7) Rabbit Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Humans, France
Florence Abravanel et al. (Volume 23, Number 7) Phenotypic and Genotypic Shifts in Hepatitis B Virus in Treatment-Naive Patients, Taiwan, 2008–2012
Chau-Ting Yeh et al. (Volume 23, Number 5) Podcast Prevention of Chronic Hepatitis B after 3 Decades of Escalating Vaccination Policy, China
Fuqiang Cui et al. (Volume 23, Number 5) Listen to the podcast Podcast Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver–Small Intestine–Pancreas Transplantation
Monique A. Foster et al. (Volume 23, Number 4) Listen to the podcast Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990–2014
Xiang Ren et al. (Volume 23, Number 2) Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, France
Sebastien Lhomme et al. (Volume 23, Number 2) Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015
Helena E. Anheyer-Behmenburg et al. (Volume 23, Number 1) Hepatitis E Virus Infection after Platelet Transfusion in an Immunocompetent Trauma Patient
Emmanuelle Loyrion et al. (Volume 23, Number 1)

2016

Hepatitis E Virus in 3 Types of Laboratory Animals, China, 2012–2015
Lin Wang et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus in Yellow Cattle, Shandong, Eastern China
Bingyu Yan et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Bactrian Camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013
Patrick C.Y. Woo et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) Possible Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars from Corsica
Nicole Pavio et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection among Adults Beginning Antiretroviral Therapy, Malawi
Münevver Demir et al. (Volume 22, Number 11) Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Dromedaries, North and East Africa, United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan, 1983–2015
Andrea Rasche et al. (Volume 22, Number 7) Naturally Circulating Hepatitis A Virus in Olive Baboons, Uganda
Andrew J. Bennett et al. (Volume 22, Number 7) Linkage to Care for Suburban Heroin Users with Hepatitis C Virus Infection, New Jersey, USA
Eda Akyar et al. (Volume 22, Number 5) Evaluation of Viremia Frequencies of a Novel Human Pegivirus by Using Bioinformatic Screening and PCR
David Bonsall et al. (Volume 22, Number 4) Hepatitis E Virus Prevalence among Blood Donors, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Kuan A. Traoré et al. (Volume 22, Number 4) Trends in Liver Transplantation in Hepatitis C Virus–Infected Persons, United States
Ryan B. Perumpail et al. (Volume 22, Number 3)

2015

Neurologic Disorders in Immunocompetent Patients with Autochthonous Acute Hepatitis E
H. Blasco Perrin et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Fatal Accelerated Cirrhosis after Imported HEV Genotype 4 Infection
Ryan B. Perumpail et al. (Volume 21, Number 9) Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013
Sylvia Grierson et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis Prevention among Patients with Hematologic Malignancies
Suzanne Tavitian et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Seroprevalence for Hepatitis E and Other Viral Hepatitides among Diverse Populations, Malawi
Taha E. Taha et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France
Sebastien Lhomme et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005–2012
Neil Arvin Bretaña et al. (Volume 21, Number 5) Hepatitis E Epidemic, Biratnagar, Nepal, 2014
Ananta Shrestha et al. (Volume 21, Number 4) Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009–2010
Orna Mor et al. (Volume 21, Number 4) High Prevalence of Hepatitis Delta Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Vietnam
Naomi Hall et al. (Volume 21, Number 3) Prisoners Treated for Hepatitis C with Protease Inhibitor, New York, USA, 2012
Harish Moorjani et al. (Volume 21, Number 1)

2014

Hepacivirus Infection in Domestic Horses, Brazil, 2011–2013
Bernard Salame Gemaque et al. (Volume 20, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 in Yak, Northwestern China
Fang Xu et al. (Volume 20, Number 12) Frequent Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Food Containing Raw Pork Liver, France
Nicole Pavio et al. (Volume 20, Number 11) Hepatitis E Virus and Implications for Blood Supply Safety, Australia
Ashish C. Shrestha et al. (Volume 20, Number 11) Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France
Pierre Gallian et al. (Volume 20, Number 11) Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008
Siriphan Gonwong et al. (Volume 20, Number 9) Hepatitis E Virus Infection, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Kiribati, 2003–2005
John S. Halliday et al. (Volume 20, Number 6) New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Camels, the Middle East
Patrick C.Y. Woo et al. (Volume 20, Number 6) Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Immunocompetent Woman
Aude Belbezier et al. (Volume 20, Number 5) Complete Genome of Hepatitis E Virus from Laboratory Ferrets
Tian-Cheng Li et al. (Volume 20, Number 4) Hepatitis E Antibodies in Laboratory Rabbits from 2 US Vendors
Leslie Birke et al. (Volume 20, Number 4) Underdiagnosis of Foodborne Hepatitis A, the Netherlands, 2008–20101
Mariska Petrignani et al. (Volume 20, Number 4) Avian Hepatitis E Virus in Chickens, Taiwan, 2013
Ingrid W.-Y. Hsu et al. (Volume 20, Number 1) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, Denmark, 2012
Sofie Midgley et al. (Volume 20, Number 1) Indigenous Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Infection, Uruguay
Santiago Mirazo et al. (Volume 20, Number 1)

2013

Hepatitis E and Lymphocytic Leukemia in Man, Italy
Maria T. Giordani et al. (Volume 19, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark
Jesper S. Krog et al. (Volume 19, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA, 2009–2010
Reena Mahajan et al. (Volume 19, Number 10) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, Nanjing, China, 2001–2011
Xing Dai et al. (Volume 19, Number 9) Asian Musk Shrew as a Reservoir of Rat Hepatitis E Virus, China
Dawei Guan et al. (Volume 19, Number 8) No Evidence for Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Susceptibility in Rats
Tian-Cheng Li et al. (Volume 19, Number 8) Podcast The New Global Health
Kevin M. De Cock et al. (Volume 19, Number 8) Listen to the podcast Hepatitis E Outbreak, Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2012
Jamal A. Ahmed et al. (Volume 19, Number 6) Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones
Paul N. Goldwater et al. (Volume 19, Number 6) World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA
Sally A. Baylis et al. (Volume 19, Number 5) Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin
C. Crossan et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Strains in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon
de Paula VS et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Hepatitis Virus in Long-Fingered Bats, Myanmar
Biao He et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chacma Baboons, South Africa
Caroline Dickens et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Rabbits to Cynomolgus Macaques
Peng Liu et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Hepatitis E Virus Mixed Infection in Immunocompetent Patient
Donald B. Smith et al. (Volume 19, Number 3) Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France
Alessandra Berto et al. (Volume 19, Number 2) Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom
Brendan A.I. Payne et al. (Volume 19, Number 2) Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011
Julie Bouscaillou et al. (Volume 19, Number 2) Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012
Jan Drobeniuc et al. (Volume 19, Number 2) Characterization of Full Genome of Rat Hepatitis E Virus Strain from Vietnam
Tian-Cheng Li et al. (Volume 19, Number 1) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, Italy, 2011
Anna R. Garbuglia et al. (Volume 19, Number 1)

2012

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Shellfish, United Kingdom
Claire Crossan et al. (Volume 18, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Monkey Facility, Japan
Hiroshi Yamamoto et al. (Volume 18, Number 12) Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom
Sinéad Lyons et al. (Volume 18, Number 12) A Natural History of Infective Endocarditis, Preceded by Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease and Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Nancy L. Merridew et al. (Volume 18, Number 10) Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany
Mirko S. Faber et al. (Volume 18, Number 10) Podcast Hepatitis E, a Vaccine-Preventable Cause of Maternal Deaths
Alain B. Labrique et al. (Volume 18, Number 9) Listen to the podcast Autochthonous Infections with Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, France
Philippe Colson et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States
Justin B. Lack et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010
Alessandra Berto et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010
Ilaria Di Bartolo et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Hepatitis E Virus Strains in Rabbits and Evidence of a Closely Related Strain in Humans, France
Jacques Izopet et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) KIs Virus and Blood Donors, France
Philippe Biagini et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Novel Hepatitis E Virus in Ferrets, the Netherlands
V. Stalin Raj et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010
Krisztián Bányai et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Zoonotic Pathogens among White-Tailed Deer, Northern Mexico, 2004–2009
Citlaly Medrano et al. (Volume 18, Number 8) Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France
Mamadou Kaba et al. (Volume 18, Number 6) Hepatitis E Virus Infection among Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, the Netherlands
Suzan D. Pas et al. (Volume 18, Number 5) Report on the International Symposium on Hepatitis E, Seoul, South Korea, 2010
Thomas F. Wierzba et al. (Volume 18, Number 5) Tuberculosis Screening before Anti–Hepatitis C Virus Therapy in Prisons
Sergio Babudieri et al. (Volume 18, Number 4) Hepatitis E Virus Infection in HIV-infected Persons
Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone et al. (Volume 18, Number 3) Human and Porcine Hepatitis E Viruses, Southeastern Bolivia
Michael A. Purdy et al. (Volume 18, Number 2)

2011

Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Blood Donors, France
Jean-Michel Mansuy et al. (Volume 17, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus in Rats, Los Angeles, California, USA
Robert H. Purcell et al. (Volume 17, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus in Rabbits, Virginia, USA
Caitlin M. Cossaboom et al. (Volume 17, Number 11) Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany
Reimar Johne et al. (Volume 17, Number 10) Acute Hepatitis C Outbreak among HIV-infected Men, Madrid, Spain
Ana Montoya-Ferrer et al. (Volume 17, Number 8) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia
Maria Chiara Dell’Amico et al. (Volume 17, Number 8) Mixed Genotype Infections with Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan
Sadia Butt et al. (Volume 17, Number 8) Neurologic Disorders and Hepatitis E, France, 2010
Laura-Anne Despierres et al. (Volume 17, Number 8) Association of Patients’ Geographic Origins with Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Patterns, Spain
Santiago Pérez Cachafeiro et al. (Volume 17, Number 6) Emerging Infections 9
Robert Hall et al. (Volume 17, Number 6) Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Chronic Infections in Patients with HIV, Switzerland
Alain Kenfak-Foguena et al. (Volume 17, Number 6) Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Human Hepatitis E Virus Strains, Czech Republic
Petra Vasickova et al. (Volume 17, Number 5) Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence
Unai Pérez-Sautu et al. (Volume 17, Number 4) Hepatitis A Associated with Semidried Tomatoes, France, 2010
Céline Gallot et al. (Volume 17, Number 3) Novel Picornavirus in Turkey Poults with Hepatitis, California, USA
Kirsi S. Honkavuori et al. (Volume 17, Number 3) Hepatitis E Virus and Neurologic Disorders
Nassim Kamar et al. (Volume 17, Number 2) Hepatitis E Virus Infection without Reactivation in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients, France
Florence Legrand-Abravanel et al. (Volume 17, Number 1) Serodiagnosis of Primary Infections with Human Parvovirus 4, Finland
Anne Lahtinen et al. (Volume 17, Number 1)

2010

Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain
Mariana Boadella et al. (Volume 16, Number 12) Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France
Mamadou Kaba et al. (Volume 16, Number 11) Epidemiology of Human Parvovirus 4 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa
Colin P. Sharp et al. (Volume 16, Number 10) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype Diversity in Eastern China
Wen Zhang et al. (Volume 16, Number 10) Analysis of Avian Hepatitis E Virus from Chickens, China
Qin Zhao et al. (Volume 16, Number 9) Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany
Reimar Johne et al. (Volume 16, Number 9) Imported Mollusks and Dissemination of Human Enteric Viruses
David Polo et al. (Volume 16, Number 6) Hepatitis E Epidemic, Uganda
Eyasu H. Teshale et al. (Volume 16, Number 1)

2009

Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus Infections, Germany, 2007–2008
Mirko S. Faber et al. (Volume 15, Number 11) Hepatitis C Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors, Anyang, China
Fangfang Liu et al. (Volume 15, Number 11) Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship
Bengü Said et al. (Volume 15, Number 11) Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain
Begoña Monge-Maillo et al. (Volume 15, Number 11) Screening Practices for Infectious Diseases among Burmese Refugees in Australia
Nadia J. Chaves et al. (Volume 15, Number 11) Population-based Surveillance for Hepatitis C Virus, United States, 2006–2007
R. Monina Klevens et al. (Volume 15, Number 9) Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa
Iris E. Andernach et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) WU Polyomavirus in Patients Infected with HIV or Hepatitis C Virus, Connecticut, USA, 2007
Michael A. Miller et al. (Volume 15, Number 7) Genotype Distribution and Sequence Variation of Hepatitis E Virus, Hong Kong
Wai-Yip Lam et al. (Volume 15, Number 5) Virulent Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3, Japan
Kazuaki Takahashi et al. (Volume 15, Number 5) Hepatitis C Virus in Blood Donors, Brazil
Kátia Luz Torres et al. (Volume 15, Number 4) Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease
Muslim Atiq et al. (Volume 15, Number 3) Sources of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in the Netherlands
Saskia A. Rutjes et al. (Volume 15, Number 3) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Diversity, France
Florence Legrand-Abravanel et al. (Volume 15, Number 1)

2008

Preventing and Controlling Emerging and Reemerging Transmissible Diseases in the Homeless
Sékéné Badiaga et al. (Volume 14, Number 9) Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1, Cuba
María de la Caridad Montalvo Villalba et al. (Volume 14, Number 8) Hepatitis E, Central African Republic
Josep M. Escribà et al. (Volume 14, Number 4) Control of Hepatitis A by Universal Vaccination of Adolescents, Puglia, Italy
Pietro Luigi Lopalco et al. (Volume 14, Number 3) Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Computed Tomography Scanning with Contrast
Helena Pañella et al. (Volume 14, Number 2) Hepatitis E in England and Wales
Hannah C. Lewis et al. (Volume 14, Number 1)

2007

Non-A Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Antenatal Clinics, United Kingdom
Samir Dervisevic et al. (Volume 13, Number 11) HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan
Catherine S. Todd et al. (Volume 13, Number 9) Parenteral Transmission of the Novel Human Parvovirus PARV4
Peter Simmonds et al. (Volume 13, Number 9) Possible Zoonotic Transmission of Hepatitis E from Pet Pig to Its Owner
Christophe Renou et al. (Volume 13, Number 7) Transfusion-associated Hepatitis E, France
Philippe Colson et al. (Volume 13, Number 4) HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection, Cameroon
Christian Laurent et al. (Volume 13, Number 3) Major Outbreak of Hepatitis A Associated with Orange Juice among Tourists, Egypt, 2004
Christina Frank et al. (Volume 13, Number 1) Parvoviruses PARV4 and PARV5 and Hepatitis C Virus
Jacqueline F. Fryer et al. (Volume 13, Number 1)

2006

Drug Trafficking Routes and Hepatitis B in Injection Drug Users, Manipur, India
Sibnarayan Datta et al. (Volume 12, Number 12) Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection, Rural Southern People’s Republic of China
Rong-Cheng Li et al. (Volume 12, Number 11) Eighth Major Clade for Hepatitis Delta Virus
Frédéric Le Gal et al. (Volume 12, Number 9) Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 in Ugandan Children and Their Mothers
Robert J. Biggar et al. (Volume 12, Number 9) Small Anellovirus in Hepatitis C Patients and Healthy Controls
Elisabetta Andreoli et al. (Volume 12, Number 7) Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants
Paul F. Coleman et al. (Volume 12, Number 2)

2005

Hepatitis E Virus Transmission from Wild Boar Meat
Tian-Cheng Li et al. (Volume 11, Number 12) Symposium on HIV Variants and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants
Gerald G. Schochetman et al. (Volume 11, Number 10) Occupational Deaths among Healthcare Workers
Kent A. Sepkowitz et al. (Volume 11, Number 7) Wildlife Trade and Global Disease Emergence
William B. Karesh et al. (Volume 11, Number 7) Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia
Benjamin C. Cowie et al. (Volume 11, Number 3) Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Linxian, China1
Mingdong Zhang et al. (Volume 11, Number 1)

2004

Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C
Andrea Petrucca et al. (Volume 10, Number 11) Hepatitis B in Women: Domestically and Internationally1
Cindy Weinbaum et al. (Volume 10, Number 11) Immigrant and Border Infectious Disease Concerns for Women1
Alexandra Levitt et al. (Volume 10, Number 11) Prevention of Hepatitis C in Women1
Beth P. Bell et al. (Volume 10, Number 11) Human and Porcine Hepatitis E Virus Strains, United Kingdom
Malcolm Banks et al. (Volume 10, Number 5)

2003

Hepatitis E Virus Epidemiology in Industrialized Countries
Pilar Clemente-Casares et al. (Volume 9, Number 4) The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance
Michelle Weinberg et al. (Volume 9, Number 1)

2002

Hospital-based Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever, Encephalitis, and Hepatitis in Cambodian Children
Y. Meng Chhour et al. (Volume 8, Number 5)

Additional Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

World Health Organization

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